List of Internet top-level domains

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This is a list of Internet top-level domains (TLDs). A top-level domain is a domain name in the Domain Name System that is a direct subdomain of the DNS root zone. The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1] In an initiative to expand the domain name space, IANA is considering approval of several proposed top-level domains. As of October 2014, there are 735 active top-level domains and a handful of retired ones which are no longer functional.

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and pre-date the creation of ICANN in 1998.[2]

Name Entity Administrator[3] Notes IDN DNSSEC
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes
.net network Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes
.int international organizations Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, there are a few grandfathered domain names that do not meet these criteria. No No
.edu U.S. higher education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific educational institutions such as, but not limited to, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities. In the US, its usability was limited in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies maintained by the United States Department of Education. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes
.gov U.S. national and state government agencies General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the U.S. No Yes
.mil U.S. military United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa "Address and Routing Parameter Area" Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

Note: the country code domain system was created in the early days of the Domain Name System, and pre-dates ICANN.

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island   Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official British academic domain .ac.uk. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra   Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required [4][5]   Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates       No Yes
.af  Afghanistan       Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda   Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a legal entity form similar to a corporation limited by shares)   Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla       No Yes
.al  Albania   Citizenship no longer required   No No
.am  Armenia   Also unofficially used by AM radio stations or related business   Yes Yes
.an  Netherlands Antilles Local presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010.   No Yes
.ao  Angola       No Unknown
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica.   No Yes
.ar  Argentina     Spanish[cctld 1] No No
.as  American Samoa     Yes No Yes
.at  Austria       Yes Yes
.au  Australia   Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and most have a minimum 2 year registration period.[6] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands.   Yes No
.aw  Aruba Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens   Yes Yes
.ax  Åland   Restricted to registered Åland companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.az  Azerbaijan       No Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina     No Yes
.bb  Barbados       No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh       No No
.be  Belgium   Also unofficially used in the canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[7] Yes Yes
.bf  Burkina Faso       No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria     Russian and Bulgarian[7] Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain       No Yes
.bi  Burundi       No Yes
.bj  Benin       No Yes
.bm  Bermuda   Local corporate registration required   No Yes
.bn  Brunei       No No
.bo  Bolivia       No Yes
.bq  Bonaire   Not yet assigned as of 25 Nov 2014  
.br  Brazil   Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[8] Yes[9] Yes No[cctld 2]
.bs  Bahamas       No Yes
.bt  Bhutan       No No
.bv  Bouvet Island   Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no). No No No
.bw  Botswana       No Yes
.by  Belarus Byelorussia also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany   Yes Yes
.bz  Belize       Yes Yes
.ca  Canada   Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. French[cctld 3] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands   Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain.   Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic       No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica (Latin)   Yes[cctld 4] Yes Yes
.ci  Côte d'Ivoire       No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands       No Yes
.cl  Chile     Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon   A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name.   No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China   A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.   Yes Yes
.co  Colombia   Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register.   Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica       Yes Yes
.cs  Czechoslovakia
 Serbia and Montenegro
This ccTLD was deleted around January 1995.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead.
Serbia and Montenegro split in 2006, with Serbia assigned .rs and Montenegro .me
 
