Citizenship of the European Union

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EU member states use a common passport design, burgundy coloured with the name of the member state, Coat of Arms and the title "European Union" (and/or its translation).

Citizenship of the European Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, which was signed in 1992, and has been in force since 1993. European citizenship is supplementary to national citizenship and affords rights such as the right to vote in European elections, the right to free movement, settlement and employment across the EU, and the right to consular protection by other EU states' embassies when a person's country of citizenship does not maintain an embassy or consulate in the country they need protection in.[1]

History[edit]

EU citizenship as a distinct concept was first introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, and was extended by the Treaty of Amsterdam.[2] Prior to the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities treaties provided guarantees for the free movement of economically active persons, but not, generally, for others. The 1951 Treaty of Paris[3] establishing the European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the 1957 Treaty of Rome[4] provided for the free movement of workers and services.

However, the Treaty provisions were interpreted by the European Court of Justice not as having a narrow economic purpose, but rather a wider social and economic purpose.[5] In Levin,[6] the Court found that the "freedom to take up employment was important, not just as a means towards the creation of a single market for the benefit of the Member State economies, but as a right for the worker to raise her or his standard of living".[5] Under the ECJ caselaw, the rights of free movement of workers applies regardless of the worker's purpose in taking up employment abroad,[6] to both part-time and full-time work,[6] and whether or not the worker required additional financial assistance from the Member State into which he moves.[7] Since, the ECJ has held[8] that a recipient of service has free movement rights under the treaty and this criterion is easily fulfilled,[9] effectively every national of an EU country within another Member State, whether economically active or not, had a right under Article 12 of the European Community Treaty to non-discrimination even prior to the Maastricht Treaty.[10]

In Martinez Sala,[11] the European Court of Justice held that the citizenship provisions provided substantive free movement rights in addition to those already granted by Union law.

Stated rights[edit]

Historically, the main benefit of being a citizen of an EU state has been that of free movement. The free movement also applies to the citizens of European Economic Area states[12] and Switzerland.[13] However with the creation of EU citizenship, certain political rights came into being. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union[14] provides for citizens to be "directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament", and "to participate in the democratic life of the Union" (Treaty on the European Union, Title II, Article 10). Specifically, the following rights are afforded;

Political rights
Rights of free movement
  • Right to free movement and residence: a right of free movement and residence throughout the Union and the right to work in any position (including national civil services with the exception of those posts in the public sector that involve the exercise of powers conferred by public law and the safeguard of general interests of the State or local authorities (Article 21) for which however there is no one single definition);
  • Freedom from discrimination on nationality: a right not to be discriminated against on grounds of nationality within the scope of application of the Treaty (Article 18);
Rights abroad
  • Right to consular protection: a right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of other Member States when in a non-EU Member State, if there are no diplomatic or consular authorities from the citizen's own state (Article 23): this is due to the fact that not all member states maintain embassies in every country in the world (16 countries have only one embassy from an EU state[16]).

Free movement rights[edit]

European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

Article 21 Freedom to move and reside

Article 21 (1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union[14] states that

Every citizen of the Union shall have the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States, subject to the limitations and conditions laid down in this Treaty and by the measures adopted to give it effect.

The European Court of Justice has remarked that,

EU Citizenship is destined to be the fundamental status of nationals of the Member States[17]

The ECJ has held that this Article confers a directly effective right upon citizens to reside in another Member State.[17][18] Before the case of Baumbast,[18] it was widely assumed that non-economically active citizens had no rights to residence deriving directly from the EU Treaty, only from directives created under the Treaty. In Baumbast, however, the ECJ held that (the then[19]) Article 18 of the EC Treaty granted a generally applicable right to residency, which is limited by secondary legislation, but only where that secondary legislation is proportionate.[20] Member States can distinguish between nationals and Union citizens but only if the provisions satisfy the test of proportionality.[21] Migrant EU citizens have a "legitimate expectation of a limited degree of financial solidarity... having regard to their degree of integration into the host society"[22] Length of time is a particularly important factor when considering the degree of integration.

The ECJ's case law on citizenship has been criticised for subjecting an increasing number of national rules to the proportionality assessment.[21]

Article 45 Freedom of movement to work

Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union[14] states that

1. Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Union.
2. Such freedom of movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment.

State employment reserved exclusively for nationals varies between member states. For example, training as a barrister in Britain and Ireland is not reserved for nationals, while the corresponding French course qualifies one as a 'juge' and hence can only be taken by French citizens. However, it is broadly limited to those roles that exercise a significant degree of public authority, such as judges, police, the military, diplomats, senior civil servants or politicians. Note that not all Member States choose to restrict all of these posts to nationals.

