Eugene, Oregon

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City of Eugene
City
Downtown Eugene as seen from Skinner Butte
Downtown Eugene as seen from Skinner Butte
Official seal of City of Eugene
Seal
Nickname(s): Emerald Valley, The Emerald City, Track Town
Motto: A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors
Lane County Oregon Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Eugene Highlighted.svg
Coordinates: 44°03′07″N 123°05′12″W / 44.05194°N 123.08667°W / 44.05194; -123.08667Coordinates: 44°03′07″N 123°05′12″W / 44.05194°N 123.08667°W / 44.05194; -123.08667
Country United States
State Oregon
County Lane
Founded 1846
Incorporated October 17, 1862
Government
 • Type Council-manager
 • Mayor Kitty Piercy
 • City manager Jon Ruiz
Area[1]
 • City 43.74 sq mi (113.29 km2)
 • Land 43.72 sq mi (113.23 km2)
 • Water 0.02 sq mi (0.05 km2)
Elevation 430 ft (131.1 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 156,185
 • Estimate (2013[3]) 159,190
 • Rank US: 155th
 • Density 3,572.4/sq mi (1,379.3/km2)
 • Urban 247,421 (US: 151st)
 • Metro 356,212 (US: 146th)
Demonym Eugenian[4][5]
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 97401–97405, 97408, 97440
Area code(s) 458 and 541
Twin cities
 • Kathmandu    Nepal
 • Irkutsk  Russia
 • Kakegawa  Japan
 • Jinju  South Korea
FIPS code 41-23850
GNIS feature ID 1120527[6]
Website www.eugene-or.gov

Eugene /juːˈn/ is a major city of the Pacific Northwest located in the State of Oregon. It is the second-largest city in the state and the county seat of Lane County. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about 50 miles (80 km) east of the Oregon Coast.

As of the 2010 census, Eugene has a population of 156,185, and Lane County (co-located with the Eugene-Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area) (MSA) has a population of 351,715.[7][8] While Eugene has long been the second-largest city in Oregon, it was briefly surpassed by Salem between 2005 and 2007.[9][10][11] The Eugene-Springfield, Oregon MSA is the 146th largest metropolitan statistical area of the U.S., and the third-largest in the state, behind the Portland Metropolitan Area and the Salem Metropolitan Area. The city's population was estimated by the Portland Research Center to be 159,580 in 2013.[12]

Eugene is home to the University of Oregon. The city is also noted for its natural beauty, recreational opportunities (especially bicycling, running/jogging, rafting, kayaking), and focus on the arts. Eugene's slogan is "A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors". It is also referred to as the "Emerald City", and as "Track Town, USA".[13] The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene.

History[edit]

Willamette Street c. 1920

Eugene is named after its founder, Eugene Franklin Skinner. Until 1889, it was named Eugene City.[14] In 1846, Skinner erected the first cabin in the area.[15] It was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850. At this time the settlement was known as Skinner's Mudhole. It was relocated in 1853 and named Eugene City,[16] but was not formally incorporated as a city until 1862. Skinner later ran a ferry service across the Willamette River where the Ferry Street Bridge now stands.

The first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, founded a few years earlier than the University of Oregon. It fell victim to two major fires in four years, and after the second fire, the college decided not to rebuild again. The part of south Eugene known as College Hill was the former location of Columbia College. There is no college there today.

The town raised the initial funding to start a public university, which later became the University of Oregon, with the hope of turning the small town into a center of learning. In 1872, the Legislative Assembly passed a bill creating the University of Oregon as a state institution. Eugene bested the nearby town of Albany in the competition for the state university. In 1873, community member J.H.D. Henderson donated the hilltop land for the campus, overlooking the city.

The university first opened in 1876 with the regents electing the first faculty and naming John Wesley Johnson as president. The first students registered on October 16, 1876. The first building was completed in 1877; it was named Deady Hall in honor of the first Board of Regents President and community leader Judge Matthew P. Deady. The city's name was shortened from Eugene City to Eugene in 1889.[14]

Eugene grew rapidly throughout most of the twentieth century, with the exception being the early 1980s when a downturn in the timber industry caused high unemployment. By 1985, the industry had recovered and Eugene began to attract more high-tech industries.

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

The flat-roofed buildings of downtown Eugene in front of Spencer Butte, a prominent forested hill
Spencer Butte can be seen from much of the city.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.74 square miles (113.29 km2), of which, 43.72 square miles (113.23 km2) is land and 0.02 square miles (0.05 km2) is water.[1] Eugene is located at an elevation of 426 feet (130 m).

To the north of downtown is Skinner Butte. Northeast of the city are the Coburg Hills. Spencer Butte is a prominent landmark south of the city. Mount Pisgah is southeast of Eugene and includes Mount Pisgah Arboretum and Howard Buford Recreation Area, a Lane County Park. Eugene is surrounded by foothills and forests to the south, east and west, while to the north the land levels out into the Willamette Valley and consists of mostly farmland.

