Julian Assange

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Assange)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Julian Assange
RUEDA DE PRENSA CONJUNTA ENTRE CANCILLER RICARDO PATIÑO Y JULIAN ASSANGE (cropped).jpg
Assange in 2014
Born
Julian Paul Hawkins

(1971-07-03) 3 July 1971 (age 50)
Citizenship
  • Australia
  • Ecuador (2017–2021)
Occupation
  • Editor
  • activist
Years active1986–present
Known forFounding WikiLeaks
TitleDirector[1] and editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks (until September 2018); publisher (since September 2018)[2]
Political party
Spouse(s)Teresa (divorced)
Partner(s)Stella Moris (2015–present)
AwardsFull list
Signature
Julian Assange Autograph.svg

Julian Paul Assange (/əˈsɑːnʒ/;[3] born 3 July 1971) is an Australian editor, publisher and activist who founded WikiLeaks in 2006. WikiLeaks came to international attention in 2010 when it published a series of leaks provided by U.S. Army intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning. These leaks included the Baghdad airstrike Collateral Murder video (April 2010),[4][5] the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), and Cablegate (November 2010). After the 2010 leaks, the United States government launched a criminal investigation into WikiLeaks.[6]

In November 2010, Sweden issued an international arrest warrant for Assange over allegations of sexual misconduct.[7] Assange said the allegations were a pretext for his extradition from Sweden to the United States over his role in the publication of secret American documents.[8][9] After losing his battle against extradition to Sweden, he breached bail and took refuge in the Embassy of Ecuador in London in June 2012.[10] He was granted asylum by Ecuador in August 2012[11] on the grounds of political persecution, with the presumption that if he were extradited to Sweden, he would be eventually extradited to the US.[12] Swedish prosecutors dropped their investigation in 2019, saying their evidence had "weakened considerably due to the long period of time that has elapsed since the events in question."[13]

During the 2016 U.S. election campaign, WikiLeaks published confidential Democratic Party emails, showing that the party's national committee favoured Hillary Clinton over her rival Bernie Sanders in the primaries.[14]

On 11 April 2019, Assange's asylum was withdrawn following a series of disputes with the Ecuadorian authorities.[15] The police were invited into the embassy and he was arrested.[16] He was found guilty of breaching the Bail Act and sentenced to 50 weeks in prison.[17] The United States government unsealed an indictment against Assange, related to the leaks provided by Chelsea Manning. On 23 May 2019, the United States government further charged Assange with violating the Espionage Act of 1917. Editors from newspapers, including The Washington Post and The New York Times, as well as press freedom organisations, criticised the government's decision to charge Assange under the Espionage Act, characterising it as an attack on the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees freedom of the press.[18][19] On 4 January 2021, District Judge Vanessa Baraitser ruled against the United States' request to extradite him and stated that doing so would be "oppressive" given his mental health.[20] On 6 January 2021, Assange was denied bail, pending an appeal by the United States.[21]

Assange has been confined in Belmarsh maximum-security prison in London since April 2019.[22]

Early life[edit]

Assange was born Julian Paul Hawkins on 3 July 1971 in Townsville, Queensland,[23][24][25] to Christine Ann Hawkins (b. 1951),[26] a visual artist,[27]: 34  and John Shipton, an anti-war activist and builder.[28] The couple separated before their son was born.[28] When Julian was a year old, his mother married Brett Assange,[29][30][31] an actor with whom she ran a small theatre company and whom Julian regards as his father (choosing Assange as his surname).[24][32] Christine and Brett Assange divorced around 1979. Christine then became involved with Leif Meynell, also known as Leif Hamilton, whom Julian Assange later described as "a member of an Australian cult" called The Family. They separated in 1982.[23][27][33]

Julian had a nomadic childhood, living in more than 30 Australian towns and cities by the time he reached his mid-teens,[34][35] when he settled with his mother and half-brother in Melbourne.[29] Assange attended many schools, including Goolmangar Primary School in New South Wales (1979–1983)[32] and Townsville State High School in Queensland[36] as well as being schooled at home.[30]

In 1987, aged 16, Assange began hacking under the name Mendax,[30][37] supposedly taken from Horace's splendide mendax (nobly lying).[38] He and two others, known as "Trax" and "Prime Suspect", formed a hacking group they called "the International Subversives".[30] According to David Leigh and Luke Harding, Assange may have been involved in the WANK (Worms Against Nuclear Killers) hack at NASA in 1989, but this has never been proven.[39][27]: 42 

