Comparative religion

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Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions. In general the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics, metaphysics and the nature and form of salvation. Studying such material is meant to give one a richer and more sophisticated understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred, numinous, spiritual and divine.[1]

In the field of comparative religion, the main world religions are generally classified as Abrahamic (aka Western Asian or Western), Dharmic (aka Indian) or Taoic (aka East Asian or Far Eastern).

Abrahamic or Western Asian religions[edit]

In the study of comparative religion, the category of Abrahamic religions consists of the three monotheistic religions, Christianity, Islam and Judaism, which claim Abraham (Hebrew Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic Ibrahim إبراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. Other religions (such as the Bahá'í Faith) that fit this description are sometimes included but are often omitted.[2]

The original belief in the One God of Abraham eventually became present-day Rabbinic Judaism. Christians believe that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Jewish Old Testament. Christians believe that Jesus (Hebrew Yeshua יֵשׁוּעַ) is the Messiah (Christ) foretold in the Old Testament prophecy, and believe in subsequent New Testament revelations based on the divine authority of Jesus in Christian belief (as the Incarnation of God). Islam believes the present Christian and Jewish scriptures have been corrupted over time and are no longer the original divine revelations as given to Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. For Muslims, the Qur'an is the final, complete revelation from God (Arabic الله Allah), who believe it to have been revealed to Muhammad, who is believed by Muslims to be the final prophet of Islam.

Christianity and Judaism are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways diverge in theology and practice.

The historical interaction of Islam and Judaism started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam. There are many common aspects between Islam and Judaism, and as Islam developed, it gradually became the major religion closest to Judaism. As opposed to Christianity, which originated from interaction between ancient Greek and Hebrew cultures, Judaism is very similar to Islam in its fundamental religious outlook, structure, jurisprudence and practice.[3] There are many traditions within Islam originating from traditions within the Hebrew Bible or from post-biblical Jewish traditions. These practices are known collectively as the Isra'iliyat.[4]

The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. Islam accepts many aspects of Christianity as part of its faith - with some differences in interpretation - and rejects other aspects. Islam believes the Qur'an is the final revelation from God and a completion of all previous revelations, including the Bible.

Dharmic or Indian religions[edit]

The Rig Veda is one of the oldest Vedic texts. Shown here is a Rig Veda manuscript in Devanagari, early nineteenth century.

Indian religions refers to a number of religions that have originated on the Indian subcontinent. They encompass Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

Buddhism and modern Hinduism are both post-Vedic religions. Gautama Buddha is mentioned as an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranic texts of Hinduism. Some Hindus believe the Buddha accepted and incorporated many tenets of Hinduism in his doctrine, however, Buddhists disagree and state there was no such thing as Hinduism at the time of Buddha and in fact, "Indeed, it absorbed so many Buddhist traits that it is virtually impossible to distinguish the latter in medieval and later Hinduism."[5] Prominent Hindu reformers such as Gandhi[6] and Vivekananda[7] acknowledge Buddhist influence. Gandhi, like Hindus, did not believe Buddha established a non-Hindu tradition. He writes, "I do not regard Jainism or Buddhism as separate from Hinduism."[8]

Taoic or East Asian religions[edit]

The Chinese character depicting Tao, the central concept in Taoism.

A Taoic religion is a religion, or religious philosophy, that focuses on the East Asian concept of Tao ("The Way"). This forms a large group of religions including Taoism, Confucianism, Jeung San Do, Shinto, I-Kuan Tao, Chondogyo, Chen Tao and Cao Dai. In large parts of East Asia, Buddhism has taken on some taoic features.

Tao can be roughly stated to be the flow of the universe, or the force behind the natural order. It is believed to be the influence that keeps the universe balanced and ordered and is associated with nature, due to a belief that nature demonstrates the Tao. The flow of Ch'i, as the essential energy of action and existence, is compared to the universal order of Tao. Following the Tao is also associated with a "proper" attitude, morality and lifestyle. This is intimately tied to the complex concept of De, or literally "virtue" or "power." De is the active expression of Tao.

Taoism and Ch'an Buddhism for centuries had a mutual influence on each other in China, Korea and Vietnam. These influences were inherited by Zen Buddhism when Ch'an Buddhism arrived in Japan and adapted as Zen Buddhism.

Comparing traditions[edit]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Mormonism[edit]

Hinduism[edit]

Islam[edit]

Jainism[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Paganism and Neopaganism[edit]

Sikhism[edit]

Taoism[edit]

Zoroastrianism[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human beings' relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, and divine" Encyclopædia Britannica (online, 2006), cited after What is Religion? Definitions and Quotes.
  2. ^ Why Abrahamic? Lubar Institute for the Study of the Abrahamic Religions at the University of Wisconsin
  3. ^ Rabbi David Rosen, Jewish-Muslim Relations, Past and Present, November 2003
  4. ^ Rabbi Justin Jaron Lewis, Islam and Judaism, October 2001
  5. ^ MLA style: "monasticism." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 14 Aug. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38700>.
  6. ^ “owes on eternal debt of gratitude to that great teacher,”Mahatma Gandhi and Buddhism Y.P. Anand An Encounter with Buddhism http://www.iop.or.jp/0414/anand.pdf
  7. ^ He is the ideal Karma-Yogi, acting entirely without motive, and the history of humanity shows him to have been the greatest man ever born; beyond compare the greatest combination of heart and brain that ever existed, the greatest soul-power that has ever been manifested. Essay, Ideal Karma Yogi http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5208/karmayoga/ideal.html&date=2009-10-25+06:08:15
  8. ^ P. 17 Gandhi By Ronald Terchek

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