.cu  Cuba       No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde       No Yes
.cw  Curaçao Curaçao, West Indies     No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island       Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus       No No
.cz  Czech Republic     No[cctld 5] Yes Yes
.dd  East Germany Deutsche Demokratische Republik Was proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification.  
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[cctld 6] Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti       No Yes
.dk  Denmark     Yes[cctld 7] Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica       No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic       No Yes
.dz  Algeria al-Djaza'er     No Yes
.ec  Ecuador       No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Anyone can register but local administrative contact is required. Yes[cctld 8] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt       No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara Sáhara español .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.  
.er  Eritrea   Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains.   No No
.es  Spain España     No Yes
.et  Ethiopia       No No
.eu  European Union   Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[cctld 9] Yes Yes
.fi  Finland   Restricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland. Yes[cctld 10] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji       No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands       No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia   Also unofficially used by FM radio stations or related business   No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands Føroyar     Yes Yes
.fr  France   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon       No Yes
.gb  United Kingdom Great Britain Deprecated.[11] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk.   No No
.gd  Grenada       Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia   Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[12] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana Guyane française   No  
.gg  Guernsey       No Yes
.gh  Ghana       No No
.gi  Gibraltar       Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland   Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014   Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia       No Yes
.gn  Guinea   A local contact is required   Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe   Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin   No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale     No  
.gr  Greece     Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands       Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala     Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam       No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau       No Yes
.gy  Guyana       No Yes
.hk  Hong Kong   Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes No Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands       No Yes
.hn  Honduras       Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska     Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti     Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary   citizens of EU or entity established by virtue of law in the territory of EU   No Yes
.id  Indonesia   Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[13] Yes Partial[14] Yes
.ie  Ireland   In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[15][16] No No Yes
.il  Israel     Yes No No
.im  Isle of Man       No Yes
.in  India   Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in).   Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory   Used unofficially by technology companies/startups/web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output which is useful for domain hacks.   Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq       Partial[14] Yes
.ir  Iran     Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland   Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy   Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[cctld 14] No Yes
.je  Jersey       No Yes
.jm  Jamaica       No No
.jo  Jordan       No Yes
.jp  Japan   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan.   Yes Yes
.ke  Kenya       Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan       Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer, former Kâmpŭchea     No No
.ki  Kiribati       Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori     No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis       No Yes
.kp  Democratic People's Republic of Korea       No No
.kr  Republic of Korea     Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait       No No
.ky  Cayman Islands   Restricted to qualified Cayman entities[17]   No Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan       No Yes
.la  Laos   Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[18]   Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon   Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon   Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia       Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein   Also used by Long Island Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka     Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia       Partial[14] No
.ls  Lesotho       No No
.lt  Lithuania     Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg     Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia     Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya       No Yes
.ma  Morocco Maroc Also used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma   Partial[14] Yes
.mc  Monaco   Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco   No Yes
.md  Moldova   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova.   No Yes
.me  Montenegro       Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar       No Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands       No  
.mk  Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in Macedonia   No Yes
.ml  Mali       No Yes
.mm  Myanmar       Yes No
.mn  Mongolia   The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information.   Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[19]   No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands       No Yes
.mq  Martinique     No No
.mr  Mauritania       No Yes
.ms  Montserrat       No Yes
.mt  Malta       No No
.mu  Mauritius       No Yes
.mv  Maldives       No Yes
.mw  Malawi       No Yes
.mx  Mexico       No Yes
.my  Malaysia   Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[cctld 15] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique       No No
.na  Namibia       Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia   Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months.   Yes Yes
.ne  Niger       No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island       Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria       No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua       No No
.nl  Netherlands Nederland First official country code TLD.[20] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway   Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes No Yes
.np    Nepal   All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses.   No No
.nr  Nauru   Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.   No Yes
.nu  Niue   Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand     Māori[cctld 16] Yes Yes[21]
.om  Oman   Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact.   No No
.pa  Panama       No No
.pe  Peru     Yes[cctld 17] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia Polynésie française With Clipperton Island   No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea       No No
.ph  Philippines       No Yes
.pk  Pakistan   Operated by PKNIC since 1992   No Yes
.pl  Poland     Yes[cctld 18] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands       No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico       Yes Yes
.ps  State of Palestine[22]   West Bank and Gaza Strip.   No Yes
.pt  Portugal     Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[23]
.pw  Palau Pelew     Yes Yes
.py  Paraguay       No No
.qa  Qatar       No No
.re  Réunion   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania       No Yes
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija     No Yes
.ru  Russia   See also .su, still in use, and .рф.   Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda       No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia   Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[24]   No Yes
.sb  Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands     Yes No
.sc  Seychelles       Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan       No Yes
.se  Sweden     Yes[cctld 19] Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore       No Yes
.sh  Saint Helena     Yes[cctld 20] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia   Yes[cctld 21] Yes Yes
.sj  Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen Islands
  Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no). No Yes[25] No
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone       No Yes
.sm  San Marino   Domain name must be same as company name or trademark   No Yes
.sn  Senegal       No Yes
.so  Somalia   Relaunched on November 1, 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname       No Yes
.ss  South Sudan   Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013  
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe       No Yes
.su  Soviet Union   Still in use. Yes[cctld 22] Yes Yes
.sv  El Salvador       No No
.sx  Sint Maarten       Yes No
.sy  Syria       No Yes
.sz  Swaziland   Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses.   No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands   .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is TC.   No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only.   No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo       No Yes
.th  Thailand     Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan       No Yes
.tk  Tokelau   Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch.   No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan     Yes[cctld 23] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia       Yes Yes
.to  Tonga   Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tp  East Timor Timor Português ISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tr  Turkey   .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[cctld 24] No Yes
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago       Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu   Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company.   Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan   Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan, Republic of China."[26] Yes[cctld 25] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania   Must have a presence in Tanzania   Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Україна/Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required   Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda       Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom   The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[11]   Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Formerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD   Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay   2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[27]   No Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan       No Yes
.va   Vatican City Vaticano Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State)   No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines       Partial[14] Yes
.ve  Venezuela       No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vn  Vietnam     Yes[cctld 26] No Yes
.vu  Vanuatu       No Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Formerly Western Samoa Marketed to be used in general WebSites Yes No Yes
.ye  Yemen       No No
.yt  Mayotte   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 11] Yes[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.yu  SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
  After renaming of FR Yugoslavia, used for the  State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. .cs was assigned for the State union, but never used. .yu has not been used after dissolution of the State Union in 2010.  
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika     No No
.zm  Zambia       No Yes[cctld 27]
.zr  Zaire   Zaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.
.zr was removed in 2001
 
.zw  Zimbabwe       No No

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (November 17, 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  3. ^ "About Internationalized Domain Names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  5. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[10]
  6. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  7. ^ (January 1, 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details
  8. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from June 13, 2011 [1]
  9. ^ Supported characters (latin, greek, cyrillic): see details
  10. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (latin): see details
  11. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details
  14. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  15. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  16. ^ details http://www.dnc.org.nz/story/faq-domain-names-macrons-idns details. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ (8 December 2007): see details
  18. ^ details http://www.dns.pl/IDN/idn_intro_eng.html details. Retrieved 11 September 2003.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  20. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  21. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  22. ^ (28 April 2008) see details
  23. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  24. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  25. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  26. ^ "TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  27. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  Algeria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Jaza'ir .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hye Not delegated .am No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla Not delegated .bd No
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel Not delegated .by No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Masr [28] .eg No
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE Not in use .ge No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 / Xiānggǎng .hk No
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 Aug 2014 [29] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Bhārat Not in use .in No
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārata Not in use .in No
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Not in use .in No
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Pā̀rat Not in use .in No
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Not in use .in No
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Not in use .in No
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Persian Arabic (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b عراق.  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Iraq Not delegated .iq No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al 'Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--d1alf .мкд  Macedonia (F.Y.R.o.) Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd Not in use .mk
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysia .my Yes
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Maghrib .ma No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Oman Not in use .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Pakistan Not delegated .pk No
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  State of Palestine Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filastīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qatar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Sa'ūdiyyah .sa No
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbo-Croatian (Serbian) Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg No
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg No
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhala Sinhala Lanka .lk Partial[14]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilangai .lk Partial[14]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sudan Not delegated .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl سورية.  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūryā .sy No
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn No
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al Yemen Not delegated .ye No