In September 1991, Assange was discovered hacking into the Melbourne master terminal of Nortel, a Canadian multinational telecommunications corporation.[30] The Australian Federal Police tapped Assange's phone line (he was using a modem), raided his home at the end of October[40] and eventually charged him in 1994 with 31 counts of hacking and related crimes.[30] In December 1996, he pleaded guilty to 24 charges (the others were dropped) and was ordered to pay reparations of A$2,100 and released on a good behaviour bond.[39][41] He received a lenient penalty due to the absence of malicious or mercenary intent and his disrupted childhood.[41][42][43][44]

Assange studied programming, mathematics and physics at Central Queensland University (1994)[45] and the University of Melbourne (2003–2006),[29][46] but did not complete a degree.[47]

Assange, c. 2006

In 1993, Assange used his computing skills to help the Victoria Police Child Exploitation Unit to prosecute individuals responsible for publishing and distributing child pornography.[48][49] In the same year, he was involved in starting one of the first public Internet service providers in Australia, Suburbia Public Access Network.[29][50] He began programming in 1994, authoring or co-authoring the TCP port scanner Strobe (1995),[51][52] patches to the open-source database PostgreSQL (1996),[53][54] the Usenet caching software NNTPCache (1996),[55] the Rubberhose deniable encryption system (1997)[56][57] (which reflected his growing interest in cryptography),[58] and Surfraw, a command-line interface for web-based search engines (2000).[59] During this period, he also moderated the AUCRYPTO forum,[58] ran Best of Security, a website "giving advice on computer security" that had 5,000 subscribers in 1996,[27]: 45  and contributed research to Suelette Dreyfus's Underground (1997), a book about Australian hackers, including the International Subversives.[37][60] In 1998, he co-founded the company Earthmen Technology.[44]

Assange stated that he registered the domain leaks.org in 1999, but "didn't do anything with it".[44] He did publicise a patent granted to the National Security Agency in August 1999, for voice-data harvesting technology: "This patent should worry people. Everyone's overseas phone calls are or may soon be tapped, transcribed and archived in the bowels of an unaccountable foreign spy agency."[58]

Founding WikiLeaks[edit]

Early publications[edit]

Assange at the "New Media Days 09" in Copenhagen November 2009

Assange and others established WikiLeaks in 2006. Assange became a member of the organisation's advisory board[61] and described himself as the editor-in-chief.[62] From 2007 to 2010, Assange travelled continuously on WikiLeaks business, visiting Africa, Asia, Europe and North America.[30][35][63][64][65] During this time the organisation published internet censorship lists, leaks,[66] and classified media from anonymous sources. These publications including revelations about drone strikes in Yemen, corruption across the Arab world,[67] extrajudicial executions by Kenyan police,[68] 2008 Tibetan unrest in China,[69] and the "Petrogate" oil scandal in Peru.[70]

Assange and Daniel Domscheit-Berg at the 26C3 in Berlin, December 2009

WikiLeaks' international profile increased in 2008 when a Swiss bank, Julius Baer, failed to block the site's publication of bank records.[71] Assange commented that financial institutions ordinarily "operate outside the rule of law", and received extensive legal support from free-speech and civil rights groups.[72][73]

In September 2008, during the 2008 United States presidential election campaign, the contents of a Yahoo! account belonging to Sarah Palin (the running mate of Republican presidential nominee John McCain) were posted on WikiLeaks after being hacked into by members of Anonymous.[74] After briefly appearing on a blog, the membership list of the far-right British National Party was posted to WikiLeaks on 18 November 2008.[75]

WikiLeaks released a report disclosing a "serious nuclear accident" at the Iranian Natanz nuclear facility in 2009.[76] According to media reports, the accident may have been the direct result of a cyber-attack at Iran's nuclear program, carried out with the Stuxnet computer worm, a cyber-weapon built jointly by the United States and Israel.[77]

Iraq and Afghan War logs and US diplomatic cables[edit]

The material WikiLeaks published between 2006 and 2009 attracted various degrees of international attention,[78] but after it began publishing documents supplied by U.S. Army intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning, WikiLeaks became a household name.

