Shinjuku Station

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Shinjuku Station
新宿駅
JR Shinjuku Station.JPG
East entrance of Shinjuku Station
Location
Prefecture Tokyo
(See other stations in Tokyo)
Ward Shinjuku
History
Year opened 1885
Rail services
Operator(s) JR East
Keio Corporation
Odakyu Electric Railway
Tokyo Metro
Toei Subway
Line(s) Yamanote Line
Chūō Main Line
Chūō-Sōbu Line
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
Saikyō Line
Odakyu Odawara Line
Keiō Line
Keiō New Line
Marunouchi Line
Toei Shinjuku Line
Toei Ōedo Line
Aiga bus inv.svg Major bus terminal(s) attached to the station

Shinjuku Station (新宿駅 Shinjuku-eki?) is a major railway station in Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan.

Serving as the main connecting hub for rail traffic between Tokyo's special wards and Western Tokyo on inter-city rail, commuter rail, and metro lines, the station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007, making it, by far, the world's busiest transport hub (and registered as such with Guinness World Records). The station has 36 platforms. Including an underground arcade, there are well over 200 exits.

Lines[edit]

Shinjuku is served by the following railway systems:

Station facilities[edit]

JR East[edit]

South exit of JR Shinjuku Station
Yamanote Line platform during the morning rush hour
The west basement hall of Shinjuku station
Station layout

The station is centered around facilities servicing the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) lines. These consist of eight ground-level island platforms (16 tracks) on a north-south axis, connected by two overhead and two underground concourses. Most JR services here are urban and suburban mass transit lines, although JR's long-distance express services to Kōfu and Matsumoto on the Chūō Main Line, Narita Express to Narita Airport, and joint operations with Tobu Railway to Nikkō and Kinugawa Onsen also use this station. The JR section alone handles an average of 1.5 million passengers a day.


1 Saikyō Line, Rinkai Line for Shibuya, Ōsaki, and Shin-Kiba
returning for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
(Through service for the Tōkaidō Main Line)
for Yokohama, Ōfuna, Fujisawa, Chigasaki, Hiratsuka, Kōzu, and Odawara
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
(Through service for the Yokosuka Line)
for Yokohama, Ōfuna, Kamakura, and Zushi (some from platform 2)
2 Saikyō Line, Rinkai Line for Shibuya, Ōsaki, Shin-Kiba
returning for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe
3 Saikyō Line for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe
4 Saikyō Line for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
(Through service for the Takasaki Line)
for Ōmiya, Kumagaya, and Takasaki
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
(Through service for the Utsunomiya Line)
for Ōmiya, Oyama, and Utsunomiya
5/6 Ltd. Express Narita Express for Narita Airport
Ltd. Express Nikkō/Kinugawa
(through service for Tōbu Nikkō Line)
for Tōbu Nikkō and Kinugawa-onsen
Ltd. Express Akagi for Takasaki and Maebashi
Rapid Moonlight Echigo for Niigata
Ltd. Express Super View Odoriko for Atami, Ito, and Izukyu Shimoda
Home Liner Odawara for Odawara
7/8 Chūō Line (Rapid) for Ochanomizu, and Tokyo
Ltd. Express Shinjuku Wakashio / Shinjuku Sazanami for Chiba, Awa-Kamogawa, and Tateyama
Home Liner Chiba for Chiba
Ōme Liner for Tokyo
Ltd. Express Azusa / Kaiji for Tokyo and Chiba
9/10 Chūō Line (Limited Express) Azusa / Kaiji for Kōfu and Matsumoto
Chūō Liner / Ōme Liner for Takao and Ōme
11 Chūō Line (Rapid) for Nakano, Tachikawa, Hachiōji, and Takao (weekday rush-hours)
12 Chūō Line (Rapid) for Nakano, Tachikawa, Hachiōji, and Takao
13 Chūō-Sōbu Line for Suidobashi, Akihabara, and Chiba
14 Yamanote Line (counter-clockwise) for Harajuku, Shibuya, and Shinagawa
15 Yamanote Line (clockwise) for Ikebukuro, Tabata, Nippori, and Ueno
16 Chūō-Sōbu Line for Higashi-Nakano, Nakano, and Mitaka

Odakyu[edit]

West exit of Odakyu Shinjuku Station

The terminus for the private Odakyu Odawara Line is parallel to the JR platforms on the west side, and handles an average of 490,000 passengers daily. This is a major commuter route stretching southwest through the suburbs and out towards the coastal city of Odawara and the mountains of Hakone. The ten platforms are built on two levels beneath the Odakyu department store; three express service tracks (six platforms) on the ground level and two tracks (four platforms) on the level below. Each track has platforms on both sides in order to completely separate boarding and alighting passengers.

