Ethnicities in Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The main ethnic groups of Iran by distribution. The population of the ethnic groups is not up to date.

Approximately 75-80%[1][2] of Iran's peoples speak Iranian languages.[3] The major groups in this category include Persians, Kurds, Gilakiss, Mazandaranis, Lurs, Tats, Talyshs and Baluchs. Turkic speakers, such as the Azerbaijani, Turkmen and the Qashqai peoples, constitute a substantial minority. The remainder are primarily Semitics such as Arabs and Assyrians or other Indo-Europeans such as Armenians and Europeans. The Georgian language is the only Caucasian language fully functioning in Iran and it's spoken only by those Iranian Georgians that live in Fereydan and Fereydunshahr, and in smaller sockets all over Iran. Almost all other communities of Iranian Georgians in Iran apart those in Fereydan and Fereydunshahr have already lost their language, but remain a clear Georgian conscious. There are also scattered sockets of Circassians, but as the vast majority of them have become highly assimilated, no sizeable amount speak the Circassian language anymore.[4] Mandaeans are estimated to be between 5,000 and 10,000 Mandaeans in Iran.[5] There are also communities of Talysh people in northern Iran. There are no statistical data on the numbers of Talysh-speakers in Iran, but estimates show their number to be around 1 million. According to the CIA World Factbook, the ethnic breakdown of Iran is as follows: Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1%.[2] Another source, Library of Congress [6] states Iran's ethnic group as following: Persians (65 percent), Azeri Turks (16 percent), Kurds (7 percent), Lurs (6 percent), Arabs (2 percent), Baluchis (2 percent), Turkmens (1 percent), Turkish tribal groups such as the Qashqai (1 percent), and non-Persian, non-Turkic groups such as Armenians, Assyrians, and Georgians (less than 1 percent).[1] Other sources mention different statistics: Persians 51%,[7][8] Azeris 24%,[7][8] Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%,[7] Baloch 2%, Arabs 9.6%,[7] Turkmens 2%,[7][9] Turkic tribal groups (e.g. Qashqai and Kazakhs) 1%, and other groups (e.g. Tats, Talysh, Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, Jews) 1%.[1][10] At the turn of 1900, the approximate population of Iran was: 6 million Persians, 2.5 million Azeris, 200,000 Mazandaranis, 200,000 Gilakis, 20,000 Taleshis and 20,000 Tatis.[11]

Persians[edit]

Main article: Persian people

The term “Persians” refers to an ethnic group who speak the Western dialect of Persian and live in the modern country of Iran as well as the descendants of the people who emigrated from the territory of modern-day Iran to other countries. Today, the Persian community of Malaysia is the most populous, followed by the middle east in nations such as UAE, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman. Significant communities also lie in the west, (notably USA, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, France and other countries).

Ethnic Persians inhabit traditionally the Tehran province, Isfahan province, Fars province, Alborz province, Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan, Yazd province, Kerman province, Bushehr province, Hormozgan province, Markazi province (Arak), Qom province, Gilan province, Mazandaran province Semnan province, Qazvin province, the majority of Hamadan province including the city of Hamadan, majority of the North Khorasan, majority of Khuzestan province, northern half of Sistan and Baluchistan (Zabol), southern and western half of Golestan province including the provincial capital of Gorgan. Ethnic Persians form also at least half of the populations in the bilingual cities of Kermanshah and Ahvaz along with Shia Kurds, Shia Arabs respectively.It is also noteworthy that most of the new generation of Lur, Bakhtiari and Kermanshahis consider themselves Persians and tend to speak Tehrani dialect of Persian.[citation needed] The majority of the Iranian immigrants in the west and other parts of the world also hail from Persian speaking cities especially from Tehran.[citation needed]

According to the CIA World Factbook, Persians in Iran constitute up to 61% of the country's population.[10][12] Another source, Library of Congress [6] states Iran's Persians compose 65% of the country's population.[1]

Iranian Azerbaijanis[edit]