In April 2010, WikiLeaks released the Collateral Murder video,[4] which showed United States soldiers fatally shooting 18 civilians from a helicopter in Iraq,[79] including Reuters journalists Namir Noor-Eldeen and his assistant Saeed Chmagh.[5] Reuters had previously made a request to the US government for the Collateral Murder video under Freedom of Information but had been denied. Assange and others worked for a week to break the U.S. military's encryption of the video.[80][81]

In October 2010, WikiLeaks published the Iraq War logs, a collection of 391,832 United States Army field reports from the Iraq War covering the period from 2004 to 2009.[82] Assange said that he hoped the publication would "correct some of that attack on the truth that occurred before the war, during the war, and which has continued after the war".[83]

Regarding his own role within WikiLeaks he said, "We always expect tremendous criticism. It is my role to be the lightning rod ... to attract the attacks against the organization for our work, and that is a difficult role. On the other hand, I get undue credit".[84]

Other Manning material published by WikiLeaks included the Afghanistan War logs in July 2010,[85] and the Guantánamo Bay files in April 2011.[86]

WikiLeaks published a quarter of a million U.S. diplomatic cables,[87] known as the "Cablegate" files, in November 2010. WikiLeaks initially worked with established Western media organisations, and later with smaller regional media organisations, while also publishing the cables upon which their reporting was based.[88][89] The files showed United States espionage against the United Nations and other world leaders,[90][91][92] revealed tensions between the U.S. and its allies, and exposed corruption in countries throughout the world as documented by U.S. diplomats, helping to spark the Arab Spring.[93][94] The Cablegate and Iraq and Afghan War releases impacted diplomacy and public opinion globally, with responses varying by region.[89]

Criminal investigations[edit]

US criminal investigation[edit]

Assange speaks on the steps of St Paul's Cathedral in London, 16 October 2011

After WikiLeaks released the Manning material, United States authorities began investigating WikiLeaks and Assange personally to prosecute them under the Espionage Act of 1917.[95] In November 2010, US Attorney-General Eric Holder said there was "an active, ongoing criminal investigation" into WikiLeaks.[6] It emerged from legal documents leaked over the ensuing months that Assange and others were being investigated by a federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia.[96]

In August 2011, WikiLeaks volunteer Sigurdur Thordarson, working in his home country Iceland, contacted the FBI and, after presenting a copy of Assange's passport at the American embassy, became the first informant to work for the FBI from inside WikiLeaks. In November 2011, WikiLeaks dismissed Thordarson due to what the organization said was his embezzlement of $50,000, to which charge (along with several other offences) he later pleaded guilty in an Icelandic court.[97] According to Thordarson, a few months after his dismissal by WikiLeaks the FBI agreed to pay him $5,000 as compensation for work missed while meeting with agents.[98]

In December 2011, prosecutors in the Chelsea Manning case revealed the existence of chat logs between Manning and an interlocutor they claimed was Assange.[99][100] Assange said that WikiLeaks has no way of knowing the identity of its sources and that chats with sources, including user-names, were anonymous.[101][102][103] In January 2011, Assange described the allegation that WikiLeaks had conspired with Manning as "absolute nonsense".[104] The logs were presented as evidence during Manning's court-martial in June–July 2013.[105] The prosecution argued that they showed WikiLeaks helping Manning reverse-engineer a password.[106] During her trial, Manning said she acted on her own to send documents to WikiLeaks and no one associated with WikiLeaks pressured her into giving more information.[107]

In 2013, US officials said that it was unlikely that the Justice Department would indict Assange for publishing classified documents because it would also have to prosecute the news organisations and writers who published classified material.[108]

In June 2013, The New York Times said that court and other documents suggested that Assange was being examined by a grand jury and "several government agencies", including by the FBI.[109] Court documents published in May 2014 suggest that Assange was under "active and ongoing" investigation at that time.[110]

Some Snowden documents published in 2014 showed that the U.S. government had put Assange on its 2010 "Manhunting Timeline", an annual account of efforts to capture or kill alleged terrorists and others,[111] and in the same period urged allies to open criminal investigations into Assange.[112] In the same documents, there was a proposal by the National Security Agency (NSA) to designate WikiLeaks a "malicious foreign actor", thus increasing the surveillance against it.[111]

