1970 Tour de France
|Dates||27 June–19 July 1970|
|Stages||23+Prologue, including five split stages|
|Distance||4,366 km (2,713 mi)|
|Winning time||119h 31' 49" (35.589 km/h or 22.114 mph)|
|Winner||Eddy Merckx (Belgium)||(Faema–Faemino)|
|Second||Joop Zoetemelk (Netherlands)||(Mars–Flandria)|
|Third||Gösta Pettersson (Sweden)||(Ferretti)|
|Points||Walter Godefroot (Belgium)||(Salvarani)|
|Mountains||Eddy Merckx (Belgium)||(Faema–Faemino)|
|Combination||Eddy Merckx (Belgium)||(Faema–Faemino)|
|Sprints||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||(Fagor)|
- 1 Changes from the 1969 Tour de France
- 2 Participants
- 3 Race details
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Stages
- 6 Classification leadership
- 7 Results
- 8 References
Changes from the 1969 Tour de France
After the financial success of the split stages in the 1969 Tour de France, even more split stages were used in the 1970 Tour.
After his dominating victory in the previous year, Merckx was the major favourite. The main competition was expected from Luis Ocaña and Bernard Thévenet. Early in the race, 86 journalists predicted who would be in the top five of the Tour. 85 of them expected Merckx to be in the top five; Ocana was named by 78, Poulidor by 73. Merckx had already won important races in 1970, including Paris–Roubaix, Paris–Nice, the Giro d'Italia and the Belgian national road championship. Luis Ocaña, who had won the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré and the Vuelta a España, suffered from bronchitis, but still started the Tour, unable to seriously challenge Merckx.
The Tour de France started with 15 teams, of 10 cyclists each, from five different countries:
A few days before the Tour started, it became known that Paul Gutty had failed a doping test when he won the French national road championship. Gutty was removed from his Frimatic team, and replaced by Rene Grelin.
The big favourite Merckx won the opening prologue, but he decided not to try to keep this leading position during the entire race.
In the next stage, Merckx' team chased back all the escapes, so the stage ended in a bunch sprint, and Merckx kept the lead. In the second stage, a few cyclists escaped, and two of Merckx' team mates, Italo Zilioli and Georges Vandenberghe, joined the escape. Merckx' team mate Zilioli was ranked highest amongst the escaped cyclists, and none of them were considered competitors for the general classification, so Guillaume Driessens, Merckx's team leader, allowed the escape to work, and told Zilioli and Vandenberghe to give their best. Merckx however chased his own team mates. The group stayed away, Zilioli won the sprint and became the new leader, 4 seconds ahead of Merckx. After the stage, Merckx was angry at his team leader, because he had allowed Zilioli to "steal" Merckx' yellow jersey, but Driessens explained him that the other teams had spent energy to chase Zilioli, and the argument was over. Merckx team won the team time trial, and controlled the next stages, keeping Zilioli the leader with Merckx in second place.
In the sixth stage, Zilioli had a flat tire. Normally, if the leader in the Tour de France suffers a flat tire, a team mate would offer his wheel, and some team mates would stay with him to help him get back into the peloton. However, this time Merckx was considered more important, and Zilioli was given no help. Zilioli finished the stage one minute behind, and Merckx was the new leader.
The seventh stage was split in two. Merckx won the first stage with a solo break, and finished second in the second part, a time trial. In that time trial, run during the rain, Roger de Vlaeminck, third in the general classification, took too much risk, fell down and left the race in an ambulance. Merckx saw De Vlaeminck lying on the street during his race, and decided to take less risks, allowing José Antonio González Linares to win the stage by three seconds. Because Roger de Vlaeminck had left the race, his team Mars needed a new captain. Debutant Joop Zoetemelk was the highest ranked cyclist, and became the new captain.
In the ninth stage, Mogens Frey and Joaquim Agostinho, team mates, broke away together. They worked together to stay away, but near the end of the stage Frey stopped working and had Agostinho do all the work, even after his team manager told him to help. In the sprint, Agostinho expected his team mate to give him the victory because he had done all the work, but to his surprise Frey started to come around him. Agostinho then grabbed Frey's handlebars, and crossed the finish line first. The race jury did not allow this, and gave the victory to Frey, putting Agostinho in second place.
In the tenth stage, when the first medium mountains showed up, Merckx won the stage, and only three cyclists were able to stay with him, including Zoetemelk. Zoetemelk then rose to the second place, and he became the most important rival for Merckx. Zoetemelk said that he would focus on defending his second place, because he thought Merckx was better than the rest of the world.