Source:[30]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

English[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.academy academic institutes Donuts[donuts 1] Yes Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Donuts[donuts 2] Yes Yes
.active Unknown The Active Network Unknown Yes
.actor actors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. SITA No No
.agency business associations Donuts[donuts 3] Yes Yes
.airforce defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.archi architects and architect firms[31] Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[32] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.army defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.associates business associations Donuts[donuts 4] Yes Yes
.attorney attorneys and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.auction Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.autos DERAutos Unknown Yes
.band Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.bargains coupons and online sellers Donuts[donuts 5] Yes Yes
.beer beer Minds + Machines[n 2] Unknown Yes
.best BestTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.bid auctions dot Bid Limited Yes Yes
.bike bicycles Donuts[donuts 6] French, Spanish[34] Yes
.bio biodiversity, biographies May require compliance with organic agriculture principles.[35] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.biz business Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. NeuStar Yes[7] Yes
.black those who like black[36] Afilias Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.blue those who like blue[37] Afilias Yes Yes
.boo Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.boutique specialized businesses Donuts[donuts 7] Yes Yes
.build construction industry [38] Yes Yes
.builders construction workers Donuts[donuts 8] Yes Yes
.business businesses Donuts[donuts 9] Yes Yes
.buzz marketing and social networking DOTSTRATEGY Yes Yes
.cab cabs and taxi companies Donuts[donuts 10] Yes Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Donuts[donuts 11] Yes Yes
.camp camps and camping Donuts[donuts 12] Yes Yes
.cancerresearch Unknown Australian Cancer Research Foundation Unknown Yes
.capital financial firms Donuts[donuts 13] Yes Yes
.cards general Donuts[donuts 14] Yes Yes
.care healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 15] Yes Yes
.career dotCareer LLC Yes Yes
.careers Employment Donuts[donuts 16] Yes Yes
.cash financial Donuts[donuts 17] Yes Yes
.catering Food service Donuts[donuts 18] Yes Yes
.center general Donuts[donuts 19] Yes Yes
.ceo CEOs [39] CEOTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.channel Unknown Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.cheap Resellers Donuts[donuts 20] Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.church churches Donuts[donuts 21] Yes Yes
.city general Donuts[donuts 22] Yes Yes
.claims retail, auctions Donuts[donuts 23] Yes Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Donuts[donuts 24] Yes Yes
.click Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Donuts[donuts 25] Yes Yes
.clothing Apparel Donuts[donuts 26] Yes Yes
.club groups, organizations, assemblies [40] .CLUB DOMAINS Spanish[7] Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Donuts[donuts 27] Yes Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Donuts[donuts 28] Yes Yes
.college Educational XYZ.COM Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Donuts[donuts 29] Yes Yes
.company business associations Donuts[donuts 30] Yes Yes
.computer Technology Donuts[donuts 31] Yes Yes
.condos Real estate Donuts[donuts 32] Yes Yes
.construction Construction industry Donuts[donuts 33] Yes Yes
.consulting hired advisors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Donuts[donuts 34] Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.cool General interests Donuts[donuts 35] Yes Yes
.country general Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.credit Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 36] Yes Yes
.creditcard Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 37] Yes Yes
.cricket Cricket dot Cricket Unknown Yes
.cruises Cruise businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 38] Yes Yes
.dad Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.dating Online dating Donuts[donuts 39] Yes Yes
.day Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.deals online shopping and couponing Donuts[donuts 40] Yes Yes
.degree Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.delivery Donuts[donuts 41] Unknown Yes
.democrat Democratic Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.dental dentists Donuts[donuts 42] Yes Yes
.dentist Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Donuts[donuts 43] Yes Yes
.diet Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.digital general Donuts[donuts 44] Yes Yes
.direct general Donuts[donuts 45] Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Donuts[donuts 46] Yes Yes
.discount general Donuts[donuts 47] Yes Yes
.domains domain registries Donuts[donuts 48] Yes Yes
.eat Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.education educational institutes Donuts[donuts 49] Yes Yes
.email Email Donuts[donuts 50] Yes Yes
.energy Donuts[donuts 51] Yes Yes
.engineer engineers and engineering firms Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.engineering engineering firms Donuts[donuts 52] Yes Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Donuts[donuts 53] Yes Yes
.esq lawyers, law firms, legal professionals To be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[41] Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.estate real estate businesses Donuts[donuts 54] Yes Yes
.events happenings Donuts[donuts 55] Yes Yes
.exchange generic trade Donuts[donuts 56] Yes Yes
.expert generic expertise Donuts[donuts 57] Yes Yes
.exposed general interest Donuts[donuts 58] Yes Yes
.fail general Donuts[donuts 59] Yes Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Donuts[donuts 60] Yes Yes
.feedback Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.finance financial Donuts[donuts 61] Yes Yes
.financial financial Donuts[donuts 62] Yes Yes
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Donuts[donuts 63] Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.fitness Fitness and exercise Donuts[donuts 64] Yes Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 65] Yes Yes
.florist florists Donuts[donuts 66] Yes Yes
.fly travel To be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[42] Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.foo web development [43] Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.forsale Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.foundation charitable organizations Donuts[donuts 67] Yes Yes
.fund financial Donuts[donuts 68] Yes Yes
.furniture furniture businesses Donuts[donuts 69] Yes Yes
.futbol soccer Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.gallery photo and art galleries Donuts[donuts 70] Yes Yes
.gift gift-giving Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.gifts gift-giving Donuts[donuts 71] Yes Yes
.gives Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.glass Windows and pipes Donuts[donuts 72] Yes Yes
.global general Dot GLOBAL Yes Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Republican State Leadership Committee Spanish[44] Yes
.graphics Graphics Donuts[donuts 73] Yes Yes
.green The environmentally-focused "As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way which negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[45] Afilias Unknown Yes
.gripe Opinion sites Donuts[donuts 74] Yes Yes
.guide Help sites Donuts[donuts 75] Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.guru Generic expertise Donuts[donuts 76] French, Spanish[46] Yes
.healthcare healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 77] Unknown Yes
.help Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.here Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV dotHIV Unknown Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Donuts[donuts 78] Yes Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Donuts[donuts 79] Yes Yes
