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|• Chinese||广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||simplified Chinese: 粤; traditional Chinese: 粵 (pinyin: Yuè, Jyutping: Jyut6, Yale: Yuht)|
|• Yue Jyutping||Gwong2 Dung1 Saang2|
|• Yue Yale||Gwóngdūng Sáang|
|• Hakka Pinyim||Gong3 Dung1 Sen3|
|• Teochew Peng'im||Guang2 Dong1 Sên2|
|Named for||广 guǎng - "Wide"
东 dōng- "East"
Lit. "The Eastern Expanse"
(and largest city)
|Divisions||21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1642 townships|
|• Secretary||Hu Chunhua|
|• Governor||Zhu Xiaodan|
|• Total||179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)|
|• Density||580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||7th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han - 99%
Zhuang - 0.7%
Yao - 0.2%
|• Languages and dialects||Yue, Hakka, Teochew, Leizhou Min, Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-44|
|GDP (2012)||CNY 5.70 trillion
US$ 915.20 billion (1st)
|- per capita||CNY 54,000
US$ 8,682 (8th)
|HDI (2008)||0.844 (high) (4th)|
(Simplified Chinese characters)
|Cantonese Jyutping||gwong2 dung1|
Guangdong (simplified Chinese: 广东; traditional Chinese: 廣東; Mandarin Pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1) is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. Guangdong is also known as Canton or Kwangtung Province in English. It surpassed Henan and Sichuan to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population is 104,303,132 as of 2010 census, accounting for 7.79% of Mainland China's population. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China.
Since 1989 Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2011 reached CNY 5,267 billion, or USD 815.53 billion, making its economy roughly the same size as Netherlands. Furthermore, its 2011 nominal GDP is well over half of India's using 2012 exchange rates. Guangdong has the fourth highest GDP per capita among all provinces of mainland China, after Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Liaoning. The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of multinational and Chinese corporations. Guangdong also hosts the largest Import and Export Fair in China called the Canton Fair in Guangdong's capital city Guangzhou.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Politics
- 7 Media
- 8 Culture
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports
- 11 Tourism
- 12 Administrative divisions
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
"Guang" itself means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. "Guangdong" and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean "expanse east" and "expanse west". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Liangguang (Liangkwang; Chinese: 兩廣; literally "Two Expanses"). During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guangnan Donglu (廣南東路) and Guangnan Xilu (廣南西路), which became abbreviated as Guangdong lu (廣東路) and Guangxi lu (廣西路). The modern abbreviation 粤/粵 (Yue) is a shortened form of Baiyue (百越), a collective name for various peoples that lived in southern China in ancient times.
One should note that "Canton", though etymologically derived from "Cantão" (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries. The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are still commonly referred to as Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.
Chinese administration in the region began with the Qin Dynasty. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. It used to be independent as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han Dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226.
As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong slowly shifted to (Han) Chinese-dominance, especially during several periods of massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and/or nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han Dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between 740s-750s and 800s-810s. As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture, or displaced. From the tenth to twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Guangzhou (Canton), some of them in the tenth century like Mei Zhu in the harem of the Emperor Liu Chang, and in the twelfth century large numbers of Persian women lived there, noted for wearing mulitiple earrings and "quarrelsome dispositions". Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhou's foreign quarter, they were all called "Persian women" (波斯婦 Po-ssu-fu or Bosifu).
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang Dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). "Guangnan East" is the source of "Guangdong".
As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song Dynasty retreated southwards, eventually ending up in today's Guangdong. The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song Dynasty (960-1279).
Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.
In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of foreign incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan to the French.
Guangdong was also the major port of exit for labourers to Southeast Asia and the West in the 19th century, i.e. United States and Canada. As a result, many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong. The Cantonese language therefore has proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than mainland Chinese. Consequently, many Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin come from Cantonese in which borrowing from the original foreign language, for example, the Mandarin word "ningmeng" (檸檬), meaning "Lemon", originated from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as "lìng mung". In the US, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the city of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).
During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.
During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under the central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.
In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.
In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong but it was separated as its own province in 1988.
Guangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of 4,300 km (2,700 mi) of coastline. Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong 1,902 meters above sea level.
Guangdong borders Fujian province to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan province is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. Certain of the Pratas Islands which have traditionally been regarded as part of Guangdong Province are administered by the Government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Kaiping, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Xinhui, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.
Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18 °C (64 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F) respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.
The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be comparable to that of many countries. in 2012, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $904.05 billion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 10.99 percent of the China' $8.23 trillion GDP. Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of Indonesia ranking 16th in terms of US dollar or Purchasing Power Parity. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 6 country subdivisions England, California, Texas, New York and Tokyo.
|Year||Gross domestic product|
After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.
Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.
Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well.
The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China, the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB. By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50% of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20%.
In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan respectively. Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965). Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output. Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.
In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion.