In the two Pyrenéan stages, Merckx did not win. He was suffering from stomach problems, and changed bicycles several times. The young Bernard Thévenet won the first, showing his potential as a future Tour winner.
Merckx was the third cyclist to win the Tour-Giro double in one year; Fausto Coppi and Jacques Anquetil had done it before. Coppi and Anquetil were over thirty years old at their doubles, Merckx was only 25. The margin with the second placed cyclist was less than the year before; according to J.B. Wadley, the difference was that Merckx stopped attacking in 1970 after the Mont Ventoux; had he been inclined to win more time, he probably would have been able to.
Merckx had been so dominant during the entire Tour, that the organisation was afraid the race would become dull. The director Félix Lévitan announced that rule changes were considered to break the power of Merckx's team, that he was considering to return to national teams, and to reduce the number of time trials in the Tour. The 1971 Tour did not see major changes in rules, but the number of individual time trials decreased from five to two.
The 1970 Tour de France started on 27 June, and had no rest days.
|P||27 June||Limoges||Individual time trial||7.4 km (4.6 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|1||27 June||Limoges – La Rochelle||Plain stage||224.5 km (139.5 mi)||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)|
|2||28 June||La Rochelle – Angers||Plain stage||200 km (120 mi)||Italo Zilioli (ITA)|
|3a||29 June||Angers||Team time trial||10.7 km (6.6 mi)||Faema-Faemino|
|3b||Angers – Rennes||Plain stage||140 km (87 mi)||Marino Basso (ITA)|
|4||30 June||Rennes – Lisieux||Plain stage||229 km (142 mi)||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|5a||1 July||Lisieux – Rouen||Plain stage||94.5 km (58.7 mi)||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|5b||Rouen – Amiens||Plain stage||223 km (139 mi)||Jozef Spruyt (BEL)|
|6||2 July||Amiens – Valenciennes||Plain stage||135.5 km (84.2 mi)||Roger De Vlaeminck (BEL)|
|7a||3 July||Valenciennes – Forest/Vorst||Plain stage||120 km (75 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|7b||Forest/Vorst||Individual time trial||7.2 km (4.5 mi)||José Antonio Gonzalez Linares (ESP)|
|8||4 July||Ciney – Felsberg||Plain stage||232.5 km (144.5 mi)||Alain Vasseur (FRA)|
|9||5 July||Saarlouis – Mulhouse||Stage with mountain(s)||269.5 km (167.5 mi)||Mogens Frey (DEN)|
|10||6 July||Belfort – Divonne-les-Bains||Stage with mountain(s)||241 km (150 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|11a||7 July||Divonne-les-Bains||Individual time trial||8.8 km (5.5 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|11b||Divonne-les-Bains – Thonon-les-Bains||Stage with mountain(s)||139.5 km (86.7 mi)||Marino Basso (ITA)|
|12||8 July||Thonon-les-Bains – Grenoble||Stage with mountain(s)||194 km (121 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|13||9 July||Grenoble – Gap||Stage with mountain(s)||194.5 km (120.9 mi)||Primo Mori (ITA)|
|14||10 July||Gap – Mont Ventoux||Stage with mountain(s)||170 km (110 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|15||11 July||Carpentras – Montpellier||Plain stage||144.5 km (89.8 mi)||Marinus Wagtmans (NED)|
|16||12 July||Montpellier – Toulouse||Plain stage||160 km (99 mi)||Albert Van Vlierberghe (BEL)|
|17||13 July||Toulouse – Saint-Gaudens||Plain stage||190 km (120 mi)||Luis Ocaña (ESP)|
|18||14 July||Saint-Gaudens – La Mongie||Stage with mountain(s)||135.5 km (84.2 mi)||Bernard Thévenet (FRA)|
|19||15 July||Bagnères-de-Bigorre – Mourenx||Stage with mountain(s)||185.5 km (115.3 mi)||Christian Raymond (FRA)|
|20a||16 July||Mourenx – Bordeaux||Plain stage||160 km (99 mi)||Rolf Wolfshohl (FRG)|
|20b||Bordeaux||Individual time trial||8.2 km (5.1 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|21||17 July||Ruffec – Tours||Plain stage||191.5 km (119.0 mi)||Marino Basso (ITA)|
|22||18 July||Tours – Versailles||Plain stage||238.5 km (148.2 mi)||Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)|
|23||19 July||Versailles – Paris Champs-Élysées||Individual time trial||54 km (34 mi)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
||Mountains classification||Team classification|
|P||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||no award||Bic|
|1||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||Pierre Ghisellini (ITA)|
|2||Italo Zilioli (ITA)||Jan Janssen (NED)|
|3b||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||Luis Zubero (ESP)|
|4||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|6||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Roger De Vlaeminck (BEL)|
|7a||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|10||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|14||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||KAS|
|16||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|18||Eddy Merckx (BEL)|
|19||Walter Godefroot (BEL)|
|Final||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Walter Godefroot (BEL)||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Salvarani|
During the stages when Merckx was leading the general classification and the points classification, Merckx wore the yellow jersey and the number two of the points classification was wearing a black/green jersey. When Merckx was leading the general classification and the combination classification, the number two of the combination classification wore a black/white jersey.