The Willamette and McKenzie rivers run through Eugene and neighboring city, Springfield. Another important stream is Amazon Creek, whose headwaters are near Spencer Butte. The creek discharges west of the city into Fern Ridge Reservoir, maintained for winter flood control by the Army Corps of Engineers. Eugene Yacht Club hosts a sail school and sailing regattas at Fern Ridge during summer months.[17]

Neighborhoods[edit]

Eugene has 23[18] neighborhood associations:

Climate[edit]

Eugene
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
6.9
 
47
35
 
 
5.4
 
51
35
 
 
5
 
56
37
 
 
3.3
 
61
40
 
 
2.7
 
67
44
 
 
1.5
 
73
48
 
 
0.6
 
82
52
 
 
0.6
 
83
51
 
 
1.3
 
77
47
 
 
3.3
 
64
42
 
 
7.7
 
52
38
 
 
7.8
 
46
34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Like the rest of the Willamette Valley, Eugene lies in the Marine West Coast climate zone (Köppen Csb), with Mediterranean characteristics. Temperatures can vary from cool to warm, with warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Spring and fall are also moist seasons, with light rain falling for long periods. Winter snowfall does occur, but it is sporadic and rarely accumulates in large amounts: the average seasonal amount is 5 inches (12.7 cm), and the median is 0.[19] The record snowfall was 3 ft deep due to a pineapple express in late January 1969. Record snowfall for March was 8 inches deep in 2012.[20] The hottest months are July and August, with average highs of around 82 °F (28 °C), with an average of 15 days per year above 90 °F (32.2 °C). The coolest month is December, with the average daytime high in the mid-40s°F (7–8 °C), and nights averaging just above freezing. There are 54 nights per year with a low below freezing, and about three days with highs not exceeding freezing.[19] The record high low was 73 °F (23 °C) in 2006.

The result of rare heavy snow in January 2008

Eugene's average annual temperature is 52.1 °F (11.2 °C), and annual precipitation at 50.9 inches (1,290 mm).[19] Eugene is slightly cooler on average than Portland. Despite being located about 100 miles (160 km) south and having only a slightly higher elevation, Eugene has a more continental climate, less subject to the maritime air that blows inland from the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. Eugene's average August low is 50.8 °F (10.4 °C),[19] while Portland's average August low is 56.5 °F (13.6 °C).[21] Average winter temperatures (and summer high temperatures) are similar for the two cities. This disparity may be additionally caused by Portland's urban heat island, where the combination of black pavement and urban energy use raises nighttime temperatures. A lesser heat island may also exist in the immediate downtown of Eugene.

Extreme temperatures range from −12 °F (−24 °C), recorded on December 8, 1972,[22] to 108 °F (42 °C) on August 9, 1981.[23]

Climate data for Eugene, Oregon (Eugene Airport), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 69
(21)
78
(26)
80
(27)
89
(32)
95
(35)
102
(39)
106
(41)
108
(42)
103
(39)
94
(34)
76
(24)
68
(20)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 47.2
(8.4)
51.1
(10.6)
56.2
(13.4)
60.8
(16)
67.0
(19.4)
73.2
(22.9)
82.2
(27.9)
82.8
(28.2)
76.9
(24.9)
64.2
(17.9)
52.2
(11.2)
45.6
(7.6)
63.3
(17.4)
Average low °F (°C) 34.5
(1.4)
35.1
(1.7)
37.4
(3)
39.8
(4.3)
43.8
(6.6)
47.9
(8.8)
51.7
(10.9)
51.4
(10.8)
47.3
(8.5)
41.5
(5.3)
37.9
(3.3)
34.1
(1.2)
41.9
(5.5)
Record low °F (°C) −4
(−20)
−3
(−19)
18
(−8)
25
(−4)
28
(−2)
32
(0)
39
(4)
35
(2)
30
(−1)
17
(−8)
12
(−11)
−12
(−24)
−12
(−24)
Precipitation inches (mm) 6.89
(175)
5.43
(137.9)
4.99
(126.7)
3.33
(84.6)
2.73
(69.3)
1.50
(38.1)
0.55
(14)
0.61
(15.5)
1.29
(32.8)
3.25
(82.6)
7.72
(196.1)
7.83
(198.9)
46.12
(1,171.4)
Snowfall inches (cm) 0.5
(1.3)
1.4
(3.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
0.8
(2)
2.8
(7.1)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.8 14.9 17.7 14.5 11.7 7.9 3.1 3.2 5.4 11.4 17.9 17.9 143.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.4 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.5 1.7
Source: NOAA[19] Weather.com (extremes)[24]

Environmental issues[edit]

The combination of being in the downwind end of the Willamette Valley, which produces hundreds of millions of pounds of grass seed[25], and the confining shape of the hills has led to Eugene being “the area of the highest grass pollen counts in the USA (>1,500 pollen grains/m3 of air).”[26] These high pollen counts have led to difficulties for some of the track athletes who compete in Eugene. In the Olympic trials in 1972, “Jim Ryun won the 1,500 after being flown in by helicopter because he was allergic to Eugene's grass seed pollen.”[27] Further, six-time Olympian Maria Mutola abandoned Eugene as a training area “in part to avoid allergies”.[28]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 861
1880 1,117 29.7%
1900 3,236
1910 9,009 178.4%
1920 10,593 17.6%
1930 18,901 78.4%
1940 20,838 10.2%
1950 35,879 72.2%
1960 50,977 42.1%
1970 79,028 55.0%
1980 105,664 33.7%
1990 112,669 6.6%
2000 137,893 22.4%
2010 156,185 13.3%
Est. 2013 159,190 1.9%
Sources:[29][30][31]

2010 census[edit]

According to the 2010 census, Eugene's population was 156,185.[7] The population density was 3,572.2 people per square mile. There were 69,951 housing units at an average density of 1,600 per square mile.[8] Those age 18 and over accounted for 81.8% of the total population.[8]

The racial makeup of the city was 85.8% White, 4.0% Asian, 1.4% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, and 4.7% from other races.[8]

Hispanics and Latinos of any race accounted for 7.8% of the total population.[32] Of the non-Hispanics, 82% were White, 1.3% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 4% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.2% some other race alone, and 3.4% were of two or more races.[8]

Females represented 51.1% of the total population, and males represented 48.9%. The median age in the city was 33.8 years.[33]

2000 census[edit]

The census of 2000 showed that there were 137,893 people, 58,110 households, and 31,321 families residing in the city of Eugene. The population density was 3,404.8 people per square mile (1,314.5/km²). There were 61,444 housing units at an average density of 1,516.4 per square mile (585.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.15% White, down from 99.5% in 1950,[34] 3.57% Asian, 1.25% Black or African American, 0.93% Native American, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 2.18% from other races, and 3.72% from two or more races. 4.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 58,110 households, of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.1% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.87. In the city, the population was 20.3% under the age of 18, 17.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,850, and the median income for a family was $48,527. Males had a median income of $35,549 versus $26,721 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,315. About 8.7% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.