Much of the existing secondary legislation and case law was consolidated[23] in the Citizens' Rights Directive 2004/38/EC on the right to move and reside freely within the EU.[24]

Limitations

New member states may undergo transitional regimes, during which their nationals only enjoy restricted access to labour markets in other member states. EU member states are permitted to keep restrictions on citizens of the newly acceded countries for a maximum of seven years after accession. For the EFTA states (Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), the maximum is nine years.

Following the 2004 enlargement, three "old" member states—Ireland, Sweden and the United Kingdom—decided to allow unrestricted access to their labour markets. By December 2009, all but two member states—Austria and Germany—had completely dropped controls. These restrictions too expired on 1 May 2011.[25]

Following the 2007 enlargement, all pre-2004 member states except Finland and Sweden imposed restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian citizens, as did two member states that joined in 2004: Malta and Hungary. As of November 2012, all but 8 EU countries have dropped restrictions entirely. These restrictions too expired on 1 January 2014. Norway opened its labour market in June 2012, while Switzerland and Lichtenstein may keep restrictions in place until 2016.[25]

Following the 2013 enlargement, it is expected that some countries will implement restrictions on Croatian nationals following the country's EU accession on 1 July 2013. As of July 2013, all but 13 EU countries have dropped restrictions entirely.[26] The UK Home Office has announced a bill to this effect.[27]

Acquisition[edit]

There is no common EU policy on the acquisition of European citizenship as it is supplementary to national citizenship (one cannot be an EU citizen without being a national of a member state). Article 20 (1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union[14] states that:

"Citizenship of the Union is hereby established. Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship."

While nationals of Member States are citizens of the union, "It is for each Member State, having due regard to Union law, to lay down the conditions for the acquisition and loss of nationality."[28] As a result, there is a great variety in rules and practices with regard to the acquisition and loss of citizenship in EU member states.[29]

Thus in practice, a member state may withhold EU citizenship from certain groups of citizens — namely some in overseas territories of member states outside the EU. One example would be the Faroe Islands of Denmark which, though a part of Denmark, are outside the EU and do not have EU citizenship.

Summary of member states' nationality laws[edit]

This is a summary of nationality laws for each of the twenty-eight EU member states.[30]

Member State Acquisition by birth Acquisition by descent Acquisition by marriage Acquisition by naturalisation Multiple nationality permitted
Austria Austria

Persons born in Austria:

  • at least one of whose married parents is an Austrian citizen
  • out of wedlock and whose mother is Austrian citizen
  • who is foundling and is found out under the age of 6 months

Austrian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 6 years' residence if married for at least 5 years (and general citizenship conditions are met, including German language proficiency)
  • 6 years' residence if born in Austria, citizen of another EEC country, granted asylum, or "exceptionally integrated"
  • depending on fulfillment of other conditions, up to 30 years' residence
Only allowed with special permission or if dual citizenship was obtained at birth (binational parents [one Austrian, one foreign] or birth in a jus-soli country such as USA and Canada)
Belgium Belgium

Persons born in Belgium who:

  • are stateless
  • are foundlings
  • lose any other nationality before 18
  • have a parent born in Belgium[citation needed]
  • have a birth or adopted parent resident in Belgium for at least 5 of the past 10 years

Belgian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

Yes—after 3 years cohabitation in Belgium
  • 5 years' residence—can petition federal government[citation needed]
  • 10 years' residence—automatic by request at city hall[citation needed]
  • 2 years' residence (stateless persons)
Yes
Bulgaria Bulgaria

Persons born in Bulgaria who:

  • are stateless
  • are foundlings

Bulgarian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • The applicant should be at least 18 years old;
  • have permission for permanent or for long-term residence in Bulgaria since at least 3 years;
  • have not been investigated or sentenced by the Bulgarian authorities;
  • have income or occupation;
  • be able to speak and write in Bulgarian;
  • renounce previous citizenship (not applicable to citizens of the EU and EEA countries, Switzerland and countries with reciprocity agreement with Bulgaria; dual citizenship is allowed for them);
  • have marriage to Bulgarian citizen since at least 3 years and the marriage is actual.
  • The applicant should be at least 18 years old;
  • have permission for permanent or for long-term residence in Bulgaria since at least 5 years;
  • have not been investigated or sentenced by the Bulgarian authorities;
  • have income or occupation;
  • be able to speak and write in Bulgarian;
  • renounce previous citizenship (not applicable to citizens of the EU and EEA countries, Switzerland and countries with reciprocity agreement with Bulgaria; dual citizenship is allowed for them).
  • Yes - for Bulgarian citizens by birth;
  • Yes - for naturalized citizens of the EU and EEA countries, Switzerland and countries with reciprocity agreement with Bulgaria [31]
Croatia Croatia Persons born in Croatia:
  • At least one parent is a Croatian citizen
  • who is foundling (but such citizenship can be revoked if later established both parents were foreign citizens)
Croatian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