In January 2015, WikiLeaks issued a statement saying that three members of the organisation had received notice from Google that Google had complied with a federal warrant by a US District Court to turn over their emails and metadata on 5 April 2012.[113] In July 2015, Assange called himself a "wanted journalist" in an open letter to the French president published in Le Monde.[114] In a December 2015 court submission, the US government confirmed its "sensitive, ongoing law enforcement proceeding into the Wikileaks matter".[115][non-primary source needed]

Under the Obama Administration, the Department of Justice did not indict Assange because it was unable to find any evidence that his actions differed from those of a journalist.[116] However, after President Donald Trump took office, CIA director Mike Pompeo and Attorney General Jeff Sessions stepped up pursuit of Assange.[117]

In April 2017, US officials were preparing to file formal charges against Assange.[118] Legal scholar Steve Vladeck said prosecutors accelerated the case in 2019 due to the impending statute of limitations on Assange's largest leaks.[119]

Swedish sexual assault allegations[edit]

Demonstration in support of Assange in front of Sydney Town Hall, 10 December 2010

Assange visited Sweden in August 2010. During his visit, he became the subject of sexual assault allegations from two women.[120] Assange denied the allegations and said he was happy to face questions in Britain.[121][122]

On 20 November 2010, the Swedish police issued an international arrest warrant. Later that day, Assange told journalist Raffi Khatchadourian that Sweden has a "very, very poor judicial system" and a culture of "crazed radical feminist ideology". He commented that, more importantly, his case involved international politics, and that "Sweden is a U.S. satrapy."[123] In a later interview he described Sweden as "the Saudi Arabia of feminism."[124] On 8 December 2010, Assange gave himself up to British police and attended his first extradition hearing, where he was remanded in custody. On 16 December 2010, at the second hearing, he was granted bail by the High Court of Justice and released after his supporters paid £240,000 in cash and sureties. A further hearing on 24 February 2011 ruled that Assange should be extradited to Sweden. This decision was upheld by the High Court on 2 November and by the Supreme Court on 30 May the next year.[125]

After previously stating that she could not question a suspect by video link or in the Swedish embassy, prosecutor Marianne Ny wrote to the English Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in 2013. Her letter advised that she intended to lift the detention order and withdraw the European arrest warrant as the actions were not proportionate to the costs and seriousness of the crime. In response, the CPS tried to dissuade Ny from doing so.[126]

In March 2015, after public criticism from other Swedish law practitioners, Ny changed her mind about interrogating Assange, who had taken refuge in the Ecuadorian embassy in London.[127] These interviews, which began on 14 November 2016, involved the British police, Swedish prosecutors and Ecuadorian officials, and were eventually published online.[128] By that time, the statute of limitations had expired on all three of the less serious allegations. Since the Swedish prosecutor had not interviewed Assange by 18 August 2015, the questioning pertained only to the open investigation of "lesser degree rape".[129][130][121][131]

On 19 May 2017, the Swedish authorities suspended their investigation, saying they could not expect the Ecuadorian Embassy to communicate reliably with Assange with respect to the case. Chief prosecutor Marianne Ny officially revoked his arrest warrant, but said the investigation could still be resumed if Assange visited Sweden before August 2020.[132][133][134]

Following Assange's arrest on 11 April 2019, the case was reopened, in May 2019, under prosecutor Eva-Marie Persson.[135] On 19 November, she announced that she had discontinued her investigation, saying that the evidence was not strong enough. She added that although she was confident in the complainant, "the evidence has weakened considerably due to the long period of time that has elapsed".[13]

Ecuadorian embassy period[edit]

Entering the embassy[edit]

Assange on the balcony of Ecuadorian embassy in London in 2012

On 19 June 2012, the Ecuadorian foreign minister, Ricardo Patiño, announced that Assange had applied for political asylum, that the Ecuadorian government was considering his request, and that Assange was at the Ecuadorian embassy in London.[136]

Assange and his supporters said he was not concerned about any proceedings in Sweden as such, but said that the Swedish allegations were designed to discredit him and were a pretext for his extradition from Sweden to the United States.[137][138][139]

British Foreign Secretary William Hague gave a news conference in response. "We will not allow Mr Assange safe passage out of the United Kingdom, nor is there any legal basis for us to do so," he said. "The United Kingdom does not recognise the principle of diplomatic asylum."[140]