There were several classifications in the 1970 Tour de France, three of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, but was not identified with a jersey in 1970.
The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1970, this classification had no associated jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps.
|1||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Faema||119h 31' 49"|
|2||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Flandria||+12' 41"|
|3||Gösta Pettersson (SWE)||Ferretti||+15' 54"|
|4||Martin Vandenbossche (BEL)||Molteni||+18' 53"|
|5||Marinus Wagtmans (NED)||Willem II||+19' 54"|
|6||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Sonolor||+20' 34"|
|7||Raymond Poulidor (FRA)||Fagor||+20' 35"|
|8||Antoon Houbrechts (BEL)||Salvarani||+21' 34"|
|9||Francisco Galdós (ESP)||Kas||+21' 45"|
|10||Georges Pintens (BEL)||Mann||+23' 23"|
|Final general classification (11–100)|
|11||Raymond Delisle (FRA)||Peugeot||+23' 59"|
|12||Franco Balmamion (ITA)||Salvarani||+25' 10"|
|13||Italo Zilioli (ITA)||Faema||+26' 17"|
|14||Joaquim Agostinho (POR)||Frimatic||+26' 52"|
|15||Luis Zubero (ESP)||Kas||+28' 11"|
|16||Willy Van Neste (BEL)||Mann||+29' 17"|
|17||Lucien Aimar (FRA)||Sonolor||+29' 22"|
|18||Wladimiro Panizza (ITA)||Salvarani||+31' 02"|
|19||Johnny Schleck (LUX)||Bic||+32' 19"|
|20||Andrés Gandarias (ESP)||Kas||+35' 22"|
|21||Jean Dumont (FRA)||Peugeot||+47' 28"|
|22||Bernard Vifian (SUI)||Frimatic||+50' 05"|
|23||Francisco Gabica (ESP)||Kas||+50' 18"|
|24||Roger Swerts (BEL)||Faema||+52' 56"|
|25||Aurelio González (ESP)||Kas||+55' 57"|
|26||Jan Janssen (NED)||Bic||+56' 29"|
|27||Henri Rabaute (FRA)||Fagor||+58' 47"|
|28||Primo Mori (ITA)||Salvarani||+59' 39"|
|29||Walter Godefroot (BEL)||Salvarani||+1h 02' 36"|
|30||Jozef Huysmans (BEL)||Faema||+1h 05' 24"|
|31||Luis Ocaña (ESP)||Bic||+1h 06' 59"|
|32||Evert Dolman (NED)||Willem II||+1h 10' 19"|
|33||Bernard Labourdette (FRA)||Fagor||+1h 11' 22"|
|34||Vicente Lopez-Carril (ESP)||Kas||+1h 12' 21"|
|35||Bernard Thévenet (FRA)||Peugeot||+1h 13' 25"|
|36||Tomas Pettersson (SWE)||Ferretti||+1h 13' 28"|
|37||Rolf Wolfshohl (FRG)||Fagor||+1h 15' 38"|
|38||Edy Schutz (LUX)||Molteni||+1h 16' 05"|
|39||Guerrino Tosello (ITA)||Molteni||+1h 16' 43"|
|40||Alain Vasseur (FRA)||Bic||+1h 17' 24"|
|41||Robert Bouloux (FRA)||Peugeot||+1h 18' 21"|
|42||Pierre Gautier (FRA)||Frimatic||+1h 18' 34"|
|43||Ronald De Witte (BEL)||Mann||+1h 19' 56"|
|44||Jos van der Vleuten (NED)||Willem II||+1h 22' 46"|
|45||Harry Steevens (NED)||Caballero||+1h 23' 21"|
|46||Jozef Spruyt (BEL)||Faema||+1h 26' 30"|
|47||Gerard Vianen (NED)||Caballero||+1h 27' 04"|
|48||Albert Van Vlierberghe (BEL)||Ferretti||+1h 31' 05"|
|49||Giacinto Santambrogio (ITA)||Molteni||+1h 33' 53"|
|50||Joseph Bruyère (BEL)||Faema||+1h 34' 12"|
|51||Walter Ricci (FRA)||Sonolor||+1h 35' 59"|
|52||Christian Raymond (FRA)||Peugeot||+1h 36' 27"|
|53||Franco Mori (ITA)||Molteni||+1h 37' 12"|
|54||André Poppe (BEL)||Mann||+1h 38' 27"|
|55||Mario Anni (ITA)||Molteni||+1h 38' 49"|
|56||José Antonio Gonzalez Linares (ESP)||Kas||+1h 39' 01"|
|57||Jos Deschoenmaecker (BEL)||Mann||+1h 40' 17"|
|58||Jean-Pierre Parenteau (FRA)||Peugeot||+1h 41' 07"|