Religion[edit]

Religious institutions of higher learning in Eugene include Northwest Christian University and New Hope Christian College. Northwest Christian University (formerly Northwest Christian College), founded in 1895, has ties with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). New Hope Christian College (formerly Eugene Bible College) originated with the Bible Standard Conference in 1919, which joined with Open Bible Evangelistic Association to create Open Bible Standard Churches in 1932. Eugene Bible College was started from this movement by Fred Hornshuh in 1925.[35]

There are two Eastern Orthodox Church parishes in Eugene: St John the Wonderworker Orthodox Christian Church in the Historic Whiteaker Neighborhood[36][37] and Saint George Greek Orthodox Church.[38]

There is a mainline Protestant contingency in the city as well—such as the largest of the Lutheran Churches, Central Lutheran[39] near the U of O Campus and the Episcopal Church of the Resurrection.[40]

The Eugene area has a sizeable LDS Church presence, with three stakes, consisting of 23 congregations (wards and branches).[41] The Portland Oregon Temple is the nearest temple.[42]

The Reconstructionist Temple Beth Israel is Eugene's largest Jewish congregation.[43] It was also, for many decades, Eugene's only synagogue,[44][45] until Orthodox members broke away in 1992 and formed "Congregation Ahavas Torah".[46][47]

Eugene has a community of some 140 Sikhs, who have established a Sikh temple.[48]

The 340-member congregation of the Unitarian Universalist Church in Eugene (UUCE)[49] purchased the former Eugene Scottish Rite Temple in May 2010, renovated it, and began services there in September 2012.

Saraha Nyingma Buddhist Temple in Eugene[50] opened in 2012 in the former site of the Unitarian Universalist Church.

Community[edit]

Eugene is noted for its "community inventiveness." Many U.S. trends in community development originated here. The University of Oregon's participatory planning process, known as The Oregon Experiment, was the result of student protests in the early 1970s. The book of the same name is a major document in modern enlightenment thinking in planning and architectural circles. The process, still used by the university in modified form, was created by Christopher Alexander, whose works also directly inspired the creation of the Wiki. Some of the research for the book A Pattern Language, which inspired the Design Patterns movement and Extreme Programming, was done by Alexander in Eugene. Not coincidentally, those engineering movements also had origins here. A Pattern Language is the best-selling book on architecture and planning of all time.

In the 1970s, Eugene was packed with cooperative and community projects. It still has small natural food stores in many neighborhoods, some of the oldest student cooperatives in the country, and alternative schools have been part of the school district since 1971. The old Grower's Market, downtown near the Amtrak depot, is the only food cooperative in the U.S. with no employees. It is possible to see Eugene's trend-setting non-profit tendencies in much newer projects, such as the Tango Center and the Center for Appropriate Transport. In 2006, an initiative began to create a tenant-run development process for downtown Eugene.

In the fall of 2003, neighbors noticed that "an unassuming two-acre remnant orchard tucked into the Friendly Area Neighborhood"[51] had been put up for sale by its owner, a resident of New York City.[52] Learning that a prospective buyer had plans to build several houses on the property, they formed a nonprofit organization called Madison Meadow[53][54] in June 2004 in order to buy the property and "preserve it as undeveloped space in perpetuity."[53] In 2007 their effort was named Third Best Community Effort by the Eugene Weekly,[55] and by the end of 2008 they had raised enough money to purchase the property.[51]

The City of Eugene has an active Neighborhood Program. Several neighborhoods are known for their green activism. Friendly Neighborhood has a highly popular neighborhood garden established on the right of way of a street never built. There are a number of community gardens on public property. Amazon Neighborhood has a former church turned into a community center. Whiteaker hosts a housing co-op that dates from the early 70's that has re-purposed both their parking lots into food production and play space. An unusual eco-village with natural building techniques and large shared garden can be found in Jefferson Westside neighborhood. A several block area in the River Road Neighborhood is known as a permaculture hotspot with an increasing number of suburban homes trading grass for garden, installing rain water catchment systems, food producing landscapes and solar retrofits. Several sites have planted gardens by removing driveways. A 65 tree filbert grove on public property is being restored by citizen volunteers in cooperation with the city of Eugene. There are deepening social and economic networks in the neighborhood.

Anarchism[edit]

Anarchists at an Occupy Eugene event in November, 2011

Some Eugene anarchists gained international notoriety in 1999 for their perceived role in the violent protests at the WTO Conference in Seattle.[56] Eugene resident John Zerzan, an editor of the Green Anarchy magazine, has been associated with the growth of the green anarchist movement and with the philosophy behind black bloc tactics of the Seattle riots.[57][58] During a Reclaim the Streets event in 1999,[59] some protesters blocked downtown streets and smashed the windows of three stores and threw stones and bottles at police.[60] Following those protests, then-mayor Jim Torrey described the city as "the anarchist capital of the United States."[56]

In January, 2006, the FBI conducted Operation Backfire, leading to federal indictment of eleven people, including Chelsea Dawn Gerlach and Stanislas Gregory Meyerhoff. Gerlach and Meyerhoff pleaded guilty to $20 million damages in arsons committed by a Eugene-based cell of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF).[61] Ongoing trials of accused eco-terrorists kept Eugene in the spotlight for a few years.[62]

Economy[edit]

Eugene's largest employers are PeaceHealth Medical Group, the University of Oregon and the Eugene School District.[63] Eugene's largest industries are wood products manufacturing and recreational vehicle manufacturing.[64]

Luckey's Club Cigar Store is one of the oldest bars in Oregon. Tad Luckey, Sr., purchased it in 1911, making it one of the oldest businesses in Eugene. The “Club Cigar,” as it was called in the late 19th century, was for many years a men-only salon. It survived both the Great Depression and Prohibition, partly because Eugene was a dry town before the end of Prohibition.[65]

Corporate headquarters for the employee-owned Bi-Mart corporation and family-owned Market of Choice remain located in Eugene. Emporium Department Stores, which was founded in North Bend, Oregon, had its headquarters in Eugene, but closed all stores in 2002.