Conditions: born to Croatian parents born after March 1, 1991 and if parents are married at the time of birth, Croatian citizenship of mother the father is required should the parents happen to marry at some time after birth, citizenship is automatically granted to child retroactively. If the child is over 14 at that time, child's consent is needed. ?

  • 8 years' residence (can be shortened)
  • 8 years' residence
  • sufficient knowledge of Croatian language
Yes, but persons seeking to become Croatian citizens by naturalisation are to renounce foreign citizenship unless applying by 'privileged naturalisation' (e.g. descendants of Croatian emigrants)
Cyprus Cyprus

Persons born in Cyprus who:

  • are stateless
  • are foundlings

Cypriot nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 3 years' residence
  • 7 years' residence
Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic

Persons born in the Czech Republic:

  • who are foundlings
  • whose parents are both stateless, and at least one of whom is a Czech permanent resident
No
  • Holders of a Czech permanent residence permit for at least 5 years
Yes, effective January 1, 2014[32]
Denmark Denmark

Persons born in Denmark who:

  • are foundlings
Danish nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:
  • The child's mother is a Danish citizen;
  • The child's father is a Danish citizen and the parents are married;
  • 6 years' residence if married for at least 3 years
  • 9 years' residence (holders of a permanent residence permit)
  • 8 years' residence (refugees and stateless persons)
No[33]
Estonia Estonia[34]

Persons born in Estonia who:

  • are foundlings
  • Persons who have at least one parent with Estonian citizenship.

No (unless married to an Estonian citizen before 26 February 1992)

  • 8 years' residence

No (although Estonian citizens by descent cannot be deprived of their Estonian citizenship)

Finland Finland

Persons born in Finland who:

  • are stateless, or
  • are foundlings

Finnish nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • Minimum residence requirement of four years of residence.
  • Five years of residence (or a total of seven years of residence since age 15) in Finland; and
  • knowledge of at least one of Finnish, Swedish or Finnish sign language.
  • Reductions apply under certain conditions.
Yes
France France
  • At birth, persons born in France who:
    • are stateless, or
    • have a parent born in France
  • At 13, persons born in France upon the parent's request.
  • At 16, persons born in France upon their own request.
  • At 18, persons born in France who:

French nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • Through parentage (right of blood):[35]
  • The child (legitimate or natural) is French if at least one parent is French.
  • Holders of a French permanent residence permit for at least 5 years' residence
  • No residence (former citizens with conditions)
Yes
Germany Germany

Persons born in Germany, if at least one parent has resided in Germany for at least 8 years and holds a permanent residence permit

German nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:
  • Member of recognized historical German community abroad (e.g. in the Balkans, Kazakhstan); Also granted to children/grandchildren of those deprived of citizenship by the Nuremberg Laws
  • 2 years of marriage and 3 years of continuous residence in Germany
  • 8 years' residence
  • 7 years' residence (if an integration course has been completed)
  • 6 years' residence (if especially well integrated and has a very high command of the German language, or a refugee or stateless person)
  • No residence (victims of Nazi persecution)

No, unless:

Greece Greece

Persons born in Greece who:

  • have a parent born in Greece
  • are foundlings
  • are stateless

Greek nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • Member of recognized historical Greek community abroad in countries of ex-USSR
  • Ethnic Greek of different citizenship accepted to military academies, or inscribes to serve to the army, or enlists as a volunteer in time of war
  • 3 years of continuous residence in Greece and has an offspring from the marriage
  • 10 years residence in the last 12 years
  • 5 years residence in the last 12 years for refugees
  • Sufficient knowledge of Greek language, Greek history, and Greek culture in general
  • Athlete of an Olympic Sport, with 5 years residence in the last 12 years, who fulfills the conditions of being a member of the Greek National Team of that sport, as these are stated by the international laws for that sport
Yes
Hungary Hungary

Persons born in Hungary who:

  • are foundlings
  • are stateless

Hungarian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • At least one parent is a Hungarian citizen
  • Any person of Hungarian ethnicity, which has to be proven by
  1. sufficient level of Hungarian language
  2. demonstrating at least one ancestor born in the Kingdom of Hungary (no limit on number of generations).
Yes After 3 years
  • After 8 years and meeting conditions of good character
  • After 5 years if
    • born in Hungary
    • resided in Hungary in their pupillage
    • stateless
  • After 3 years if
    • married to a Hungarian citizen
    • has a minor child that is Hungarian citizen
    • adopted by a Hungarian citizen
    • refugee in Hungary
Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland

Persons born in Ireland:

  • are automatically an Irish citizen if he or she is not entitled to the citizenship of any other country.
  • entitled to be an Irish citizen if at least one parent is:
    • an Irish citizen (or someone entitled to be an Irish citizen).
    • a resident of the island of Ireland who is entitled to reside in either the Republic or in Northern Ireland without any time limit on that residence.
    • a legal resident of the island of Ireland for three out of the 4 years preceding the child's birth.

Irish nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • if at the time of birth, at least one parent was an Irish citizen.
  • if you have an Irish citizen grandparent born on the island of Ireland. The parent would have automatically been an Irish citizen. Grandchild can secure citizenship by registering themselves in the Foreign Births Register. Citizenship gained via the Foreign Births Register can only be passed on to children born after the parent themselves were registered.
  • 3 years of marriage or civil partnership to an Irish citizen
  • 5 years of residency in Ireland, of which 1 (one) year immediately before application
Yes
Italy Italy

Persons born in Italy who:

  • have a parent born in Italy
  • are foundlings
  • are stateless

Italian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 2 years of legal residence in Italy (3 years if living abroad) through naturalisation
  • 10 years' residence, no criminal record and sufficient financial resources
  • 7 years' residence for children adopted by Italian citizens
  • 5 years' residence for refugees or stateless individuals
  • 4 years' residence for EU member states nationals[36]
  • 3 years' residence for descendants of Italian grandparents and for foreigners[citation needed] born in Italy
Yes
Latvia Latvia

Persons born in Latvia who:

Latvian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • After 5 years of permanent residence
Starting from October the 1st, 2013 hereby listed persons are eligible[37] to have dual citizenship with Latvia:
  • citizens of member countries of EU, NATO and EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland)
  • citizens of Australia, Venezuela, Brazil, New Zealand
  • citizens of the counties that have had mutual recognition of dual citizenship with Latvia
  • people who were granted the dual citizenship by the Cabinet of Ministers of Latvia
  • people of Latvian or Livonian ethnicity or exiles registering citizenship of Latvia[38]
  • people who have applied for dual citizenship before the previous Latvian Citizenship law (1995).
Lithuania Lithuania

Persons born in Lithuania who:

  • are stateless.

Lithuanian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • at least one parent is a Lithuanian citizen
  • at least one direct ancestor was Lithuanian citizen during the period of 1918-1940.
  • 7 years of permanent residence and demonstrating Lithuanian language ability
No
Luxembourg Luxembourg

Persons born in Luxembourg who:

  • are stateless, or
  • are foundlings, or
  • have a parent born in Luxembourg
No
  • 7 consecutive years' residence
Yes
Malta Malta
  • Persons born in Malta between 21 September 1964 and 31 July 1989
  • Persons born outside Malta between 21 September 1964 and 31 July 1989 to a father with Maltese citizenship through birth in Malta, registration or naturalisation
  • Persons born on or after 1 August 1989, inside or outside Malta, to at least one parent with Maltese citizenship through birth in Malta, registration or naturalisation

Maltese nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

Yes

5 years of marriage to a Maltese citizen (if de jure or de facto separated, then still living together five years after the marriage) or a widow/widower of a Maltese citizen five years after the marriage

5 years of residence

Yes
Netherlands Netherlands

Persons born in Netherlands who:

Dutch nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • Persons with a Dutch parent
  • 3 years of residence and demonstrating Dutch language ability
After 5 years uninterrupted residence, with continuous registration in the municipal register Under certain conditions: e.g. foreign citizenship may be kept in the event of naturalization via marriage.
Poland Poland

Persons born in Poland.