Assange breached his bail conditions by taking up residence in the embassy rather than appearing in court, and faced arrest if he left. Assange's supporters, including journalist Jemima Goldsmith, journalist John Pilger, and filmmaker Ken Loach, forfeited £200,000 in bail.[141] Goldsmith said she was surprised at his asylum bid and had expected him to face the Swedish allegations.[142]

The UK government wrote Patiño that the police were entitled to enter the embassy and arrest Assange under UK law.[143] Patiño said it was an implied threat, stating that "such actions would be a blatant disregard of the Vienna Convention". Officers of the Metropolitan Police Service were stationed outside the embassy from June 2012 to October 2015 to arrest Assange if he left the embassy, and compel him to attend the extradition appeal hearing. The police officers were withdrawn on grounds of cost in October 2015, but the police said they would still deploy "several overt and covert tactics to arrest him". The Metropolitan Police Service said the cost of the policing for the period was £12.6 million.[144]

WikiLeaks insiders stated that Assange decided to seek asylum because he felt abandoned by the Australian government.[139] The Australian attorney-general, Nicola Roxon, had written to Assange's lawyer, Jennifer Robinson, saying that Australia would not seek to involve itself in any international exchanges about Assange's future. She suggested that if Assange was imprisoned in the US, he could apply for an international prisoner transfer to Australia. Assange's lawyers described the letter as a "declaration of abandonment".[139]

Ecuadoran foreign minister Ricardo Patiño met with Assange at the Ecuadorian Embassy on 16 June 2013

On 16 August 2012, Patiño announced that Ecuador was granting Assange political asylum because of the threat represented by the United States secret investigation against him.[145][146][147][148] In its formal statement, Ecuador said that "as a consequence of Assange's determined defense to freedom of expression and freedom of press... in any given moment, a situation may come where his life, safety or personal integrity will be in danger".[149] Latin American states expressed support for Ecuador.[150][151][152][153] Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa confirmed on 18 August that Assange could stay at the embassy indefinitely,[154][155][156] and the following day Assange gave his first speech from the balcony.[157][158] An office converted into a studio apartment, equipped with a bed, telephone, sun lamp, computer, shower, treadmill, and kitchenette, became his home until 11 April 2019.[159][160][161][162]

WikiLeaks publishing[edit]

On 24 April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing the Guantanamo Bay files leak, 779 classified reports on prisoners, past and present, held by the U.S. at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp in Cuba. The documents, dated from 2002 to 2008, revealed prisoners, some of whom were coerced to confess, included children, the elderly and mentally disabled.[163][86]

In July 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing the Syria Files, a collection of more than two million emails from Syrian political figures, government ministries and companies. Assange said the "Syria Files" collection

"helps us not merely to criticize one group or another, but to understand their interests, actions and thoughts. It is only through understanding this conflict that we can hope to resolve it".[164]

In 2013, Assange analysed the Kissinger cables held at the US National Archives and released them in searchable form.[165]

By 2015, WikiLeaks had published more than ten million documents and associated analyses, and was described by Assange as "a giant library of the world's most persecuted documents".[166]

In June 2015, WikiLeaks began publishing confidential and secret Saudi Arabian government documents.[167]

On 25 November 2016, WikiLeaks released emails and internal documents that provided details on U.S. military operations in Yemen from 2009 to March 2015. In a statement accompanying the release of the "Yemen Files", Assange said about the U.S. involvement in the Yemen war: "The war in Yemen has produced 3.15 million internally displaced persons. Although the United States government has provided most of the bombs and is deeply involved in the conduct of the war itself, reportage on the war in English is conspicuously rare."[168]

In December 2016, WikiLeaks published emails from the Turkish government in response to Erdoğan's post-coup purges in Turkey. The emails covered the period from 2010 to July 2016. In response, Turkey blocked access to the WikiLeaks site.[169][170][171]

Public positions[edit]

WikiLeaks Party

Assange stood for the Australian Senate in the 2013 Australian federal election for the newly formed WikiLeaks Party but failed to win a seat.[172] The party experienced internal dissent over its governance and electoral tactics and was deregistered due to low membership numbers in 2015.[173][174]