Main article: Iranian Azerbaijanis

Iranian Azerbaijanis, who are mainly Shi’a Muslims, are the second largest ethnic group in Iran after the Persians [and are] believed to constitute 16 percent of the population.[2][7][8][13] The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, parts of West Azarbaijan, Hamadan and Qazvin.[14][15][15][16] Many others live in Tehran, Karaj and other regions.[15] Generally, Azeris in Iran were regarded as "a well integrated linguistic minority" by academics prior to Iran's Islamic Revolution.[17][18] In fact, until the Pahlavi period in the 20th century, "the identity of Iran was not exclusively Persian, but supra-ethnic", as much of the political leadership, starting from the 11th century, had been Turkic.[19] The Azeris were integrated with other Iranian groups until the 19th century when after Russian invasion and annexation of northern Azerbaijan, nationalism and communalism began to alter popular perception among both ethnic groups.[19] Despite friction, Azeris in Iran came to be well represented at all levels of, "political, military, and intellectual hierarchies, as well as the religious hierarchy."[19] In fact, the first wave of Iranian nationalists such as Talebi Tabrizi and Akhundzade were ethnic Azeris from Azerbaijan SSR. In Iran the term "āzari" is used formally; however, informally, Azeris and other Turkic speaking Iranian populations are colloquially referred to as "Tork" (Turks). Since Pahlavi rule, Azeris have not been allowed state-funded schools with Azeri as the language of instruction, though today there are Azeri newspapers and radio programs. The current Iranian Azerbaijanis are mostly bilingual and the existence of the newly independent nation of Azerbaijan along with the lack of any formal education in their native language at Iran's schools have created new challenges for Iran as a country. In recent years there has been a great push for the legal recognition of the Azerbaijani language in Iran and the establishment of schools in the Azerbaijani language.

Iranian Kurds[edit]

Main article: Iranian Kurdistan

Iranian Kurds make up the majority of the population of Kordestan province and together with the Azaris, they are one of the two main ethnic groups in West Azarbaijan province. In West Azarbaijan province Kurds are concentrated in parts of the southern and western parts of the province.Kurds also make up the majority of the populations of Kermanshah and Ilam provinces,[citation needed] although Kermanshahi and Ilamian Kurds are Shia Muslims, in contrast to the mainstream Kurds who are adherents of Sunni Islam.

Iranian Balochis[edit]

The Balochi people of Iran live in southern and central parts and northern Sistan and Baluchistan province.The northern part of the province is called Sistan and 63% of the province is ethnic Balochi while the rest is Persian Sistani. The Balochi people are Sunni Muslims, in contrast to the Sistani Persians who are adherents of Shia Islam. The capital of Sistan and Baluchistan is Zahedan and is inhabited by Balochs, the next largest city of the province is Zabol in Sistan and is inhabited predominantly by Persians. The town of Jask in neighbouring Hormozgan Province is also inhabited by Baloch people. The population of the town of Jask is 12,000 and including its surrounding villages the population is 80,000.

Lur People[edit]

Main article: Lurs

Lur people, are Luri-speaking people inhabiting part of west - south western Iran.[20] Most Lur are Shi’a. They the Fourth largest ethnic group in Iran after the Persians, Azeri and Kurds.[21][22] They occupy Lorestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Khuzestan, Isfahan, Fars, Bushehr and Kuh-Gilu-Boir Ahmed provinces.[23] The authority of tribal elders remains a strong influence among the nomadic population. It is not as dominant among the settled urban population. As is true in Bakhtiari and Kurdish societies, Lur women have much greater freedom than women in other groups within the region.[24] Thie language is Indo-European. They may be related to the Kurds from whom they "apparently began to be distinguished from... 1,000 years ago." The Sharafnama of Sharaf Khan Bidlisi "mentioned two Lur dynasties among the five Kurdish dynasties that had in the past enjoyed royalty or the highest form of sovereignty or independence."[25] In the Mu'jam Al-Buldan of Yaqut al-Hamawi mention is made of the Lurs as a Kurdish tribe living in the mountains between Khuzestan and Isfahan. The term Kurd according to Richard Frye was used for all Iranian nomads (including the population of Luristan as well as tribes in Kuhistan and Baluchis in Kirman) for all nomads, whether they were linguistically connected to the Kurds or not.[26]

Khorasani Turks[edit]

Main article: Khorasani Turks

Khorasani Turkic people, or Qizilbash, are Turkic-speaking people inhabiting part of northeastern Iran, and in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River; and speak the Khorasani Turkic, and live in the North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan and Golestan provinces of Iran. and Total population Khorasani Turks is 1,000,000 [27]

According to the CIA World Factbook, Turkmens and other Turkic tribes (Qashqais, Khorassani, etc.) in Iran stand up to 2% of the overall country population, approximately more than one million people [28]

Qashqai people[edit]

Main article: Qashqai people

Qashqai (pronounced [qaʃqaːʔiː]; They mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. They are bilingual and speak the Persian language and the Qashqai language which is a member of the Turkic family of languages. The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mi south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now become partially or wholly sedentary. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s.[29]