.homes DERHomes Unknown Yes
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.host network companies DotHost Unknown Yes
.hosting Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.house real estate and construction businesses Donuts[donuts 80] Yes Yes
.how Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.info information Afilias Yes Yes
.ing Verbal suffix: e.g. "jump.ing". Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[47] Top Level Design Yes Yes
.insure Insurance companies Donuts[donuts 81] Yes Yes
.international international entities Donuts[donuts 82] Yes Yes
.investments financial Donuts[donuts 83] Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[48] Employ Media No No
.kim people named Kim
Kim is a common first name in the US and is also the most common Korean surname.
Afilias Unknown Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Donuts[donuts 84] Yes Yes
.land real estate Donuts[donuts 85] Yes Yes
.lawyer lawyers and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.lease financing Donuts[donuts 86] Yes Yes
.lgbt the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgender community Afilias Unknown Yes
.life general Donuts[donuts 87] Yes Yes
.lighting lighting Donuts[donuts 88] Yes Yes
.limited general Donuts[donuts 89] Yes Yes
.limo limousine businesses Donuts[donuts 90] Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[49] Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.loans Banks and lenders Donuts[donuts 91] Yes Yes
.lotto Afilias Unknown Yes
.luxe Minds + Machines[n 2] Unknown Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Luxury Partners Yes Yes
.management business management Donuts[donuts 92] Yes Yes
.market marketing services and retailers Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.marketing marketing services Donuts[donuts 93] Yes Yes
.media general media interests Donuts[donuts 94] Yes Yes
.meet Afilias Unknown Yes
.meme Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.menu restaurants Wedding TLD2 Yes Yes
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Afilias Yes No
.moe Japanese otaku culture
The word "moe" (Japanese: 萌え?, pronounced as "moh-ay") is a slang word rooted deep in the Japanese Otaku culture. It has often been used to mean a particular type of "adorable" or "cute" towards fictional characters, people, animals, etc.[50]
Interlink Yes Yes
.mortgage mortgage lenders Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.motorcycles DERMotorcycles Unknown Yes
.mov Digital video Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Museum Domain Management Association Latin script[7] Yes
.name individuals, by name Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Verisign Yes[7] Yes
.navy defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.network general Donuts[donuts 95] Yes Yes
.new Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.ngo Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.ninja general expertise Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.ong Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.onl short for "online" I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.ooo general Infibeam No Yes
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[51] Afilias Unknown Yes
.partners businesses Donuts[donuts 96] Yes Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Donuts[donuts 97] Yes Yes
.party Blue Sky Registry Unknown Yes
.pharmacy pharmacies "All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[52] National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Unknown Yes
.photo photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 98] Yes Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 99] Yes Yes
.physio physical therapists Must be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[53][54] PhysBiz Unknown Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 100] Yes Yes
.pink those who like pink Afilias Yes Yes
.pizza pizza parlors Donuts[donuts 101] Yes Yes
.place general Donuts[donuts 102] Unknown Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Donuts[donuts 103] Yes Yes
.poker Afilias[n 4] Unknown Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[55] Universal Postal Union No[56] Yes
.press publishing and journalism DotPress Unknown Yes
.pro professions Currently, .pro is reserved for licensed or certified professionals worldwide. A professional seeking to register a .pro domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate credentials. Registry Services Corporation No No
.productions studio/art businesses Donuts[donuts 104] Yes Yes
.prof Professors, teachers and learning Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.properties real estate Donuts[donuts 105] Yes Yes
.property real estate Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.qpon coupons dotCOOL Unknown Yes
.recipes recipes and cooking Donuts[donuts 106] Yes Yes
.red those who like red[57]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Afilias Yes Yes
.rehab Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.ren Renren users Restricted TLD[58] Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co. Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Donuts[donuts 107] Yes Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Donuts[donuts 108] Yes Yes
.report business services Donuts[donuts 109] Yes Yes
.republican Republican Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.reviews Public reviews Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.rip Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rocks general Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.rsvp Invitations and replies Google[n 3] Unknown Yes
.science dot Science Unknown Yes
.services business services Donuts[donuts 110] Yes Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.shoes shoes Donuts[donuts 111] Yes Yes
.singles online dating Donuts[donuts 112] Yes Yes
.social general interest Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.software Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.solar solar-power Donuts[donuts 113] Yes Yes
.solutions business services Donuts[donuts 114] Yes Yes
.space space DotSpace Unknown Yes
.supplies manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 115] Yes Yes
.supply manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 116] Yes Yes
.support help pages Donuts[donuts 117] French, Spanish[59] Yes
.surf Surfing Minds + Machines[n 2] Unknown Yes
.surgery healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 118] Yes Yes
.systems technology Donuts[donuts 119] Yes Yes
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.tax financial Yes Yes
.technology technology Yes Yes
.tel Internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[60] No
.tips general help topics Yes Yes
.today general Yes Yes
.tools manufacturing industries Yes Yes
.top Jiangsu Bangning Unknown Yes
.town generic geographic Yes Yes
.toys toy businesses Yes Yes
.trade businesses Yes Yes
.training training and how-tos Yes Yes
.travel travel and tourism industry related sites Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No No
.university young adults, university life Yes Yes
.vacations travel Yes Yes
.vet veterans and veterinarians Yes Yes
.villas real estate and/or travel businesses Yes Yes
.vision eye-care businesses Yes Yes
.vodka Vodka-related businesses and interest Yes Yes
.voting polling sites Latin and Cyrillic scripts Yes
.voyage travel Yes Yes
.wang general
Wǎng is a pinyin of 网 (web).[61]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Yes[62] Yes
.watch Watches Yes Yes
.webcam Web cam shows and video sharing Yes Yes
.website generic Unknown Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[63]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[64]
No Yes
.wiki wikis
"An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation"
Yes Yes
.works general Yes Yes
.world general Yes Yes
.wtf general Yes Yes
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes No
.xyz general Yes[65] Yes
.zone general Yes Yes