Edward Snowden

In 2013, Assange and others in WikiLeaks helped whistleblower Edward Snowden flee from US law enforcement. After the United States cancelled Snowden's passport, stranding him in Russia, they considered transporting him to Latin America on the presidential jet of a sympathetic Latin American leader. In order to throw the US off the scent, they spoke about the jet of the Bolivian president Evo Morales, instead of the jet they were considering.[175] In July 2013, Morales' jet was forced to land in Austria after the US pressured Italy, France, and Spain to deny the jet access to their airspace over false rumours Snowden was on board.[176][177] Assange said the grounding "reveals the true nature of the relationship between Western Europe and the United States" as "a phone call from U.S. intelligence was enough to close the airspace to a booked presidential flight, which has immunity". Assange advised Snowden that he would be safest in Russia which was better able to protect its borders than Venezuela, Brazil or Ecuador.[175][178] In 2015, Maria Luisa Ramos, the Bolivian ambassador to Russia, accused Assange of putting Morales' life at risk. Assange stated that he regretted what happened but that "[w]e can't predict that other countries engage in some ... unprecedented criminal operation".[175]

Operation Speargun

Documents provided by Edward Snowden showed that in 2012 and 2013 the NZ government worked to establish a secret mass surveillance programme which it called "Operation Speargun". On 15 September 2014, Assange appeared via remote video link on Kim Dotcom's Moment of Truth town hall meeting[179] held in Auckland, which discussed the programme. Assange said the Snowden documents showed that he had been a target of the programme and that "Operation Speargun" represented "an extreme, bizarre, Orwellian future that is being constructed secretly in New Zealand".[180]

Demonstration outside the Ecuadorian embassy to free Assange, 16 June 2013

On 3 July 2015, Paris newspaper Le Monde published an open letter from Assange to French President François Hollande in which Assange urged the French government to grant him refugee status.[114] In response to this letter, Hollande said: "France cannot act on his request. The situation of Mr Assange does not present an immediate danger."[181]

John Pilger, Richard Gizbert, and Julian Assange – 'The WikiLeaks Files' Book Launch – Foyles, London, 29 September 2015

Other developments[edit]

In 2015, La Repubblica stated that it had evidence of the UK's role via the English Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in creating the "legal and diplomatic quagmire" which prevented Assange from leaving the Ecuadorian embassy. La Repubblica sued the CPS in 2017 to obtain further information but its case was rejected with the judge saying "the need for the British authorities to protect the confidentiality of the extradition process outweighs the public interest of the press to know".[182] A further appeal was rejected in September 2019.[182][183]

On 5 February 2016, the UN's Working Group on Arbitrary Detention concluded that Assange had been subject to arbitrary detention by the UK and Swedish Governments since 7 December 2010, including his time in prison, on conditional bail and in the Ecuadorian embassy. The Working Group said Assange should be allowed to walk free and be given compensation.[184][185] The UK and Swedish governments denied the charge of detaining Assange arbitrarily.[186] The UK Foreign Secretary, Philip Hammond, said the charge was "ridiculous" and that the group was "made up of lay people", and called Assange a "fugitive from justice" who "can come out any time he chooses",[187] and called the panel's ruling "flawed in law".[188] Swedish prosecutors called the group's charge irrelevant.[189] The UK said it would arrest Assange should he leave the embassy.[190] Mark Ellis, executive director of the International Bar Association, stated that the finding is "not binding on British law".[191] US legal scholar Noah Feldman described the Working Group's conclusion as astonishing, summarising it as "Assange might be charged with a crime in the US. Ecuador thinks charging him with violating national security law would amount to 'political persecution' or worse. Therefore Sweden must give up on its claims to try him for rape, and Britain must ignore the Swedes' arrest warrant and let him leave the country."[192]

In September 2016[193] and again on 12 January 2017,[194] WikiLeaks tweeted that Assange would agree to US prison in exchange for President Obama granting Chelsea Manning clemency. After commuting Manning's sentence on 17 January 2017, Obama stated that Assange's offer had not been a consideration.[195]

On 19 May 2017, Assange emerged on the embassy's balcony and told a crowd that, despite no longer facing a Swedish sex investigation, he would remain inside the embassy to avoid extradition to the United States.[196]

2016 U.S. presidential election[edit]

During the 2016 US Democratic Party presidential primaries, WikiLeaks hosted a searchable database of emails sent or received by presidential candidate Hillary Clinton while she was Secretary of State. The emails had been released by the US State Department under a Freedom of information request in February 2016.[197][198] The emails were a major point of discussion during the presidential election and prompted an FBI investigation of Clinton for using a private email server for classified documents while she was US Secretary of State.[199]