According to the CIA World Factbook, Turkmens and other Turkic tribes (Qashqais, Khorassani, etc.) in Iran stand up to 2% of the overall country population, approximately more than one million people [28]

Iranian Assyrians[edit]

Main article: Assyrians in Iran

Assyrians are a Semitic ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iran, descending from the Ancient Assyrians and Mesopotamians. The Assyrians of Iran are a Semitic people who speak modern Assyrian, a neo-Aramaic language descended from Classical Syriac, and are Eastern Rite Christians belonging mostly to the Assyrian Church of the East and, to a lesser extent, to the Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church and Ancient Church of the East.[30] They share a common identity, rooted in shared linguistic and religious traditions, with Assyrians in Iraq and elsewhere in the Middle East such as Syria and Turkey, as well as with the Assyrian diaspora.[30]

The Assyrian community in Iran numbered approximately 200,000 prior to the Islamic Revolution of 1979. However, after the revolution many Assyrians left the country, primarily for the United States, and the 1996 census counted only 32,000 Assyrians.[31] Current estimates of the Assyrian population in Iran range from 32,000 (as of 2005)[32] to 50,000 (as of 2007).[33] The Iranian capital, Tehran, is home to the majority of Iranian Assyrians; however, approximately 15,000 Assyrians reside in northern Iran, in Urmia and various Assyrian villages in the surrounding area.[30]

Iranian Arabs[edit]

Main article: Iranian Arabs

2% of Iran's citizens are Arabic-speakers.[34] A 1998 report by UNCHR reported 1 million of them live in border cities of Khuzestan Province, they are believed to constitute 20% to 25% of the population in the province, most of whom being Shi'a. In Khuzestan, Arabs are a minority in the province .They are the dominant ethnic group only in Shadegan, Hoveyzeh and Susangerd, a minority in the rural areas of Abadan (The city of Abadan is inhabited by ethnic Persians who speak the Abadani dialect), together with Persians, Arabs are one of the two main ethnic groups in Ahvaz. All other cities in Khuzestan province, are either inhabited by the Lur, Bakhtiari or Persian ethnic groups. The historically large and oil rich cities like Mahshahr, Behbahan, Masjed Soleyman, Izeh, Dezful, Shushtar, Andimeshk, Shush, Ramhormoz, Baghemalak, Gotvand, Lali, Omidieh, Aghajari, Hendijan, Ramshir, Haftkel, Bavi are inhabited by people who speak either Luri, Bakhtiari and Persian languages.[35] There are smaller communities in Khorasan and Fars provinces. Iranian Arab communities are also found in Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Qatar.

Iranian Turkmen[edit]

Main article: Iranian Turkmen

There are over 1,328,585 [28] Turkmen who are primarily concentrated in the provinces of Golestān and North Khorasan.[12]

In Golestān the northern half is inhabited by Turkmen people.The largest Turkmen city in the province is Gonbade Kavoos. The next largest Turkmen city is Bandar Torkaman.

Talyshs of Iran[edit]

Main article: Talysh people

Talyshes of Iran are about 430,000 and live mostly in the northwestern province of Ardebil soas in the Republic of Azerbaijan.[36]

Tats of Iran[edit]

Main article: Tats of Iran

Tats of Iran are a Persian people and are very limited and Sporadic living near Alborz Mountains in Iran, especially in the south of Qazvin province. They belong to the Persian family and are a sub-group of Persians claiming Sassanid Persian ancestry.

Tats of Iran use the Tati language (Iran), is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to the Talysh language. Persian and Azeri are also spoken. Tats of Iran are mainly Shia Muslims and about 300,000 population.[37][clarification needed][38][39][40][41][42]

Iranian Armenians[edit]

Main article: Iranian Armenians

The current Iranian-Armenian population is somewhere around 500,000.[43] They mostly live in Tehran and Jolfa district. After the Iranian Revolution, many Armenians immigrated to Armenian diasporic communities in North America and western Europe. Today the Armenians are Iran's largest Christian religious minority, followed by Assyrians.

Iranian Georgians[edit]

Main article: Iranian Georgians

Iranian Georgians are an ethnic group living in Iran. They are Twelver Shia Muslims, whereas the vast majority of Georgians elsewhere in the world are Christian. The Georgian dialect is still spoken in Iran.