French[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.maison "house" Donuts[donuts 120] Yes Yes

Spanish[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.abogado "lawyer" To be restricted to licensed lawyers or law firms.[66] Minds + Machines[n 2] Unknown Yes
.casa "house" Minds + Machines[n 2] Yes Yes
.gratis "free" Donuts[donuts 121] Yes Yes
.juegos "games" Uniregistry Yes[33] Yes
.soy "I am"
Also refers to the soybean and its food derivatives
Google[n 3] Latin script, Japanese[67] Yes
.tienda "shop", "store" Spanish Yes
.uno "one", for websites targeting Latino consumers Spanish Yes
.viajes "travel" Spanish Yes

German[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.haus "house" Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.immobilien "real estate" Rightside Group[n 1] German[7] Yes
.jetzt "now" New TLD Company Yes Yes
.kaufen "buy" Rightside Group[n 1] German[7] Yes
.reise "travel" Must be an eligible member of the travel business community; also, domain must be used for travel-related purposes.[68] dotreise Latin script[7] Yes
.reisen "traveling" Donuts[donuts 122] German[7] Yes
.schule "school" Donuts[donuts 123] Unknown Yes
.versicherung "insurance" Latin script[7] Yes

Hindi/Hindustani[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.desi Hindustani for the peoples and cultures of South Asia
See also Desi
Desi Networks Unknown Yes
.shiksha Hindi for "education". Afilias Unknown Yes

Translingual[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.immo French and German abbreviation for "real estate" Donuts[donuts 124] Yes Yes
.moda Italian and Spanish for "fashion" Rightside Group[n 1] Spanish[7] Yes

Corporate Identifiers[edit]

Name Entity Type Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.bar bars and pubs Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable Yes Yes
.coop Cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. DotCooperation No No
.enterprises business associations Donuts[donuts 125] Yes Yes
.industries industrial businesses Donuts[donuts 126] Yes Yes
.institute Established business associations Donuts[donuts 127] Yes Yes
.ltda companies in South America Domains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Columbia, Chile, and Ecuador.[69] InterNetX Unknown Yes
.pub bars and pubs Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.realtor realtors To be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[70] Real Estate Domains Unknown Yes
.reit Real-estate investment trusts Restricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[71] National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Unknown Yes
.rest restaurants Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable Yes[72] Yes
.restaurant restaurants Donuts[donuts 128] Yes Yes
.sarl Société à responsabilité limitée, Francophone Limited liability company Donuts[donuts 129] Yes Yes
.ventures funding for start-ups Yes Yes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Domain registry is operated by United TLD Holdco Ltd. t/a Rightside Registry, a subsidiary of the Rightside Group.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j A subsidiary of Minds + Machines Group (formerly Top Level Domain Holdings.)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Operated by Charleston Road Registry, Inc., a subsidiary of Google. See [2].
  4. ^ Operating as Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited.
  1. ^ Operating as Half Oaks, LLC.
  2. ^ Operating as Knob Town, LLC.
  3. ^ Operating as Steel Falls, LLC.
  4. ^ Operating as Baxter Hill, LLC.
  5. ^ Operating as Half Hallow, LLC.
  6. ^ Operating as Grand Hollow, LLC.
  7. ^ Operating as Over Galley, LLC.
  8. ^ Operating as Atomic Madison, LLC.
  9. ^ Operating as Spring Cross, LLC.
  10. ^ Operating as Half Sunset, LLC.
  11. ^ Operating as Atomic Maple, LLC.
  12. ^ Operating as Delta Dynamite, LLC.
  13. ^ Operating as Delta Mill, LLC.
  14. ^ Operating as Foggy Hollow, LLC.
  15. ^ Operating as Goose Cross, LLC.
  16. ^ Operating as Wild Corner, LLC.
  17. ^ Operating as Delta Lake, LLC.
  18. ^ Operating as New Falls, LLC.
  19. ^ Operating as Tin Mill, LLC.
  20. ^ Operating as Sand Cover, LLC.
  21. ^ Operating as Holly Fields, LLC.
  22. ^ Operating as Snow Sky, LLC.
  23. ^ Operating as Black Corner, LLC.
  24. ^ Operating as Fox Shadow, LLC.
  25. ^ Operating as Goose Park, LLC.
  26. ^ Operating as Steel Lake, LLC.
  27. ^ Operating as Puff Willow, LLC.
  28. ^ Operating as Trixy Cover, LLC.
  29. ^ Operating as Fox Orchard, LLC.
  30. ^ Operating as Silver Avenue, LLC.
  31. ^ Operating as Pine Mill, LLC.
  32. ^ Operating as Pine House, LLC.
  33. ^ Operating as Fox Dynamite, LLC.
  34. ^ Operating as Magic Woods, LLC.
  35. ^ Operating as Koko Lake, LLC.
  36. ^ Operating as Snow Shadow, LLC.
  37. ^ Operating as Binky Frostbite, LLC.
  38. ^ Operating as Spring Way, LLC.
  39. ^ Operating as Pine Fest, LLC.
  40. ^ Operating as Sand Sunset, LLC.
  41. ^ Operating as Steel Station, LLC.
  42. ^ Operating as Tin Birch, LLC.
  43. ^ Operating as John Edge, LLC.
  44. ^ Operating as Dash Park, LLC.
  45. ^ Operating as Half Trail, LLC.
  46. ^ Operating as Extra Madison, LLC.
  47. ^ Operating as Holly Hill, LLC.
  48. ^ Operating as Sugar Cross, LLC.
  49. ^ Operating as Brice Way, LLC.
  50. ^ Operating as Spring Madison, LLC.
  51. ^ Operating as Binky Birch, LLC.
  52. ^ Operating as Romeo Canyon.
  53. ^ Operating as Corn Station, LLC.
  54. ^ Operating as Trixy Park, LLC.
  55. ^ Operating as Pioneer Maple, LLC.
  56. ^ Operating as Spring Falls, LLC.
  57. ^ Operating as Magic Pass, LLC.
  58. ^ Operating as Victor Beach, LLC.
  59. ^ Operating as Atomic Pipe, LLC.
  60. ^ Operating as Just Maple, LLC.
  61. ^ Operating as Cotton Cypress, LLC.
  62. ^ Operating as Just Cover, LLC.
  63. ^ Operating as Fox Woods, LLC.
  64. ^ Operating as Brice Orchard, LLC.
  65. ^ Operating as Fox Station, LLC.
  66. ^ Operating as Half Cypress, LLC.
  67. ^ Operating as John Dale, LLC.
  68. ^ Operating as John Castle, LLC.
  69. ^ Operating as Lone Fields, LLC.
  70. ^ Operating as Sugar House, LLC.
  71. ^ Operating as Goose Sky, LLC.
  72. ^ Operating as Black Cover, LLC.
  73. ^ Operating as Over Madison, LLC.
  74. ^ Operating as Corn Sunset, LLC.
  75. ^ Operating as Snow Moon, LLC.
  76. ^ Operating as Pioneer Cypress, LLC.
  77. ^ Operating as Silver Glen, LLC.
  78. ^ Operating as John Madison, LLC.
  79. ^ Operating as Goose Woods, LLC.
  80. ^ Operating as Sugar Park, LLC.
  81. ^ Operating as Pioneer Willow, LLC.
  82. ^ Operating as Wild Way, LLC.
  83. ^ Operating as Holly Glen, LLC.
  84. ^ Operating as Just Goodbye, LLC.
  85. ^ Operating as Pine Moon, LLC.
  86. ^ Operating as Victor Trail, LLC.
  87. ^ Operating as Trixy Oaks, LLC.
  88. ^ Operating as John McCook, LLC.
  89. ^ Operating as Big Fest, LLC.
  90. ^ Operating as Hidden Frostbite, LLC.
  91. ^ Operating as June Woods, LLC.
  92. ^ Operating as John Goodbye, LLC.
  93. ^ Operating as Fern Pass, LLC.
  94. ^ Operating as Grand Glen, LLC.
  95. ^ Operating as Trixy Manor, LLC.
  96. ^ Operating as Magic Glen, LLC.
  97. ^ Operating as Sea Goodbye, LLC.
  98. ^ Operating as Sugar Glen, LLC.
  99. ^ Operating as Sea Corner, LLC.
  100. ^ Operating as Foggy Sky, LLC.
  101. ^ Operating as Foggy Moon, LLC.
  102. ^ Operating as Snow Galley, LLC.
  103. ^ Operating as Spring Tigers, LLC.
  104. ^ Operating as Magic Birch, LLC.
  105. ^ Operating as Big Pass, LLC.
  106. ^ Operating as Grand Island, LLC.
  107. ^ Operating as Big Hollow, LLC.
  108. ^ Operating as Lone Sunset, LLC.
  109. ^ Operating as Binky Glen, LLC.
  110. ^ Operating as Fox Castle, LLC.
  111. ^ Operating as Binky Galley, LLC.
  112. ^ Operating as Fern Madison, LLC.
  113. ^ Operating as Ruby Town, LLC.
  114. ^ Operating as Silver Cover, LLC.
  115. ^ Operating as Atomic Fields, LLC.
  116. ^ Operating as Half Falls, LLC.
  117. ^ Operating as Grand Orchard, LLC.
  118. ^ Operating as Tin Avenue, LLC.
  119. ^ Operating as Dash Cypress, LLC.
  120. ^ Operating as Victor Frostbite, LLC.
  121. ^ Operating as Pioneer Tigers, LLC.
  122. ^ Operating as New Cypress, LLC.
  123. ^ Operating as Outer Moon, LLC.
  124. ^ Operating as Auburn Bloom, LLC.
  125. ^ Operating as Snow Oaks, LLC.
  126. ^ Operating as Outer House, LLC.
  127. ^ Operating as Outer Maple, LLC.
  128. ^ Operating as Snow Avenue, LLC.
  129. ^ Operating as Delta Orchard, LLC.