In February 2016, Assange wrote: "I have had years of experience in dealing with Hillary Clinton and have read thousands of her cables. Hillary lacks judgment and will push the United States into endless, stupid wars which spread terrorism. ... she certainly should not become president of the United States."[200] On 25 July, following the Republican National Convention, Assange said that choosing between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump is like choosing between cholera or gonorrhoea. "Personally, I would prefer neither."[201][202][203] In an Election Day statement, Assange criticised both Clinton and Trump, saying that "The Democratic and Republican candidates have both expressed hostility towards whistleblowers."[204]

Image of Debbie Wasserman Schultz speaking at Democratic national Convention
Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned as DNC chairwoman following WikiLeaks releases suggesting bias against Bernie Sanders.

On 22 July 2016, WikiLeaks released emails and documents from the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in which the DNC seemingly presented ways of undercutting Clinton's competitor Bernie Sanders and showed apparent favouritism towards Clinton. The release led to the resignation of DNC chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz and an apology to Sanders from the DNC.[205][206] The New York Times wrote that Assange had timed the release to coincide with the 2016 Democratic National Convention because he believed Clinton had pushed for his indictment and he regarded her as a "liberal war hawk".[207]

On 7 October, The Washington Post published a story on the Access Hollywood tape, a recording of a Trump interview conducted by television host Billy Bush in 2005, in which, said The Post, Trump "bragged in vulgar terms about kissing, groping and trying to have sex with women."[208] Also on 7 October, shortly after the Post article was released, Assange posted a press release on WikiLeaks exposing a second batch of emails with over 2,000 mails from Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta.[209]

In mid-October, the Ecuadorian government severed Assange's Internet connection because of the leaks.[210] In December, Assange said the connection had been restored.[211]

Cybersecurity experts attributed the attack to the Russian government.[212] The Central Intelligence Agency, together with several other agencies, concluded that Russian intelligence agencies hacked the DNC servers, as well as Podesta's email account, and provided the information to WikiLeaks to bolster Trump's election campaign.[213] As a result of Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, 12 Russian GRU military intelligence agents were indicted on 13 July 2018 for the attack on the DNC mail-server. According to the Mueller report, this group shared these mails using the pseudonym Guccifer 2.0 with WikiLeaks and other entities.[214] The investigation also unearthed communications between Guccifer 2.0, WikiLeaks and the Trump campaign, in which they coordinated the release of the material.[209]

In interviews, Assange repeatedly said that the Russian government was not the source of the DNC and Podesta emails,[215][216][217] and accused the Clinton campaign of "a kind of neo-McCarthy hysteria" about Russian involvement.[218] On the eve of the election, Assange addressed the criticism he had received for publishing Clinton material, saying that WikiLeaks publishes "material given to us if it is of political, diplomatic, historical or ethical importance and which has not been published elsewhere," that it had never received any information on Trump, Jill Stein, or Gary Johnson's campaign.[219][220]

A 2017 article in Foreign Policy said that WikiLeaks turned down leaks on the Russian government, focusing instead on hacks relating to the US presidential election.[221] WikiLeaks said that, as far as it could recall, the material was already public.[221]

In April 2018, the DNC sued WikiLeaks for the theft of the DNC's information under various Virginia and US federal statutes. It accused WikiLeaks and Russia of a "brazen attack on American democracy".[222] The Committee to Protect Journalists said that the lawsuit raised several important press freedom questions.[223] The suit was dismissed with prejudice in July 2019. Judge John Koeltl said that WikiLeaks "did not participate in any wrongdoing in obtaining the materials in the first place" and were therefore within the law in publishing the information.[224]

Seth Rich[edit]

In a July 2016 interview on Dutch television, Assange hinted that DNC staffer Seth Rich was the source of the DNC emails and that Rich had been killed as a result. Seeking clarification, the interviewer asked Assange whether Rich's killing was "simply a murder," to which Assange answered, "No. There's no finding. So, I'm suggesting that our sources take risks, and they become concerned to see things occurring like that."[225][226] WikiLeaks offered a $20,000 reward for information about his murder and wrote:[227] "We treat threats toward any suspected source of WikiLeaks with extreme gravity. This should not be taken to imply that Seth Rich was a source to WikiLeaks or to imply that his murder is connected to our publications."