Waist-high platform screen doors were added to platforms 4 and 5 in September 2012.[1]

Ground level[edit]

1   Not in use
2, 3 Ltd. Express. "Romancecar" for Odawara, Hakone-Yumoto, Fujisawa, Karakida and Gotemba
4, 5 Rapid Express for Shin-Yurigaoka, Machida, Ebina, Hon-Atsugi, Shin-Matsuda, Odawara, Chūō-Rinkan, Yamato, Shōnandai and Fujisawa
Express for Noborito, Shin-Yurigaoka, Machida, Ebina, Hon-Atsugi, Shin-Matsuda, Odawara, Chūō-Rinkan, Yamato, Shōnandai, Fujisawa and Katase-Enoshima
Semi-Express for Hon-Atsugi
6   (Alighting only)

Underground level[edit]

7   (Alighting only)
8, 9 Section Semi-Express, Local for Shin-Yurigaoka, Sagami-Ono, and Hon-Atsugi
10   (Alighting only)

Keio[edit]

West exit of Keio Shinjuku Station

The Keio Line concourse is located to the west of the Odakyu line concourse, two floors below ground level under Keio department store. It consists of three platforms stretching north to south. Approximately 720,000 passengers use this section daily, which makes it the busiest amongst the non-JR Group railways of Japan. This suburban commuter line links Shinjuku to the city of Hachiōji to the west.[2] Waist-high platform edge doors were introduced on the Keio Line platforms in March 2014.[3] The doors are different colours for each platform. The doors on platform 2 are green.[3]


1 Local for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi
2 Express, Semi Express, Rapid for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi
    (Alighting only)
3 Special Express, Semi-Special Express, Express, Semi Express, Rapid for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi

Toei Subway[edit]

Toei Ōedo Line platform

The shared facilities for the Toei Shinjuku subway line and the Keiō New Line consist of two platforms stretching east-west five floors beneath the Kōshū Kaidō avenue to the southwest of the JR section. The concourse is managed by Keio Corporation but is in a separate location to the main Keio platforms. Further south (and deeper underground) are the two north-to-south Toei Ōedo subway line platforms.

Toei Shinjuku Line & Keio New Line[edit]

4 Keio New Line for Hatsudai, Hatagaya, Meidaimae, Chōfu, and Hashimoto
5 Toei Shinjuku Line for Ichigaya, Kudanshita, Jimbocho, Ōjima, and Moto-Yawata

Toei Ōedo Line[edit]

6 Toei Ōedo Line for Roppongi and Daimon
7 Toei Ōedo Line for Tochōmae and Hikarigaoka

Tokyo Metro[edit]

Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line platform

Tokyo Metro's two Marunouchi Line underground platforms stretch east-west to the north of the JR and Odakyu facilities, directly below the Metro Promenade underground mall.


1 Marunouchi Line for Nakano-sakaue, Ogikubo, and Hōnanchō
2 Marunouchi Line for Akasaka-mitsuke, Ginza, Ōtemachi, and Ikebukuro

Commercial facilities[edit]

East exit of Shinjuku Station
South exit of Shinjuku Station

Many department stores and shopping malls are built directly into the station. These include

  • Lumine Est - above JR's east exit
  • Odakyu department store - above the Odakyu line concourse
  • Odakyu Mylord - above the southern end of Odakyu line concourse
  • Lumine 1 shopping mall - above the Keio Line concourse
  • Lumine 2 shopping mall - above JR's south and Lumine exits
  • Keio Department store - above the Keio Line concourse
  • Keio Mall - underground mall to the southwest of the Keio Line concourse
  • Odakyu Ace - underground malls beneath the bus terminal by the west exit.

In addition to the above, the Metro Promenade, which is an underground mall owned by Tokyo Metro, extends eastwards from the station beneath Shinjuku-dori avenue, all the way to the adjacent Shinjuku-sanchōme station with 60 exits along the way. The Metro Promenade in turn connects to Shinjuku Subnade, another underground shopping mall, which leads onto Seibu Railway's Seibu-Shinjuku station.