Organically Grown Company, the largest distributor of organic fruits and vegetables in the northwest, started in Eugene in 1978 as a non-profit co-op for organic farmers. Notable local food processors, many of whom manufacture certified organic products, include Golden Temple (Yogi Tea), Merry Hempsters and Springfield Creamery (Nancy's Yogurt & owned by the Kesey Family), and Mountain Rose Herbs.

Until July 2008, Hynix Semiconductor America had operated a large semiconductor plant in west Eugene. In late September 2009, Uni-Chem of South Korea announced its intention to purchase the Hynix site for solar cell manufacturing.[66] However this deal fell through and as of late 2012 is no longer planned.[67]

The footwear repair product Shoe Goo is manufactured by Eclectic Products, based in Eugene.

Burley Design LLC produces bicycle trailers, and was founded in Eugene by Alan Scholz out of a Saturday Market business in 1978. Eugene is also the birthplace and home of Bike Friday bicycle manufacturer, Green Gear Cycling.

Many multinational businesses were launched in Eugene. Some of the most famous include Nike,[68] Taco Time,[69] and Brøderbund Software.[70]

Top employers[edit]

According to Eugene's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[63] the city's top employers are:

# Employer Number of employees
1 PeaceHealth Medical Group 4,893
2 University of Oregon 4,038
3 Eugene School District 2,794
4 State of Oregon 2,205
5 Lane County 2,000
6 U.S. Government 1,777
7 Springfield School District 1,500
8 City of Eugene 1,404
9 Lane Community College 1,118
10 Walmart 1,100
A vendor's craft booth at the Eugene Saturday Market

Arts and culture[edit]

Eugene has a significant population of people in pursuit of alternative ideas, and a large original hippie population.[71] Beginning in the 1960s, the countercultural ideas and viewpoints espoused by Ken Kesey became established as the seminal elements of the vibrant social tapestry that continue to define Eugene.[72] The Merry Prankster, as Kesey was known, has arguably left the most indelible imprint of any cultural icon in his hometown. He is best known as the author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and as the male protagonist in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.[72]

In 2005, the city council unanimously approved a new slogan for the city, "World's Greatest City for the Arts & Outdoors." While Eugene has a vibrant arts community for a city its size, and is well situated near many outdoor opportunities, this slogan was frequently criticized by locals as embarrassing and ludicrous.[73] In early 2010, the slogan was changed to "A Great City for the Arts & Outdoors."

Eugene's Saturday Market, open every Saturday from April through November,[74] was founded in 1970 as the first "Saturday Market" in the United States.[75] It is adjacent to the Lane County Farmer's Market in downtown Eugene. All vendors must create or grow all their own products. The market reappears as the "Holiday Market" between Thanksgiving and New Years in the Lane County Events Center at the fairgrounds.

Annual cultural events[edit]

  • The Eugene/Springfield Pride Festival[88] is held annually on the second Saturday in August from noon to 7:00 p,m. at Alton Baker Park. A part of LGBT culture in Eugene, Oregon since 1993, it provides a lighthearted and supportive social venue for the LGBT community, families, and friends.
  • Eugene Celebration[89] is a three-day block party that usually takes place in the downtown area in August or September. The SLUG Queen coronation in August, a pageant with a campy spin, crowns a new SLUG Queen who "rains" over the Eugene Celebration Parade and is an unofficial ambassador of Eugene.[90]
The Eugene Public Library

Museums[edit]

Eugene museums include the University of Oregon's Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art and Museum of Natural and Cultural History, the Oregon Air and Space Museum, Conger Street Clock Museum,[91] Lane County Historical Museum,[92] Maude Kerns Art Center, Shelton McMurphey Johnson House, and the Science Factory Children's Museum & Planetarium.

Libraries[edit]

The largest library in Oregon is the University of Oregon's Knight Library, with collections totaling more than 3 million volumes and over 100,000 audio and video items.[93] The Eugene Public Library[94] moved into a new, larger building downtown in 2002. The four-story library is an increase from 38,000 to 130,000 square feet (3,500 to 12,100 m2).[95] There are also two branches of the Eugene Public Library, the Sheldon Branch Library in the neighborhood of Cal Young/Sheldon, and the Bethel Branch Library, in the neighborhood of Bethel. Eugene also has the Lane County Law Library.

Performing arts[edit]

Eugene is home to numerous cultural organizations, including the Eugene Symphony, the Eugene Ballet, the Eugene Opera, the Eugene Concert Choir, the Northwest Christian University Community Choir, the Oregon Mozart Players, the Oregon Bach Festival, the Oregon Children's Choir, the Oregon Festival Choirs, the Eugene Youth Symphony, Ballet Fantastique and Oregon Festival of American Music. Principal performing arts venues include the Hult Center for the Performing Arts, The John G. Shedd Institute for the Arts ("The Shedd"), Matthew Knight Arena, Beall Concert Hall and the Erb Memorial Union ballroom on the University of Oregon campus, the McDonald Theatre, and W.O.W. Hall.