|59||Mogens Frey (DEN)||Frimatic||+1h 41' 10"|
|60||Attilio Benfatto (ITA)||Scic||+1h 45' 31"|
|61||Maurice Izier (FRA)||Frimatic||+1h 47' 26"|
|62||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||Fagor||+1h 50' 11"|
|63||Marino Basso (ITA)||Molteni||+1h 52' 35"|
|64||Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)||Peugeot||+1h 53' 01"|
|65||Eddy Reyniers (BEL)||Mann||+1h 55' 12"|
|66||Gabriel Mascaro (ESP)||Kas||+1h 55' 18"|
|67||Daniel Van Rijckeghem (BEL)||Mann||+1h 56' 44"|
|68||Victor Van Schil (BEL)||Faema||+2h 00' 04"|
|69||Gérard David (BEL)||Flandria||+2h 02' 55"|
|70||José Catieau (FRA)||Sonolor||+2h 09' 34"|
|71||Pietro Guerra (ITA)||Salvarani||+2h 10' 07"|
|72||Raymond Riotte (FRA)||Sonolor||+2h 10' 54"|
|73||Giancarlo Polidori (ITA)||Scic||+2h 11' 57"|
|74||Nemesio Jimenez (ESP)||Kas||+2h 12' 26"|
|75||Frans Mintjens (BEL)||Faema||+2h 13' 15"|
|76||Pierre Martelozzo (FRA)||Peugeot||+2h 19' 59"|
|77||Roland Berland (FRA)||Bic||+2h 20' 28"|
|78||Harm Ottenbros (NED)||Willem II||+2h 20' 52"|
|79||Michel Perin (FRA)||Fagor||+2h 21' 33"|
|80||Jan Van Katwijk (NED)||Willem II||+2h 22' 06"|
|81||Eddy Beugels (NED)||Flandria||+2h 22' 50"|
|82||Jean-Pierre Genet (FRA)||Fagor||+2h 26' 22"|
|83||Jean-Marie Leblanc (FRA)||Bic||+2h 28' 03"|
|84||Georges Chappe (FRA)||Fagor||+2h 30' 30"|
|85||Michel Coulon (BEL)||Flandria||+2h 31' 35"|
|86||Cees Zoontjens (NED)||Caballero||+2h 32' 26"|
|87||Etienne Antheunis (BEL)||Faema||+2h 33' 05"|
|88||Pieter Nassen (BEL)||Flandria||+2h 33' 17"|
|89||Willy In' t Ven (BEL)||Mann||+2h 34'27"|
|90||Domingo Perurena (ESP)||Fagor||+2h 41' 57"|
|91||Marc Lievens (BEL)||Flandria||+2h 44' 52"|
|92||Cees Rentmeester (NED)||Caballero||+2h 47' 07"|
|93||Romano Tumellero (ITA)||Ferretti||+2h 50' 40"|
|94||René De Bie (BEL)||Mann||+2h 58' 50"|
|95||Sylvain Vasseur (FRA)||Bic||+3h 02' 01"|
|96||Luciano Dalla Bona (ITA)||Salvarani||+3h 19' 56"|
|97||Pierre Ghisellini (FRA)||Frimatic||+3h 21' 49"|
|98||Jaak De Boever (BEL)||Flandria||+3h 22' 04"|
|99||Adriano Durante (ITA)||Scic||+3h 29' 47"|
|100||Frits Hoogerheide (NED)||Willem II||+3h 52' 12"|
|1||Walter Godefroot (BEL)||Salvarani||212|
|2||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Faema||207|
|3||Marino Basso (ITA)||Molteni||161|
|4||Jan Janssen (NED)||Bic||151|
|5||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||Fagor||138|
|6||Marinus Wagtmans (NED)||Willem II||116|
|7||Daniel Van Rijckeghem (BEL)||Mann||100|
|8||Harry Steevens (NED)||Caballero||77.5|
|9||Luis Ocaña (ESP)||Bic||75|
|10||Mogens Frey (DEN)||Frimatic||73|
|1||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Faema||128|
|2||Andrés Gandarias (ESP)||Kas||94|
|3||Martin Vandenbossche (BEL)||Molteni||85|
|4||Silvano Schiavon (ITA)||Salvarani||68|
|5||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Sonolor||65|
|6||Primo Mori (ITA)||Salvarani||64|
|7||Gösta Pettersson (SWE)||Ferretti||59|
|8||Raymond Delisle (FRA)||Peugeot||57|
|9||Luis Zubero (ESP)||Kas||52|
|10||Guerrino Tosello (ITA)||Molteni||32|
Schiavon did not finish the race, but left the race after the last mountain stage. In 1970, the rules were such that Schiavon was still listed in the mountains classification.