Once a very large minority in Iran mainly due to mass deportations by the various early modern age and modern age Iranian empires[44][45][46] (Safavids, Afsharids, and Qajars), of their Georgian subjects, nowadays, due to intermarrying and assimilating the number of Georgians in Iran is nowadays estimated to be over 100,000. However, the amount of Iranians with partial or assimilated Georgian ancestry is estimated to exceed millions.

The Georgian language is still used by many of the Georgians in Iran. The center of Georgians in Iran is Fereydunshahr, a small city, 150 km to the west of Isfahan. The western part of Isfahan province is historically called Fereydan. In this area there are 10 Georgian towns and villages around Fereydunshahr. In this region the old Georgian identity is retained the best compared to other places in Iran. In many major Iranian cities, such as Tehran, Isfahan, Karaj and Shiraz, and Rasht live Georgians too.

In many other places such as Najafabad, Rahmatabad, Yazdanshahr and Amir Abad (near Isfahan) there are also Georgian sockets and villages. In Mazandaran Province in northern Iran, there are ethnic Georgians too. They live in the town of Behshahr, and also in Behshahr county, in Farah Abad, and many other places, which are usually called Gorji Mahalle. Most of these Georgians no longer speak the Georgian language, but retain aspects of Georgian culture and a Georgian conscious. Some argue that Iranian Georgians retain remnants of Christian traditions, but there is no evidence for this.

Iranian Circassians[edit]

Like with the Georgians, once a very large minority in Iran all the way from the Safavid to the Qajar era, the vast majority of the Circassians have been assimilated into the population nowadays.

From Sir John Chardin's "Travels in Persia, 1673-1677":

There is scarce a Gentleman in Persia, whose Mother is not a Georgian, or a Circassian Woman; to begin with the King, who commonly is a Georgian, or a Circassian by the Mother's side.

Circassians alongside the Georgians were deported en masse by the Shah's to fulfil roles in the civil administration, the military, and the royal Harem, but also as craftsmen, farmers, amongst other professions.[47][48] Circassian women were both in Ottoman Turkey and Persia desired for their beauty, while the men were known as fiercesome warriors. Notable Iranians of Circassian descent of the past include Shah Abbas II, Shah Suleiman I, Pari Khan Khanum (daughter of Shah Tahmasp, involved in many court intrigues), Shamkal Soltan, Jamshid Beg (the assasinator of Shah Ismail II), Fatḥ-ʿAli Khan Dagestani (vizier of the state under Shah Sultan Husayn), Anna Khanum, and many more. Traces of Circassian settlements have lasted into the 20th century,[48] and small sockets still exist scattered over the country, even after centuries of absorbing and assimilating.[4][49]

Iranian Jews[edit]

Main article: Persian Jews

Judaism is one of the oldest religions practiced in Iran and dates back to the late biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Esther contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Iran.

By various estimates, 10,800 Jews[50] remain in Iran, mostly in Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz. BBC reported Yazd is home to ten Jewish families, six of them related by marriage, however some estimate the number is much higher. Historically, Jews maintained a presence in many more Iranian cities. Iran supports by far the largest Jewish population of any Muslim country.[51]

A number of groups of Jews of Iran have split off since ancient times. They are now recognized as separate communities, such as the Bukharan Jews and Mountain Jews. In addition, there are several thousand in Iran who are, or who are the direct descendants of, Jews who have converted to Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.[52]

Iranian Mandaeans[edit]