A number of live theater groups are based in Eugene, including Free Shakespeare in the Park, Oregon Contemporary Theatre, The Very Little Theatre, Actors Cabaret, LCC Theatre, and University Theatre.[96] Each has its own performance venue.

Music[edit]

Because of its status as a college town, Eugene has been home to many different music genres, musicians and bands, ranging from electronic dance music such as Dubstep and Drum and Bass to garage rock, hip hop, folk and heavy metal. Eugene also has a growing reggae and street-performing bluegrass and jug band scene. Multi-genre act the Cherry Poppin' Daddies became a prominent figure in Eugene's music scene and became the house band at Eugene's W.O.W. Hall. In the late 1990s, their contributions to the swing revival movement propelled them to national stardom. Rock band Floater originated in Eugene. Doom metal band YOB is among the leaders of the Eugene heavy music scene.

Eugene is home to "Classical Gas" Composer and two-time Grammy award winner Mason Williams who spent his years as a youth living between his parents in Oakridge, Oregon and Oklahoma. Mason Williams puts on a yearly Christmas show at the Hult center for performing arts with a full orchestra produced by author, audio engineer and University of Oregon professor Don Latarski.[97]

Dick Hyman, noted jazz pianist and musical director for many of Woody Allen's films, designs and hosts the annual Now Hear This! jazz festival at the Oregon Festival of American Music (OFAM). OFAM and the Hult Center routinely draw major jazz talent for concerts.[98][99]

Eugene is also home to a large Zimbabwean music community. Kutsinhira Cultural Arts Center, which is "dedicated to the music and people of Zimbabwe," is based in Eugene.

Visual arts[edit]

Eugene's visual arts community is supported by over 20 private art galleries and several organizations, including Maude Kerns Art Center,[100] Lane Arts Council,[101] DIVA (the Downtown Initiative for the Visual Arts), the Hult Center's Jacobs Gallery,[102] and the Eugene Glass School.

Annual visual arts events include the Mayor's Art Show and Art and the Vineyard.[103]

Film[edit]

The Eugene area has been used as a filming location for several Hollywood films, most famously for 1978's National Lampoon's Animal House, which was also filmed in nearby Cottage Grove. John Belushi had the idea for the film The Blues Brothers during filming of Animal House when he happened to meet Curtis Salgado at what was then the Eugene Hotel.[104]

Getting Straight, starring Elliott Gould and Candice Bergen, was filmed at Lane Community College in 1969. As the campus was still under construction at the time, the "occupation scenes" were easier to shoot.[105]

The "Chicken Salad on Toast" scene in the 1970 Jack Nicholson movie Five Easy Pieces was filmed at the Denny's restaurant at the southern I-5 freeway interchange near Glenwood. Nicholson directed the 1971 film Drive, He Said in Eugene.

How to Beat the High Co$t of Living, starring Jane Curtin, Jessica Lange and Susan St. James, was filmed in Eugene in the fall of 1979. Locations included Valley River Center, Skinner Butte, the Willamette River and River Road Hardware.

Several track and field movies have used Eugene as a setting and/or a filming location. Personal Best, starring Mariel Hemingway, was filmed in Eugene in 1982. The film centered on a group of women who are trying to qualify for the Olympic track and field team. Two track and field movies about the life of Steve Prefontaine, Prefontaine and Without Limits were released within a year of each other in 1997–1998. Kenny Moore, Eugene-trained Olympic runner and co-star in Prefontaine, co-wrote the screenplay for Without Limits. Prefontaine was filmed in Washington because the Without Limits production bought out Hayward Field for the summer to prevent its competition from shooting there.[106] Kenny Moore also wrote a biography of Bill Bowerman, played in Without Limits by Donald Sutherland back in Eugene 20 years after he had appeared in Animal House. Moore had also had a role in Personal Best.

Stealing Time, a 2003 independent film, was partially filmed in Eugene. When the film premiered in June 2001 at the Seattle International Film Festival, it was titled Rennie's Landing after a popular bar near the University of Oregon campus. The title was changed for its DVD release. Zerophilia was filmed in Eugene in 2006.

Sports[edit]

Eugene's Oregon Ducks are part of the Pacific-12 Conference (Pac-12). American football is especially popular, with intense rivalries between the Ducks and both the Oregon State University Beavers and the University of Washington Huskies.[107] Autzen Stadium is home to Duck football, with a seating capacity of 54,000.[108]

The basketball arena, McArthur Court, was built in 1926.[109] The arena was replaced by the Matthew Knight Arena in late 2010.[110]

For nearly 40 years, Eugene has been the "Track and Field Capital of the World." Oregon's most famous track icon is the late world-class distance runner Steve Prefontaine, who was killed in a car crash in 1975.

Eugene's jogging trails include Pre's Trail in Alton Baker Park, Rexius Trail, the Adidas Oregon Trail, and the Ridgeline Trail. Jogging was introduced to the U.S. through Eugene, brought from New Zealand by Bill Bowerman, who wrote the best-selling book "Jogging", and coached the champion University of Oregon track and cross country teams. During Bowerman's tenure, his "Men of Oregon" won 24 individual NCAA titles, including titles in 15 out of the 19 events contested. During Bowerman's 24 years at Oregon, his track teams finished in the top ten at the NCAA championships 16 times, including four team titles (1962, '64, '65, '70), and two second-place trophies. His teams also posted a dual meet record of 114–20.