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and will allow second-level IDNs.

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--ngbc5azd[73] شبكة. Arabic Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--mgbab2bd[73] بازار. Persian Arabic bâzâr "market" or "bazaar" Open TLD Yes
xn--q9jyb4c[73] .みんな Japanese Japanese (Hiragana) minna "everyone" Open TLD [74] Yes
xn--3ds443g[73] .在线 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[75]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[73] .中文网 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngwén wǎng "(written) Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[75]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[73] .移动 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) yídòng "movement" or "mobile" Open TLD Yes
xn--ses554g[73] .网址 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhǐ "network address" or "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--io0a7i[73] .网络 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngluò "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qx5d[73] .公司 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) gōngsī "business organization" or "company" Open TLD Yes
xn--czru2d[73] .商城 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shāngchéng "mall" Open TLD Yes
xn--nqv7f[73] .机构 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jīgòu "agency" Open TLD Yes
xn--6qq986b3xl[73] .我爱你 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǒ ài nǐ "I love you" Open TLD Yes
xn--czr694b[73] .商标 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) shāngbiāo "trademark" Open TLD Yes
xn--rhqv96g[73] .世界 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shìjiè "world" Open TLD Yes
xn--3bst00m[73] .集团 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jítuán "conglomerate" Open TLD Yes
xn--d1acj3b[73] .дети Russian Cyrillic (Russian) dyeti "kids" or "children" Open TLD Yes
xn--80asehdb[73] .онлайн Russian Cyrillic (Russian) onlain "online" Open TLD Yes
xn--c1avg[73] .орг Russian Cyrillic (Russian) org "org" or "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aswg[73] .сайт Russian Cyrillic (Russian) sait "site" Open TLD Yes
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e[73] .संगठन Hindi Devanagari saṅgaṭhana "organization" Open TLD Yes