Polish nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

Yes
  • 3 years of residence with permanent residence permit card under the condition of speaking polish language
  • 2 years of residence with permanent residence permit card under the condition of having polish ethnicity
Yes but in Poland, Polish identification must be used and the dual citizen is treated legally as only Polish
Portugal Portugal

Persons born in Portugal who:

  • are stateless
  • are foundlings
  • have a birth parent resident in Portugal for at least 10 years on a valid residence permit
  • have a birth parent with citizenship of a Lusophone country and resident in Portugal for at least 6 years on a valid residence permit

Portuguese nationality is transmitted by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • A person married to a Portuguese national for at least 3 years can apply to be registered as a Portuguese national as a matter of right, provided that the registration is applied for during the marriage (and not after its dissolution by death or divorce). Nationality takes effect upon registration and is not retroactive, and is not lost by the dissolution of the marriage.
Yes
Romania Romania

Persons born in Romania who:

  • are foundlings
  • have Romanian parents

Romanian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 5 years' residence in Romania
  • 8 years' residence
  • 4 years' residence (EU citizens)
Yes[39]
Slovakia Slovakia

Persons born in Slovakia who:

Slovak nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • After 5 years' residence in Slovakia, and living in Slovakia without any immigration restrictions at the time of application
  • 6 years' residence (the last year of which without any immigration restrictions)
Dual citizenship is permitted to Slovak citizens who acquire a second citizenship by birth or through marriage; and to foreign nationals who apply for Slovak citizenship and meet the requirements of the Citizenship Act.[40][41]
Slovenia Slovenia

A child born in Slovenia is a Slovenian citizen if either parent is a Slovenian citizen. Where the child is born outside Slovenia the child will be automatically Slovenian if:

  • both parents are Slovenian citizens; or
  • one parent is Slovenian and the other parent is unknown and/or of unknown citizenship the other is stateless.

A person born outside Slovenia with one Slovenian parent who is not Slovenian automatically may acquire Slovenian citizenship through:

  • an application for registration as a Slovenian citizen made at any time before age 36; or
  • taking up permanent residence in Slovenia before age 18.

Children adopted by Slovenian citizens may be granted Slovenian citizenship.

Slovenian nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • A person of "Slovenian origin" up to the fourth generation in direct descent or a former Slovenian citizen may be naturalised without any residence requirements.
  • A person who is married to a Slovenian citizen for at least two years may be naturalised after one year's residence in Slovenia
  • A total of 10 years residence in Slovenia, including 5 years continuous residence before the application
  • Dual citizenship is generally permitted in Slovenia, except for certain persons seeking to become Slovenian citizens by naturalisation they are to renounce any foreign citizenship (the requirement to renounce foreign citizenship may be waived upon special application).
Spain Spain

Persons born in Spain who:

  • are stateless, or
  • are foundlings
  • Children of Spanish citizens
  • 1[42] year of marriage and residence in Spain
Sweden Sweden[43]

Persons born in Sweden who:

  • are stateless, or
  • are foundlings (canceled if parents found)

Swedish nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 3 years' marriage in case residing in Sweden, 10 years in case living abroad with a Swedish spouse and has 'strong ties' to Sweden, by family visits and such
  • 5 years normal residence permit(not the time limited residence/work permit/Study Permit) and must hold Swedish permanent residence permit at the time of applying or person with a visa intended for settlement in Sweden with 5 years residence in Sweden.
  • 2 years if citizen of a Nordic country (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway)[44]
Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Persons born in United Kingdom who:

British nationality is acquired by descent under one of the following conditions:

  • 6 years' residence (must be without any immigration restrictions on date of application)
  • 6 years' residence (the last year of which without any immigration restrictions)
Yes

Danish opt-out[edit]