Bowerman also invented the waffle sole for running shoes in Eugene, and with Oregon alumnus Phil Knight founded shoe giant Nike, Inc. Eugene's miles of running trails, through its unusually large park system, are the most extensive in the U.S. The city has dozens of running clubs. The climate is cool and temperate, good both for jogging and record-setting. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon's Hayward Field track, which hosts numerous collegiate and amateur track and field meets throughout the year, most notably the Prefontaine Classic. Hayward Field was host to the 2004 AAU Junior Olympic Games, the 1989 World Masters Athletics Championships, the track and field events of the 1998 World Masters Games, the 2006 Pacific-10 track and field championships, the 1971, 1975, 1986, 1993, 1999, 2001, 2009, and 2011 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships and the 1972, 1976, 1980, 2008, and 2012 U.S. Olympic trials, and is designated to host them again in 2016.

Eugene is also home to the Eugene Emeralds, a short-season Class A minor-league baseball team. The "Ems" play their home games in PK Park, also the home of the University of Oregon baseball team.

The Nationwide Tour's golfing event Oregon Classic takes place at Shadow Hills Country Club, just north of Eugene. The event has been played every year since 1998, except in 2001 when it was slated to begin the day after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The top 20 players from the Nationwide Tour are promoted to the PGA Tour for the following year.[111]

The Eugene Jr. Generals, a special needs hockey team plays at the Lane County Ice Center.

The following table lists some of the sports clubs in Eugene and their usual home venue:

Club Sport Founded League Venue
Oregon Ducks Football, Basketball, Track and Field, Softball, Volleyball, Golf, Tennis, Baseball, Ultimate, Lacrosse, Hockey, Soccer 1876 National Collegiate Athletic Association: Pacific-12 Conference Autzen Stadium, Matthew Knight Arena, PK Park, Hayward Field
Northwest Christian University Beacons Basketball, Cross Country, Distance Track, Golf, Soccer, Volleyball 1895 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, Cascade Collegiate Conference Morse Event Center
New Hope Christian College DeaconsDeacons Basketball, Soccer, Volleyball 1925 Rexius Event Center
Eugene Emeralds Baseball 1955 Northwest League PK Park
Lane Community College Titans Basketball, Cross Country, Track and Field, Soccer, Baseball 1965 Northwest Athletic Association of Community Colleges Lane Community College
Eugene Gentlemen Rugby 1973 Pacific Northwest Rugby Football Union
Eugene Chargers Basketball 2006 International Basketball League Morse Event Center
Eugene Generals Ice hockey 2005 Junior A Tier III-League Hockey: Northern Pacific Hockey League Lane County Ice Center
Lane United FC Soccer 2013 USL Premier Development League Willamalane Center

Parks and recreation[edit]

Spencer Butte Park at the southern edge of town provides access to Spencer Butte, a dominant feature of Eugene's skyline. Hendricks Park, situated on a knoll to the east of downtown, is known for its rhododendron garden and nearby memorial to Steve Prefontaine, known as Pre's Rock, where the legendary University of Oregon runner was killed in an auto accident. Alton Baker Park, next to the Willamette River, contains Pre's Trail. Also located next to the Willamette are Skinner Butte Park[112] and the Owen Memorial Rose Garden, which is home to more than 4,500 roses of over 400 varieties,[113] as well as the 150-year-old Black Tartarian Cherry tree,[114] an Oregon Heritage Tree.[115]

The city of Eugene maintains an urban forest. The University of Oregon campus is an arboretum, with over 500 species of trees. The city operates and maintains scenic hiking trails that pass through and across the ridges of a cluster of hills in the southern portion of the city, on the fringe of residential neighborhoods. Some trails allow biking and others are for hikers and runners only.

The nearest ski resort, Willamette Pass, is one hour from Eugene by car. On the way, along Oregon Route 58, are several reservoirs and lakes, the Oakridge mountain bike trails, hot springs, and waterfalls within Willamette National Forest. Eugene residents also frequent Hoodoo and Mount Bachelor ski resorts. The Three Sisters Wilderness, the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area and Smith Rock are just a short drive away.

Government[edit]

In 1944, Eugene adopted a council-manager form of government, replacing the day-to-day management of city affairs by the part-time mayor and volunteer city council with a full-time professional city manager. The subsequent history of Eugene city government has largely been one of the dynamics—often contentious—between the city manager, the mayor and city council.

The current mayor of Eugene is Kitty Piercy, who has been in office since 2005. Recent mayors include Edwin Cone (1958–69), Les Anderson (1969–77) Gus Keller (1977–84), Brian Obie (1985–88), Jeff Miller (1989–92), Ruth Bascom (1993–96), and Jim Torrey (1997–2004).

Jon Ruiz has been the city manager since April 2008.[116][117] Ten other people have held the city manager position. They were: Deane Seeger (1945–49), Oren King (1949–53), Robert Finlayson (1953–59), Hugh McKinley (1959–75), Charles Henry (1975–80), Mike Gleason (1981–96), Vicki Elmer (1996–98), Jim Johnson (1998–2002), Dennis Taylor (2002–2007), Angel Jones (2007–2008).

Eugene City Council[edit]

Mayor: Kitty Piercy

  • Ward 1 – George Brown
  • Ward 2 – Betty Taylor
  • Ward 3 – Alan Zelenka
  • Ward 4 – George Poling
  • Ward 5 – Mike Clark
  • Ward 6 – Greg Evans
  • Ward 7 – Claire Syrett
  • Ward 8 – Chris Pryor

Public safety[edit]

The Eugene Police Department (EPD) is the city's law enforcement and public safety agency.[118] The Lane County Sheriff's Office also has its headquarters in Eugene.[119] The University of Oregon is served by the University of Oregon Police Department (UOPD),[120][121] and EPD has a police station in the West University District near campus. Lane Community College is served by the Lane Community College Public Safety Department.[122] The Oregon State Police have a presence in the rural areas and highways around the Eugene metro area.[123]

Eugene City Hall was abandoned in 2012 for reasons of structural integrity, energy efficiency, and obsolete size. Various offices of city government became tenants in eight other buildings.