|1||Salvarani||354h 22' 56"|
|10||Frimatic-De Gribaldy-Wolber||+1h 04' 11"|
|11||Willem II-Gazelle||+1h 28' 23"|
|12||Ferretti||+1h 58' 15"|
|13||Mars-Flandria||+2h 41' 51"|
|14||Caballero-Laurens||+3h 34' 14"|
|15||Scic||+4h 58' 24"|
|1||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Faema||4|
|2||Martin Vandenbossche (BEL)||Molteni||21.5|
|3||Marinus Wagtmans (NED)||Willem II||23|
|4||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Sonolor||25.5|
|5||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Flandria||32.5|
Intermediate sprints classification
The intermediate sprints classification, sponsored by Miko, was also named "hot spot".
|1||Cyrille Guimard (FRA)||Fagor||67|
|2||Giancarlo Polidori (ITA)||Scic||48|
|3||Jaak De Boever (BEL)||Flandria||22|
|4||Pieter Nassen (BEL)||Flandria||20|
|1||Eddy Merckx (BEL)||Faema||366|
|2||Joaquim Agostinho (POR)||Frimatic||340|
|3||Raymond Delisle (FRA)||Peugeot||273|
|4||Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)||Peugeot||252|
|5||Andrés Gandarias (ESP)||Kas||176|
|1||Mogens Frey (DEN)||Frimatic||77|
|2||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Flandria||67|
|3||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Sonolor||36|
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965-2007. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 47–53. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "57ème Tour de France 1970" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- "Zoetemelk vijfde in Paris?". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch) (Leiden.courant.nu). 3 July 1970. p. 7. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Equipos participantes en el Tour" (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 24 June 1970. p. 30. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Franse kampioen Gutty betrapt". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 25 June 1970. p. 21. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Eddy Merckx "ongewild" leider". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 27 June 1970. p. 15. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Driessens' plan lukt: Zilioli in gele trui". Nieuwsblad van het Noorden (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 29 June 1970. p. 20. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "57ème Tour de France 1970 - 2ème étape" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Eddy Merckx controleert peloton Tour de France". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 30 June 1970. p. 19. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Ploegleider en knechten lieten Zilioli in de steek". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 3 July 1970. p. 21. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Eddy Merckx heeft Tour reeds beslist". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 4 July 1970. p. 13. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Zoetemelk ineens kopman van Mars". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 4 July 1970. p. 13. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Merckx krijgt Zoetemelk als naaste concurrent". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 7 July 1970. p. 13. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "57ème Tour de France 1970 - 10ème étape" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Eddy Merckx reed huilend ereronde". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch) (De krant van toen). 10 July 1970. p. 21. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Eerste double voor Merckx". Leidse Courant (in Dutch) (Leiden.courant.nu). 20 July 1970. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Nelissen, Jean (20 July 1970). "Merckx is dodelijk voor Tour". Leidse Courant (in Dutch) (Leiden.courant.nu). Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, Part 4" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other Classifications & Awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Intermediate Sprints Classification". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0-679-72936-4. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Clasificaciones oficiales". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 20 July 1970. p. 21. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "1970 Tour de France - June 27 to July 19". Bike Race Info. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Klassementen van de Tour de France". Provinciaalse Zeeuwse Courant (in Dutch) (Krantenbank Zeeland). 20 July 1970. Retrieved 25 February 2011.