Shinjuku Station is connected by underground passageways and shopping malls to:

Nearby non-connected stations (within 500 meters of an underground passageway or station) include:

Bus terminals[edit]

There is a bus terminal at the west exit servicing both local and long-distance buses, and a JR Highway Bus terminal at the New South Gates.

Passenger statistics[edit]

The figures below are the official number of passengers entering and exiting each day released by each train operator.

Operator Number Fiscal year Source Note
JR East 751,018 2013 [4] Boarding passengers only. Busiest station in Japan.
Odakyu 494,184 2013 [5] The busiest Odakyu station
Keio 730,849 2013 [6] The busiest Japanese private (i.e. non-JR) railway station[citation needed]
Tokyo Metro 227,366 2013 [7] The 6th busiest Tokyo Metro station
Toei Shinjuku Line 266,869 2013 134,185 entries and 132,684 exits[8] The busiest Toei subway station
Ōedo Line 133,075 2013 64,701 entries and 68,374 exits[8]

The passenger figures (boarding passengers only) for the JR East (formerly JNR) station in previous years are as shown below.

Fiscal year Daily average
1913 5,052[9]
1960 305,236[9]
1971 614,419[9]
1984 648,659[9]
2000 753,791[10]
2005 747,930[11]
2010 736,715[12]
2011 734,154[13]
2012 742,833[14]
2013 751,018[4]

History[edit]

Shinjuku Station in 1925

Shinjuku Station opened in 1885 as a stop on Japan Railway's Akabane-Shinagawa line (now part of the Yamanote Line). Shinjuku was still a quiet community at the time and the station was not heavily trafficked at first. The opening of the Chūō Line (1889), Keiō Line (1915) and Odakyū Line (1923) led to increasing traffic through the station. Subway service began in 1959.

In August 1967, a freight train carrying jet fuel bound for the U.S. air base in Tachikawa derailed and caught fire on the Chūō Rapid tracks.

The station was a major site for student protests in 1968 and 1969, the height of civil unrest in postwar Japan. On October 21, 1968, 290,000 marchers participated in International Anti-War Day taking over Shinjuku station and forcing trains to stop. In May and June, 1969, members of the antiwar group Beheiren carrying guitars and calling themselves "folk guerrillas" led weekly singalongs in the underground plaza outside the west exit of the station, attracting crowds of thousands. Participants described it as a "liberated zone" and a "community of encounter."[15] In July, riot police cleared the plaza with tear gas and changed signs in the station to read "West Exit Concourse" instead of "West Exit Plaza." The incident represented a significant defeat for public activism in Tokyo.

There have been plans at various points in history to connect Shinjuku into the Shinkansen network, and the 1973 Shinkansen Basic Plan, still in force, specifies that the station should be the southern terminus of the Jōetsu Shinkansen line to Niigata. While construction of the Ōmiya-Shinjuku link never started and the Jōetsu line presently terminates in Tokyo Station, the right of way, including an area underneath the station, remains reserved.

On May 5, 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult attempted a chemical terrorist attack by setting off a cyanide gas device in a toilet in the underground concourse, barely a month after the gas attack on the Tokyo subway which killed 13, left 6,252 people with non-fatal injuries, severely injured 50 people, and caused 984 cases of temporary vision problems. This time the attack was thwarted by staff who extinguished the burning device.

Keiō Shinjuku Station[edit]

Keio Shinjuku Oiwake Building, the site of the former terminal

When the Keio Line extended to Shinjuku in 1915, its terminal was located several blocks east of the government railway (presently JR) station. The terminal was first named Shinjuku-Oiwake Station (新宿追分駅?) and was on the street near the Isetan department store. In 1927, the station was moved from the street to a newly built terminal adjacent to the original station. The station building housed a department store. The station name was changed to Yotsuya-Shinjuku Station (四谷新宿駅?) in 1930 and again to Keiō Shinjuku Station (京王新宿駅?) in 1937.

The tracks from the terminal were on the Kōshū Kaidō highway, which crosses the Yamanote Line and the Chūō Line in front of the south entrance of Shinjuku Station by a bridge. The Keiō Line had a station for the access to Shinjuku Station, named Teishajō-mae Station (停車場前駅?) and renamed in 1937 Shōsen Shinjuku Ekimae Station (省線新宿駅前駅?).