Education[edit]

Johnson Hall, University of Oregon

Eugene is home to the University of Oregon. Other institutions of higher learning include Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College, New Hope Christian College, Gutenberg College, and Pacific University's Eugene campus.

Public schools[edit]

The Eugene School District includes four full-service high schools (Churchill, North Eugene, Sheldon, and South Eugene) and many alternative education programs, such as international schools and charter schools. Foreign language immersion programs in the district are available in Spanish, French, and Japanese.

The Bethel School District serves children in the Bethel neighborhood on the northwest edge of Eugene. The district is home to the traditional Willamette High School and the alternative Kalapuya High School. There are 11 schools in this district.

Eugene also has several private schools, including the Eugene Waldorf School,[124] two private Montessori schools:[125] Eugene Montessori and Far Horizon Montessori, Eugene Sudbury School,[126] Wellsprings Friends School,[127] Oak Hill School,[128] and The Little French School.[129]

Parochial schools in Eugene include Marist Catholic High School, O'Hara Catholic Elementary School, and St. Paul Parish School.[130]

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

The largest newspaper serving the area is The Register-Guard, a daily newspaper with a circulation of about 70,000, published independently by the Baker family of Eugene.[131] Other newspapers serving the area include the Eugene Weekly, the Emerald, the student-run independent newspaper at the University of Oregon, now published on Mondays and Thursdays;The Torch, the student-run newspaper at Lane Community College, the Ignite, the newspaper at New Hope Christian College and The Mishpat, the student-run newspaper at Northwest Christian University. Eugene Magazine, Lane County's Lifestyle Quarterly and Eugene Living, Sustainable Home and Garden magazine also serves the area. Adelante Latino is a Spanish Newspaper in Eugene, it serves all of Lane County.

Television[edit]

Local television stations include KMTR (NBC), KVAL (CBS), KLSR-TV (Fox), KEVU-CD, KEZI (ABC), KEPB (PBS), and KTVC (independent).

Radio[edit]

The local NPR affiliates are KOPB, and KLCC. Radio station KRVM is an affiliate of Jefferson Public Radio, based at Southern Oregon University. The Pacifica Radio affiliate is the University of Oregon student-run radio station, KWVA. Additionally, the community supports two other radio stations: KWAX (classical) and KRVM-FM (alternative).

AM Stations

  • KOAC 530 Corvallis – NPR News/Talk (Oregon Public Broadcasting)
  • KUGN 590 Eugene – NEWS/TALK (Cumulus)
  • KXOR 660 Junction City – Spanish Religious (Zion Media)
  • KKNX 840 Eugene – Oldies (Willamette Media Group)
  • KORE 1050 Springfield – Christian (Support Christian Radio)
  • KPNW 1120 Eugene – NEWS/TALK (Bicostal Media)
  • KRVM 1280 Eugene – NPR News/Talk (Eugene School District) (JPR affiliate)
  • KSCR 1320 Eugene – Business Radio (Cumulus)
  • KNND 1400 Cottage Grove – Oldies (Swartzberg Communications Inc)
  • KLZS 1450 Eugene – Comedy (Eugene Comedy Radio)
  • KEPB 1600 Eugene – NPR News/Talk (Oregon Public Broadcasting)

FM Stations

  • KWVA 88.1 Eugene – Freeform (University of Oregon)
  • KPIJ 88.5 Junction City – Christian (Calvary Satellite Network) (Calvary Chapel)
  • KQFE 88.9 Springfield – Christian (Family Radio)
  • KLCC 89.7 Eugene – NPR News/Talk/Jazz (Lane Community College)
  • KWAX 91.1 Eugene – Classical (University of Oregon)
  • KRVM 91.9 Eugene – Adult Album Alternative (AAA) (Eugene School District)
  • KKNU 93.3 Springfield – Country (McKenzie River Broadcasting)
  • KMGE 94.5 Eugene – Adult Contemporary (McKenzie River Broadcasting)
  • KUJZ 95.3 Creswell – Sports (Cumulus)
  • KZEL 96.1 Eugene – Classic Rock (Cumulus)
  • KODZ 99.1 Eugene – Classic Hits (Bicostal Media)
  • KRKT 99.9 Albany – Country (Bicostal Media)
  • KMME 100.5 Cottage Grove – Catholic Program (Catholic Radio Northwest)
  • KFLY 101.5 Corvallis – Active Rock (Bicostal Media)
  • KEHK 102.3 Brownsville – Hot Adult Contemporary (Cumulus)
  • KNRQ 103.7 Eugene – Alternative Rock (Cumulus)
  • KDUK 104.7 Florence – Top 40 (CHR) (Bicostal Media)
  • KEUG 105.5 Veneta – Adult Hits (Bicostal Media)
  • KLOO 106.3 Corvallis – Classic Rock (Bicoastal Media)
  • KLVU 107.1 Sweet Home – Contemporary Christian Music (K-LOVE) Educational Media Foundation
  • KHPE 107.9 Albany – Contemporary Christian Music (Extra Mile Media)

Infrastructure[edit]

Lane Transit District's Eugene Station
Fox Hollow Road is a popular track for cyclists wanting to leave the city.

Transportation[edit]

Mass transit[edit]

Lane Transit District (LTD), a public transportation agency formed in 1970, covers 240 square miles (620 km2) of Lane County, including Creswell, Cottage Grove, Junction City, Veneta, and Blue River. Operating more than 90 buses during peak hours, LTD carries riders on 3.7 million trips every year. LTD also operates a bus rapid transit line that runs between Eugene and Springfield—Emerald Express (EmX)—much of which runs in its own lane. LTD's main terminus in Eugene is at the Eugene Station. LTD also offers paratransit.