Economic and technological development zones
- Foshan National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Guangzhou Development District
- Guangzhou Export Processing Zone
- Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
- Guangzhou Nansha Economic and Technical Development Zone
- Guangzhou Nanhu Lake Tourist Holiday Resort (Chinese Version)
- Guangzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Huizhou Dayawan Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Huizhou Export Processing Zone
- Huizhou Zhongkai Hi-Tech Development Zone
- Shantou Free Trade Zone
- Shatoujiao Free Trade Zone
- Shenzhen Export Processing Zone
- Shenzhen Futian Free Trade Zone
- Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park
- Yantian Port Free Trade Zone
- Zhanjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese Version)
- Zhuhai National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Zhuhai Free Trade Zone
- Zhongshan Torch High-tech Industrial Development Zone
Guangdong officially became the most populous province in January 2005. Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th most populous province of China with about 80 million people (also, Sichuan, traditionally the most populous province, was divided into Sichuan and Chongqing in 1997) but recently released information suggests that there are an additional 30 million migrants who reside in Guangdong for at least six months every year, making it the most populous province with a population of more than 110 million. The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor.
Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later. Emigration in recent years has slowed with economic prosperity, but this province is still a major source of immigrants to North America and elsewhere in the world.
The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.
Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1-4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls.
Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The premier is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Party Secretary keeps things in check.
Relations with Hong Kong and Macau
Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government. Many peoples of Guangzhog want an independent state of Guangdong with the union of Hong Kong and Macau.
Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area is served by several Radio Guangdong stations and Guangdong TV. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.
The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Cantonese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance somewhat. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.
The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, alongside with Hailufeng people in Shanwei, speak Teochew, which is a Min dialect closely related to Min-nan and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also very famous with a unique form.
The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).
Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is populated by Hai'nan dialect (or Leizhou dialect as referred locally) speakers, Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.
Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local dialects are non-Yue ones.
Colleges and universities
- Jinan University (Trad.:暨南大學, Simp.:暨南大学)(Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen)
- Sun Yat-sen University (Trad.:中山大學, Simp.:中山大学)(Guangzhou, Zhuhai)
- Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (Trad.:廣東外語外貿大學, Simp.:广东外语外贸大学)(since 1965)(Guangzhou)
- Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
- South China Agricultural University (Trad.:華南農業大學, Simp.:华南农业大学) (founded 1909) (Guangzhou)
- South China University of Technology (Trad.:華南理工大學, Simp.:华南理工大学)
- Dongguan Institute of Technology
- Dongguan University of Technology (Dongguan)
- Foshan University (Guangzhou, Foshan)
- Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts (Trad.:廣州美術學院, Simp.:广州美术学院)
- Guangdong Ocean University (Trad.:廣東海洋大學, Simp.:广东海洋大学)
- Guangdong University of Business Studies (Trad.:廣東商學院, Simp.:广东商学院, 2013年更名为广东财经大学)
- Guangdong Institute of Science and Technology (Trad.:廣東省科技幹部學院, Simp.:广东省科技干部学院)
- Guangzhou Medical College (Trad.:廣州醫學院, Simp.:广州医学院)
- Guangzhou Normal University
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University (Trad.:廣東藥學院, Simp.:广东药学院)
- Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University (Trad.:廣東技術師范學院, Simp.:广东技术师范学院)
- Guangzhou Sports University (Trad.:廣州體育學院, Simp.:广州体育学院)
- Guangdong University of Technology (廣東工業大學, Simp.:广东工业大学)
- Guangzhou University (Trad.:廣州大學, Simp.:广州大学)
- Hanshan Teachers College
- Huizhou University
- Guangdong Education and Research Network
- Guangzhou Education College
- Guangdong Institute of Education
- Guangdong Medical College
- Guangdong General Hospital
- Guangdong Petrochemical Academy
- Guangdong Radio & TV. University
- Panyu Polytechnic
- Shaoguan University
- Shenzhen Party School
- Shantou University (Shantou)
- Shenzhen University (Shenzhen)
- Shenzhen Polytechnic
- Shunde University (Shunde)
- South China Normal University (Trad.:華南師范大學, Simp.:华南师范大学)
- Southern Medical University
- Xijiang University
- Xinghai Conservatory of Music (Trad.:星海音樂學院, Simp.:星海音乐学院)
- Zhanjiang Normal University
- Zhaoqing University (Trad.:肇慶大學, Simp.:肇庆大学)
- Zhongkai Agrotechnical College (Trad.:仲愷農業技術學院, Simp.:仲恺农业技术学院) (founded 1927)
- Wuyi University (Trad.:五邑大學, Simp.:五邑大学)
|— Sub-provincial city —|
|— Prefecture-level city —|
The above division govern, in total, 49 districts, 30 county-level cities, 42 counties, and three autonomous counties. For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.
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- Economic data
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guangdong.|
|Look up guangdong in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Guangdong travel guide from Wikivoyage
- (Chinese) Guangdong provincial government official website
- (English) (Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
- (English) Pictures and comments about life in Guangdong
|Guangxi||Taiwan Strait / Taiwan (Republic of China)|
|Macau, Hong Kong||South China Sea|