Afro-American religions (also African diasporic religions) are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among enslaved Africans and their descendants in various countries of Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of the southern United States. They derive from African traditional religions, especially of West and Central Africa.
Characteristics [ edit ]
These religions usually involve
ancestor veneration and/or a pantheon of divine spirits, such as the loas of Haitian Vodou, or the orishas of Santería. Similar divine spirits are also found in the Central and West African traditions from which they derive — the orishas of Yoruba cultures, the nkisi of Bantu ( Kongo) traditions, and the Vodun of Dahomey ( Benin), Togo, southern Ghana, and Burkina Faso. In addition to mixing these various but related African traditions, many Afro-American religions incorporate elements of Christian, indigenous American, Kardecist, Spiritualist and even Islamic traditions. This mixing of traditions is known as religious syncretism.
List of traditions [ edit ]
Also practiced in
Some elements of
Dahomey Vodun (deities) and Kongo nkisi. Also called Batuque.
Syncretism. Mixed the Yoruba's deities ( Orishas) with the Bantu's veneration of ancestral spirits (Preto Velho), indigenous elements (Caboclos and Caciques), Allan Kardec's Spiritism and Catholicism. Founded in the early 20th century.
Veneration of ancestral spirits called
Exu and Pomba Gira
Puerto Rico, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, USA
Regla de Arará
Regla de Palo
Cuba [1 ]
Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, USA, Venezuela Also called Palo Mayombe,
Las Reglas del Congo, Palo Monte
Cuba, Dominican Republic, USA, Canada
Taino, Fon, Yoruba, Kongo
Dominican Republic, USA
Trinidad and Tobago, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Grenada, Barbados, Guyana, Suriname, Belize Related to
Hoodoo folk magic. Derives from the Igbo 'obia' (or dibia, Igbo: ) traditions. doctoring [2 ]
Suriname Akan, Yoruba, Kongo
Trinidad and Tobago Yoruba
Jamaica, Bahamas, USA
Protestantism Syncretism, since the early 19th century
society of the
Annang, Efik, Ibibio, Ekoi and Igbo
New York City originally Yoruba, later syncretized with Catholicism.
not refer to the religions' indigenous origins in continental Africa, but only to their development in the New World.
Other closely related regional faiths include:
New religious movements [ edit ]
new religious movements have elements of these African religions, but are predominantly rooted in other spiritual traditions. A first wave of such movements originated in the early twentieth century:
A second wave of new movements originated in the 1960s to 1970s, in the context of the emergence of
New Age and Neopaganism in the United States:
União do Vegetal (Brazil, entheogenic, since 1961);
Vale do Amanhecer (Brazil, Spiritism, since 1965);
Nuwaubian Nation (USA, Kemetism, UFO religion and Islam, since 1980s)
Ausar Auset Society (USA, Kemetism, Pan-Africanism, since 1973); and Black Buddhist Community in America (USA,
Buddhism, since the 1960s).
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Further reading [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]