Cycling[edit]

Cycling is popular in Eugene and many people commute via bicycle. Summertime events and festivals frequently have bike parking "corrals" that many times are filled to capacity by three hundred or more bikes. Many people commute to work by bicycle every month of the year. Numerous bike shops provide the finest rain gear products, running lights and everything a biker needs to ride and stay comfortable in heavy rain. Bike trails take commuting and recreational bikers along the Willamette River past a scenic rose garden, along Amazon Creek, through the downtown, and through the University of Oregon campus.

In 2009, the League of American Bicyclists cited Eugene as 1 of 10 "Gold-level" cities in the U.S. because of its "remarkable commitments to bicycling."[132][133][134] In 2010, Bicycling magazine named Eugene the 5th most bike-friendly city in America.[135][135][136] The U.S. Census Bureau's annual American Community Survey reported that Eugene had a bicycle commuting mode share of 7.3% in 2011, the fifth highest percentage nationwide among U.S. cities with 65,000 people or more, and 13 times higher than the national average of 0.56%.[137]

Rail[edit]

The 1908 Amtrak depot downtown was restored in 2004; it is the southern terminus for two daily runs of the Amtrak Cascades, and a stop along the route in each direction for the daily Coast Starlight.

Air travel[edit]

Air travel is served by the Eugene Airport, also known as Mahlon Sweet Field, which is the fifth largest airport in the Northwest and second largest airport in Oregon. The Eugene Metro area also has numerous private airports.[138] The Eugene Metro area also has several heliports, such as the Sacred Heart Medical Center Heliport and Mahlon Sweet Field Heliport, and many single helipads.[139]

Highways[edit]

Highways traveling within and through Eugene include:

  • Interstate 5: Interstate 5 forms much of the eastern city limit, acting as an effective, though unofficial boundary between Eugene and Springfield. To the north, I-5 leads to the Willamette Valley and Portland. To the south, I-5 leads to Roseburg, Medford, and the southwestern portion of the state. In full, Interstate 5 continues north to the Canadian Border at Blaine, Washington and Vancouver, British Columbia and extends south to the Mexican border at Tijuana and San Diego.
  • Officer Chris Kilcullen Memorial Highway: Oregon Route 126 is routed along the Eugene-Springfield Highway, a limited-access freeway. The Eugene portion of this highway begins at an interchange with Interstate 5 and ends two miles (3 km) west at a freeway terminus. This portion of Oregon Route 126 is also signed Interstate 105, a spur route of Interstate 5. Oregon Route 126 continues west, a portion shared with Oregon Route 99, and continues west to Florence. Eastward, Oregon Route 126 crosses the Cascades and leads to central and eastern Oregon.
  • Randy Papé Beltline: Beltline is a limited-access freeway which runs along the northern and western edges of incorporated Eugene.
  • Delta Highway: The Delta Highway forms a connector of less than 2 miles (3.2 km) between Interstate 105 and Beltline Highway.
  • Oregon Route 99: Oregon Route 99 forks off Interstate 5 south of Eugene, and forms a major surface artery in Eugene. It continues north into the Willamette valley, parallel to I-5. It is sometimes called the "scenic route" since it has a great view of the Coast Range and also stretches through many scenic farmlands of the Willamette Valley.

Utilities[edit]

Eugene is the home of Oregon's largest publicly owned water and power utility, the Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB). EWEB got its start in the first decade of the 20th century, after an epidemic of typhoid found in the groundwater supply.[140] The City of Eugene condemned Eugene's private water utility and began treating river water (first the Willamette; later the McKenzie) for domestic use. EWEB got into the electric business when power was needed for the water pumps. Excess electricity generated by the EWEB's hydropower plants was used for street lighting.

Natural gas service is provided by NW Natural.

Wastewater treatment services are provided by the Metropolitan Wastewater Management Commission, a partnership between the Cities of Eugene and Springfield and Lane County.

Healthcare[edit]

Three hospitals serve the Eugene-Springfield area. Sacred Heart Medical Center University District is the only one within Eugene city limits. McKenzie-Willamette Medical Center and Sacred Heart Medical Center at RiverBend are in Springfield. Oregon Medical Group, a primary care based multi-specialty group, operates several clinics in Eugene,[141] as does PeaceHealth Medical Group.[142] White Bird Clinic provides a broad range of health and human services, including low-cost clinics.[143][144] The Volunteers in Medicine Clinic provides free medical and mental care to low-income adults without health insurance.[145]

Notable people[edit]

Notable athletes from Eugene include football players such as Todd Christensen, Quintin Mikell, Kailee Wong, Alex Brink,and Chris Miller. Basketball players have included Danny Ainge and Luke Jackson, while runners include Mary Decker, Marla Runyan, Alberto Salazar, and Steve Prefontaine. Decathlete Ashton Eaton competes for the Oregon Track Club Elite team based in Eugene.

Politicians from Eugene include U.S. Senators Wayne Morse and Paul Martin Simon, as well as Congressmen Jim Weaver and Peter DeFazio. Actors of note include Jenny Wade, Howard Hesseman and David Ogden Stiers, while Bryce Zabel chaired the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Author Ken Kesey also called the city home, as did Nike co-founder Phil Knight. Other past residents include Eugene Lazowski who saved 8,000 during World War II,[146][147] New Orleans Saints general manager Mickey Loomis, and astronaut Stanley G. Love,[148] among others. Later in his life L. Ron Hubbard, author and founder of The Church of Scientology, lived in Eugene.[149] Singer-songwriter Mat Kearney is also from Eugene.[150]

Sister cities[edit]

Eugene has four sister cities:[151]

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