Further information: Opt-outs in the European Union

Denmark obtained four opt-outs from the Maastricht Treaty following the treaty's initial rejection in a 1992 referendum. The opt-outs are outlined in the Edinburgh Agreement and concern the EMU (as above), the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) and the citizenship of the European Union. The citizenship opt-out stated that European citizenship did not replace national citizenship; this opt-out was rendered meaningless when the Amsterdam Treaty adopted the same wording for all members. The policy of recent Danish governments has been to hold referenda to abolish these opt outs, including formally abolishing the citizenship opt out which is still technically active even if redundant.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Article 20(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  2. ^ This rendered the provision to the same effect in Protocol no. 5 on the position of Denmark in the Treaty on the European Union superfluous. See Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Denmark. "The Danish Opt-Outs". Retrieved 24 November 2007. [dead link]
  3. ^ Article 69.
  4. ^ Title 3.
  5. ^ a b Craig, P., de Búrca, G. (2003). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (3rd ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 706–711. ISBN 0-19-925608-X. 
  6. ^ a b c Case 53/81 D.M. Levin v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  7. ^ Case 139/85 R. H. Kempf v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  8. ^ Joined cases 286/82 and 26/83 Graziana Luisi and Giuseppe Carbone v Ministero del Tesoro.
  9. ^ Case 186/87 Ian William Cowan v Trésor public.
  10. ^ Advocate General Jacobs' Opinion in Case C-274/96 Criminal proceedings against Horst Otto Bickel and Ulrich Franz at paragraph [19].
  11. ^ Case C-85/96 María Martínez Sala v Freistaat Bayern.
  12. ^ "EEA Agreement". European Free Trade Association. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  13. ^ "Switzerland". European Commission. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d Treaty on the Function of the European Union (consolidated version)
  15. ^ This right also extends to "any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State": Treaty of Rome (consolidated version), Article 194.
  16. ^ Antigua and Barbuda (UK), Barbados (UK), Belize (UK), Central African Republic (France), Comoros (France), Djibouti (France), Gambia (UK), Guyana (UK), Lesotho (Ireland), Liberia (Germany), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (UK), San Marino (Italy), São Tomé and Príncipe (Portugal), Solomon Islands (UK), Timor-Leste (Portugal), Vanuatu (France)
  17. ^ a b Case C-184/99 Rudy Grzelczyk v Centre public d'aide sociale d'Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve .
  18. ^ a b Case C-413/99 Baumbast and R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, para. [85]-[91].
  19. ^ Now article 20
  20. ^ Durham European Law Institute, European Law Lecture 2005, p. 5.
  21. ^ a b Anthony Arnull; Alan Dashwood; Michael Dougan; Malcolm Ross; Eleanor Spaventa and Derrick Wyatt.; Dashwood, A. and others (2006). European Union Law (5th ed.). Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 978-0-421-92560-1. 
  22. ^ Dougan, M. (2006). "The constitutional dimension to the case law on Union citizenship". European Law Review 31 (5): 613–641. . See also Case C-209/03 R (Dany Bidar) v. London Borough of Ealing and Secretary of State for Education and Skills, para. [56]-[59].
  23. ^ European Commission. "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  24. ^ Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States.
  25. ^ a b "Free movement of labour in the EU 27". Euractiv. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ "UK bill proposing work restrictions on Croatian nationals". 18 October 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  28. ^ Case C-396/90 Micheletti v. Delegación del Gobierno en Cantabria, which established that dual-nationals of a Member State and a non-Member State were entitled to freedom of movement; case C-192/99 R v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex p. Manjit Kaur. It is not an abuse of process to acquire nationality in a Member State solely to take advantage of free movement rights in other Member States: case C-200/02 Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department.
  29. ^ Dronkers, J. and M. Vink (2012). Explaining Access to Citizenship in Europe: How Policies Affect Naturalisation Rates. European Union Politics 13(3) 390-412; Vink, M. and G.R. de Groot (2010). Citizenship Attribution in Western Europe: International Framework and Domestic Trends. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5) 713-734.
  30. ^ See the EUDO Citizenship Observatory for a comprehensive database with information on regulations on the acquisition and loss of citizenship across Europe.
  31. ^ Law on the Bulgarian citizenship
  32. ^ http://www.mzv.cz/consulate.newyork/en/visa_and_consular_information/about_czech_citizenship_and_dual/new_citizenship_legislation_of_the_czech.html
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/530102013074/consolide
  35. ^ http://www.consulfrance-newyork.org/Nationality
  36. ^ "Criteria underlying legislation concerning citizenship". Ministero Dell'Interno. Retrieved June 2014. 
  37. ^ http://rus.delfi.lv/news/daily/latvia/dvojnoe-grazhdanstvo-u-posolstv-latvii-pribavitsya-raboty.d?id=43347235
  38. ^ http://www.pmlp.gov.lv/en/home/citizenship/registration-if-citizenship/registration-of-citizenship-of-latvians-and-livs.html
  39. ^ [3]
  40. ^ "Slovak Citizenship Requirements & Application". Slovak-Republic.org. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  41. ^ Futej & Partners, Memorandum: Extensive amendment to the act on Slovak state citizenship, Bratislava 
  42. ^ http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/web/rielcano_en/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_es/zonas_es/demografia+y+poblacion/ari4-2014-gonzalez-enriquez-price-spanish-and-european-citizenship
  43. ^ Law (2001:82) on Swedish citizenship
  44. ^ "Krav för medborgarskap för dig som är nordisk medborgare" (in Swedish). Migrationsverket. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 

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