Iranian Mandaeans live mainly in the Khuzestan Province in southern Iran.[53] Mandeans are a Mandaic speaking Semitic race who follow their own distinctive Gnostic religion, venerating John the Baptist as the true Messiah. Like the Assyrians of Iran, their origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia. They number some 10,000 people in Iran.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Library of Congress, Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. "Ethnic Groups and Languages of Iran". Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  2. ^ a b c "The World Factbook - Iran". Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  3. ^ CIA Factbook
  4. ^ a b Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Encyclopedia of European Peoples, pp.175
  5. ^ http://www.hollandsentinel.com/lifestyle/x1558731033/Saving-the-people-killing-the-faith
  6. ^ a b See Iran in Encyclopedia of Islam, Leiden. C.E. Bosworth (editor)
  7. ^ a b c d e f Ali Gheissari, Contemporary Iran: Economy, Society, Politics, Oxford University Press, 2009, p.300
  8. ^ a b c Ali Aldosari, Ali Aldosari, Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa, Marshall Cavendish, p.482
  9. ^ April Fast: Iran the People, Crabtree Publishing Company, 2010, p.19
  10. ^ a b https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html
  11. ^ Ervand Abrahimian, "A History of Modern Iran", Cambridge University Press, 2008. Page 18: "Communal Composition of Iran, 1900 Persian 6 million 50% Azeris 2.5 million Mazandaranis 200,000 Gilakis 200,000 Taleshis 20,000 Tatis 20,000"
  12. ^ a b https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
  13. ^ Library of Congress, Federal Research Division (March 2006). "Country Profile: Iran". p. 5. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  14. ^ Terror Free Tomorrow (May 2009). "Results of a New Nationwide Public Opinion Survey of Iran before the June 12, 2009 Presidential Elections". New America Foundation. "21.6% of 70,495,782 [15.2 million]" 
  15. ^ a b c "Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment: People and Languages: Turkic-speaking Groups: Azarbaijanis" in A Country Study: Iran Library of Congress Country Studies, Table of Contents, last accessed 19 November 2008
  16. ^ THE TURKISH LANGUAGE IN IRAN By Ahmed KASRAVI,latimeria: Prof. Dr. Evan Siegal, Journal of Azerbaijani Studies, 1998, Vol. 1, No 2, [6] , Khazar University Press , ISSN 1027-387
  17. ^ Higgins, Patricia J. (1984) "Minority-State Relations in Contemporary Iran" Iranian Studies 17(1): pp. 37-71, p. 59
  18. ^ Binder, Leonard (1962) Iran: Political Development in a Changing Society University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., pp. 160-161, OCLC 408909
  19. ^ a b c Ibid.
  20. ^ http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/iran/lurs-iran
  21. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html#People
  22. ^ http://www.terrorfreetomorrow.org/upimagestft/TFT%20Iran%20Survey%20Report%200609.pdf
  23. ^ Cultural Survival Inc. (http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/iran/lurs-iran), "The Lurs of Iran".
  24. ^ Edmonds, Cecil (2010). East and West of Zagros: Travel, War and Politics in Persia and Iraq 1913-1921. p. 188. ISBN 9789004173446. 
  25. ^ Gunter, Michael M. (2011). Historical Dictionary of the Kurds (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0810867512. 
  26. ^ Richard Frye,"The Golden age of Persia", Phoneix Press, 1975. Second Impression December 2003. pp 111: "Tribes always have been a feature of Persian history, but the sources are extremely scant in reference to them since they did not 'make' history. The general designation 'Kurd' is found in many Arabic sources, as well as in Pahlavi book on the deeds of Ardashir the first Sassanian ruler, for all nomads no matter whether they were linguistically connected to the Kurds of today or not. The population of Luristan, for example, was considered to be Kurdish, as were tribes in Kuhistan and Baluchis in Kirman"
  27. ^ Iranicaonline
  28. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook Iran
  29. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/qasqai-tribal-confederacy-i
  30. ^ a b c Hooglund (2008), pp. 100–101.
  31. ^ Hooglund (2008), pp. 100–101, 295.
  32. ^ Hooglund (2008), p. 295.
  33. ^ BetBasoo, Peter (1 April 2007). "Brief History of Assyrians". Assyrian International News Agency. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  34. ^ CIA World Factbook
  35. ^ Iran Overview from British Home Office
  36. ^ Looklex Encyclopaedia — Talysh (English)
  37. ^ Persian Wikipedia (تات‌های ایران)
  38. ^ it is also spoken in some villages like Vafs and Chehreghan in the central areas of Iran like Gholamhossein Mosahab's The Persian Encyclopedia
  39. ^ Paul, Ludwig (1998a). The position of Zazaki among West Iranian languages. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference of Iranian Studies, 11-15.09.1995, Cambridge, Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.), 163-176. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
  40. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 496.
  41. ^ "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan," Encyclopaedia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by E. Yarshater. External link: [1]
  42. ^ تات
  43. ^ Iran: Religions & Peoples
  44. ^ "Ṣafavid dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Afsharids". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  46. ^ "Qājār Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  47. ^ P Bushkovitch, Princes Cherkasskii or Circassian Murzas, pp.12-13
  48. ^ a b "ČARKAS". Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  49. ^ "International Circassian Association". Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  50. ^ The Jewish Population of the World
  51. ^ [2]
  52. ^ The Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran
  53. ^ صابئین ایران‌زمین، عکس: عباس تحویلدار، متن: مسعود فروزنده، آلن برونه، تهران: نشر کلید: ۱۳۷۹، شابک: 9789649064550، ص۸
  54. ^ ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Contrera, Russell. "Saving the people, killing the faith – Holland, MI". The Holland Sentinel. Retrieved 2011-12-17.