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

Africa[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.capetown Cape Town, South Africa [76] Unknown Yes
.durban Durban, South Africa [77] Unknown Yes
.joburg Johannesburg, South Africa [78] Unknown Yes

Americas[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.miami Miami, USA [79] Unknown Yes
.nyc New York City, USA [80] Spanish[7] Yes
.quebec Québec, Canada [81] Unknown Yes
.rio Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [82] Unknown Yes
.vegas Las Vegas, NV, USA [83] Yes Yes

Asia[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Chinese, Japanese, Korean[7] Yes
.krd Kurdistan [84][85] Unknown Yes
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [86] Japanese[7] Yes
.okinawa Okinawa, Japan Japanese Yes
.ryukyu Ryukyu Islands, Japan [87] Unknown Yes
.taipei Taipei, Taiwan [88] Unknown Yes
.tatar Tatar peoples and places Tatarstan is a federal subject of Russia, though this TLD is meant for the global Tatar community.[89] Unknown Yes
.tokyo Tokyo, Japan [90] Yes Yes
.yokohama Yokohama, Japan [91] Japanese Yes

Europe[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.alsace Alsace, France [92] Unknown Yes
.bayern Bavaria, Germany [93] Yes Yes
.berlin Berlin, Germany [94] Latin and Cyrillic scripts[7] Yes
.brussels Brussels, Belgium [95] Latin script[7] Yes
.budapest Budapest, Hungary [96] Unknown Yes
.bzh Brittany, France Breizh in Breton.[97] French[7] Yes
.cat Catalunya, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[98] Catalan[7] Yes
.cologne Cologne, Germany [99] Yes Yes
.cymru Wales [100] Welsh[7] Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[101] Unknown Yes
.frl Friesland, Netherlands [102] Unknown Yes
.gal Galicia, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[103] Unknown Yes
.gent Ghent, Belgium [104] Unknown Yes
.hamburg Hamburg, Germany Latin script[7] Yes
.koeln Cologne, Germany [105] Yes Yes
.london London, United Kingdom [106] Yes Yes
.madrid Madrid, Spain [107] Unknown Yes
.moscow Moscow, Russia [108] Yes Yes
.nrw North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany [109] Unknown Yes
.paris Paris, France [110] French[7] Yes
.ruhr Ruhr, Germany [111] German[7] Yes
.saarland Saarland, Germany [112] Unknown Yes
.scot Scotland [113] Unknown Yes
.tirol Tyrol, now split between Austria and Italy [114] Yes[7] Yes
.vlaanderen Flanders, Belgium [115] Latin script[7] Yes
.wales Wales [100] Welsh[7] Yes
.wien Vienna, Austria [116] Latin script[7] Yes

Oceania[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.kiwi New Zealanders
(aka kiwis)
[117] Latin script[7] Yes
.melbourne Melbourne, Australia [118] Unknown Yes
.sydney Sydney, Australia [119] Unknown Yes

Internationalized geographic top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN Entity Language Script Transliteration Notes Other TLD IDN DNSSEC
xn--1qqw23a .佛山 Foshan, China Chinese Chinese fóshān [120] Yes Yes
xn--80adxhks .москва Moscow, Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) moskva [121] .moscow Russian[7] Yes

Brand top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [122] Unknown Yes
.android Google (Android) [123] Unknown Yes
.aquarelle Aquarelle.com [124] Unknown Yes
.axa AXA [125] Yes[7] Yes
.bloomberg Bloomberg IP Holdings LLC [126] Unknown Yes
.bmw BMW [127] No Yes
.bnpparibas BNP Paribas [128] Unknown Yes
.cal Google (Google Calendar) [129] Unknown Yes
.caravan Caravan International, Inc. [130] Unknown Yes
.cern CERN [131] Unknown Yes
.chrome Google (Google Chrome) [132] Unknown Yes
.citic CITIC Group [133] No Yes
.crs Federated Co-operatives Limited
(Co-Operative Retailing System)
[134] Unknown Yes
.cuisinella Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisinella) [135] Unknown Yes
.dnp Dai Nippon Printing Co. [136] Unknown Yes
.dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [137] Unknown Yes
.emerck Merck KGaA [138] Unknown Yes
.everbank EverBank [139] Unknown Yes
.firmdale Firmdale Holdings [140] Unknown Yes
.flsmidth FLSmidth A/S [141] Unknown Yes
.frogans OP3FT Solely for use by the Frogans technology[142] Yes[7] Yes
.gbiz Google [143] Unknown Yes
.gle Google [144] Unknown Yes
.globo Grupo Globo [145] No Yes
.gmail Google (Gmail) [146] Unknown Yes
.gmo GMO Internet [147] Unknown Yes
.gmx 1&1 Mail & Media (Global Message Exchange) [148] Unknown Yes
.google Google [149] Unknown Yes
.ibm IBM [150] Unknown Yes
.kred KredTLD [151] Unknown Yes
.lacaixa Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona [152] Unknown Yes
.latrobe La Trobe University [153] Unknown Yes
.lds The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[154]
(informally called the Mormon Church)
[155] Unknown Yes
.mango MANGO [156] Latin script[7] Yes
.mini BMW (Mini) [157] No Yes
.monash Monash University [158][159] No Yes
.mormon The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[154]
(informally called the Mormon Church)
[160] Unknown Yes
.neustar Neustar [161] No Yes
.nexus Google (Google Nexus) [162] Unknown Yes
.nhk NHK [163] Unknown Yes
.nra National Rifle Association [164] Unknown Yes
.otsuka Otsuka Holdings [165] Unknown Yes
.ovh OVH [166] French[7] Yes
.pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft
(founder Reinfried Pohl)
[167] Unknown Yes
.praxi Praxi [168] Unknown Yes
.prod Google (products) [169] Unknown Yes
.sca Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget [170] Unknown Yes
.scb Siam Commercial Bank Thai[7] Yes
.schmidt Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisines Schmidt) [171] Unknown Yes
.sohu Sohu [172] Unknown Yes
.spiegel Spiegel-Verlag [173] Unknown Yes
.suzuki Suzuki Motor Corporation [174] Unknown Yes
.tui TUI AG [175] Unknown Yes
.uol Universo Online Delegated to UOL subsidiary UBN Internet.[176] Unknown Yes
.williamhill William Hill [177] Unknown Yes
.wme William Morris Endeavor Entertainment [178] Unknown Yes
.wtc World Trade Centers Association [179] Unknown Yes
.yandex Yandex [180] Unknown Yes
.youtube Google (YouTube) [181] Unknown Yes