In July 1945, the terminal of the Keiō Line was relocated to the present location, though on the ground level, on the west side of Shinjuku Station. Keiō Shinjuku Station and Shōsen Shinjuku Ekimae Station were closed. This was because the trains faced difficulty in climbing up the slopes of the bridge over the governmental railway after one of the nearby transformer substations was destroyed by an air raid. The site of Keiō Shinjuku Station near Shinjuku-Sanchōme subway station is now occupied by two buildings owned by Keiō: Keiō Shinjuku Sanchōme Building and Keiō Shinjuku Oiwake Building.

Adjacent stations[edit]

« Service »
Yamanote Line
Yoyogi - Shin-Ōkubo
Chūō Line
Tokyo   Chūō Liner
Ōme Liner
  Tachikawa
Yotsuya   Commuter Special Rapid   Kokubunji
Yotsuya   Chūō Special Rapid
Ōme Special Rapid
  Nakano
Mitaka[Note 1]
Yotsuya   Commuter Rapid   Nakano
Yotsuya   Rapid   Nakano
Yoyogi   Local
Chūō-Sōbu Line
  Ōkubo
Shōnan-Shinjuku Line
Ikebukuro
Kichijōji
  Narita Express   Shibuya
Ikebukuro   Super View Odoriko   Musashi-Kosugi
Ikebukuro   Special Rapid   Shibuya
Ikebukuro   Rapid   Shibuya
Ikebukuro   Local   Shibuya
Saikyō Line
Shibuya   Commuter rapid   Ikebukuro
Shibuya   Rapid   Ikebukuro
Shibuya   Local   Ikebukuro
Odakyu Odawara Line
Terminus "Romancecar" Mukogaoka-Yuen
Shin-Yurigaoka
Machida
Sagami-Ono
Hon-Atsugi
Odawara
Terminus Sectional Semi-express
Semi-express
Express
Rapid express
Yoyogi-Uehara
Terminus Local Minami-Shinjuku
Keiō Line
Terminus Local
Rapid
Semi Express
Express
Sasazuka
Terminus Semi-Special Express
Special Express
Meidaimae
Keio New Line
Through to Toei Shinjuku Line Local
Rapid
Semi Express
Express
Hatsudai
Toei Shinjuku Line (S 01)
Through to Keio New Line   Express   Ichigaya (S 04)
Through to Keio New Line   Local   Shinjuku-sanchōme (S 02)
Toei Oedo Line (E 27)
Yoyogi (E 26) - Tochōmae (E 28)
Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line (M 08)
Nishi-Shinjuku (M 07) - Shinjuku-sanchōme (M 09)
  1. ^ Only Chūō Special Rapid services starting at Shinjuku

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "小田急 新宿駅 可動式ホーム柵 使用" [Platform screens introduced at Odakyu Shinjuku Station]. Tetsudo.com (in Japanese). Japan: Asahi Interactive, Inc. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  2. ^ http://www.keio.co.jp/english/railwaymap/index.html
  3. ^ a b "京王線新宿駅のホームドア整備が完了" [Installation of platform-edge doors completed at Keio Line Shinjuku Station]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "各駅の乗車人員 (2013年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2013)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "1日平均乗降人員" [Average daily station usage figures] (in Japanese). Odakyu Electric Railway. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "1日の駅別乗降人員" [Average daily station usage figures] (in Japanese). Japan: Keio Corporation. 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  7. ^ "各駅の乗降人員ランキング" [Station usage ranking] (in Japanese). Tokyo Metro. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "各駅乗降人員一覧" [Station usage figures] (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d 日本国有鉄道停車場一覧 [JNR Station Directory]. Japan: Japanese National Railways. 1985. p. 480. ISBN 4-533-00503-9. 
  10. ^ "各駅の乗車人員 (2000年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2000)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "各駅の乗車人員 (2005年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  12. ^ "各駅の乗車人員 (2010年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2010)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "各駅の乗車人員 (2011年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2011)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  14. ^ "各駅の乗車人員 (2012年度)" [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2012)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  15. ^ Konaka Yotaro, "Shinjuku: Community of Encounter," Japan Quarterly, 38 no.3 (1991), 301-310.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°41′22″N 139°42′01″E / 35.689475°N 139.700349°E / 35.689475; 139.700349