Internationalized brand top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN TLD Entity Script Transliteration Comments DNSSEC
xn--fiq64b .中信 CITIC Group Chinese zhōngxìn [182] Yes
xn--vermgensberater-ctb .vermögensberater Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [183] Yes
xn--vermgensberatung-pwb .vermögensberatung Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [184] Yes
xn--qcka1pmc .グーグル Google Katakana gūguru [185] Yes
xn--flw351e .谷歌 Google Chinese
(Simplified)
gǔgē [186] Yes
xn--cg4bki .삼성 Samsung Hangul samseong [187] Yes

Test TLDs[edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains. These testing domains were abolished on 31 October 2013.[188] Each of these TLDs encoded a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[189][190]

Each of these domains contained only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language. These example.test sites were test wikis used by ICANN.

DNS Name IDN Transliteration Language Script URL of the test site
(archived at the Wayback Machine)
xn--kgbechtv إختبار. ik͡htibār Arabic Arabic http://مثال.إختبار
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bba آزمایشی. ậzmạy̰sẖy Persian Perso-Arabic http://مثال.آزمایشی
xn--0zwm56d .测试 cèshì Chinese Simplified Chinese http://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d .測試 cèshì Chinese Traditional Chinese http://例子.測試
xn--80akhbyknj4f .испытание ispytánije Russian Cyrillic http://пример.испытание
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g .परीक्षा parīkṣā Hindi Devanagari http://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlp .δοκιμή dokimé Greek Greek http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a .테스트 teseuteu Korean Hangul http://실례.테스트
xn--deba0ad טעסט. test Yiddish Hebrew http://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzah .テスト tesuto Japanese Katakana[191] http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a .பரிட்சை pariṭcai Tamil Tamil http://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  129. ^ IANA — .caravan Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2014.
  130. ^ IANA — .cern Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  131. ^ IANA — .chrome Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  132. ^ "中国中信集团有限公司". Nic.citic. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  133. ^ IANA — .crs Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  134. ^ IANA — .cuisinella Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  135. ^ IANA — .dnp Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  136. ^ IANA — .dvag Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  137. ^ IANA — .emerck Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 20, 2014.
  138. ^ IANA — .everbank Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  139. ^ IANA — .firmdale Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 24, 2014.
  140. ^ IANA — .flsmidth Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  141. ^ "Using the .frogans gTLD". Nic.frogans. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  142. ^ IANA — .gbiz Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  143. ^ IANA — .gle Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  144. ^ ".globo". Nic.globo. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  145. ^ IANA — .gmail Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  146. ^ IANA — .gmo Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  147. ^ IANA — .gmx Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  148. ^ IANA — .google Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  149. ^ IANA — .ibm Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 24, 2014.
  150. ^ IANA — .kred Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 24, 2014.
  151. ^ IANA — .lacaixa Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 25, 2014.
  152. ^ IANA — .latrobe Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  153. ^ a b This domain has been delegated to IRI Domain Management, LLC, a subsidiary of Intellectual Reserve, Inc., which is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  154. ^ IANA — .lds Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  155. ^ "MANGO". Nic.mango. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  156. ^ "Home dotMINI registry operator". Nic.mini. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  157. ^ ".monash - Network Information Centre". Nic.monash. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  158. ^ "New gTLD Program : InitialEvaluation Report : Report Date: 10 May 2013" (PDF). Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  159. ^ IANA — .mormon Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 21, 2014.
  160. ^ "Neustar Launches New TLD .Neustar". Nic.neustar. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  161. ^ IANA — .nexus Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 26, 2014.
  162. ^ IANA — .nhk Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 26, 2014.
  163. ^ IANA — .nra Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 26, 2014.
  164. ^ IANA — .otsuka Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 26, 2014.
  165. ^ "The New OVH Code" (PDF). Nic.ovh. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  166. ^ IANA — .pohl Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 1, 2014.
  167. ^ IANA — .praxi Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 1, 2014.
  168. ^ IANA — .prod Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 1, 2014.
  169. ^ ".sca". Retrieved 4 Nov 2014. 
  170. ^ IANA — .schmidt Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  171. ^ IANA — .sohu Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  172. ^ IANA — .spiegel Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  173. ^ IANA — .suzuki Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  174. ^ IANA — .tui Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2014.
  175. ^ IANA — .uol Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  176. ^ IANA — .williamhill Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  177. ^ IANA — .wme Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  178. ^ IANA — .wtc Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  179. ^ "This is .yandex" (PDF). Nic.yandex. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  180. ^ IANA — .youtube Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 2, 2014.
  181. ^ "Nic.中信". nic.中信. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  182. ^ IANA — .vermögensberater Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 1, 2014.
  183. ^ IANA — .vermögensberatung Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Dec. 1, 2014.
  184. ^ IANA — .グーグル Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 24, 2014.
  185. ^ IANA — .谷歌 Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line Nov. 24, 2014.
  186. ^ "WHOIS 서비스란?". Whois.nic. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  187. ^ "ICANN announcement". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  188. ^ [6][dead link]
  189. ^ "My Name, My Language, My Internet: IDN Test Goes Live - ICANN launches global test of Internationalized Domain Names". Icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  190. ^ http://例え.テスト, the domain of test page, contains also Kanji (Chinese character in Japanese: ) and Hiragana (). See also Japanese writing system.

External links[edit]