Assange's comments were highlighted by right-wing outlets such as Fox News, The Washington Times and conspiracy website InfoWars[227][228][229] and set off a spike in attention to the murder. Assange's statements lent credibility and visibility to what had at that point been a conspiracy theory in the fringe parts of the Internet.[230] According to the Mueller investigation, Assange "implied falsely" that Rich was the source to obscure the fact that Russia was the source.[231][232][233] Assange received the emails when Rich was already dead and continued to confer with the Russian hackers to coordinate the release of the material.[209][231]

Later years in the embassy[edit]

Rafael Correa, who was openly sympathetic to Assange, served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017

In March 2017, WikiLeaks began releasing the largest leak of CIA documents in history, codenamed Vault 7. The documents included details of the CIA's hacking capabilities and software tools used to break into smartphones, computers and other Internet-connected devices.[234] In April, CIA director Mike Pompeo called WikiLeaks "a non-state hostile intelligence service often abetted by state actors like Russia".[235] Assange accused the CIA of trying to "subvert" his right to freedom of speech.[236] According to former intelligence officials, in the wake of the Vault 7 leaks, the CIA plotted to kidnap Assange from Ecuador's London embassy, and some senior officials discussed his potential assassination. Yahoo! News found "no indication that the most extreme measures targeting Assange were ever approved." Some of its sources stated that they had alerted House and Senate intelligence committees to the plans that Pompeo was suggesting.[237][238][239][240] In October 2021, Assange's lawyers introduced the alleged plot during a hearing of the High Court of Justice in London as it considered the U.S. appeal of a lower court's ruling that Assange could not be extradited to face charges in the U.S.[241][242][243]

On 6 June 2017, Assange tweeted his support for NSA leaker Reality Winner, who had been arrested three days earlier.[244] Winner had been identified in part because a reporter from The Intercept showed a leaked document to the government without removing possibly incriminating evidence about its leaker. WikiLeaks later offered a $10,000 reward for information about the reporter responsible.[245]

On 16 August 2017, US Republican congressman Dana Rohrabacher visited Assange and told him that Trump would pardon him on condition that he said Russia was not involved in the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leaks.[246][247] At his extradition hearings in 2020, Assange's lawyers told the court that Rohrabacher had said the offer was made "on instructions from the president". Trump and Rohrabacher said they had never spoken about the offer and Rohrabacher said he had made the offer on his own initiative.[246][247][248]

In August 2017, in the midst of the Qatar diplomatic crisis, Dubai-based Al Arabiya said Assange had refrained from publishing two cables about Qatar after negotiations between WikiLeaks and Qatar. Assange said Al Arabiya had been publishing "increasingly absurd fabrications" during the dispute.[249] In September 2017, Assange released "Spy Files Russia," revealing "how a St. Petersburg-based technology company called Peter-Service helped Russian state entities gather detailed data on Russian cellphone users, part of a national system of online surveillance called System for Operative Investigative Activities (SORM)." According to Moscow-based journalist Fred Weir, "experts say it casts a timely spotlight on the vast surveillance operations mounted by Russian security services."[250]

Assange was granted Ecuadorian citizenship in December 2017.[251]

In February 2018, after Sweden had suspended its investigation, Assange brought two legal actions, arguing that Britain should drop its arrest warrant for him as it was "no longer right or proportionate to pursue him" and the arrest warrant for breaching bail had lost its "purpose and its function". In both cases, Senior District Judge Emma Arbuthnot ruled that the arrest warrant should remain in place.[252][253]

In March 2018, Assange used social media to criticise Germany's arrest of Catalonian separatist leader Carles Puigdemont. On 28 March 2018, Ecuador responded by cutting Assange's internet connection because his social media posts put at risk Ecuador's relations with European nations.[254] In May 2018, The Guardian reported that over five years Ecuador had spent at least $5 million (£3.7m) to protect Assange, employing a security company and undercover agents to monitor his visitors, embassy staff and the British police. Ecuador reportedly also devised plans to help Assange escape should British police forcibly enter the embassy to seize him. The Guardian reported that by 2014 Assange had compromised the embassy's communications system. WikiLeaks described the allegation as "an anonymous libel aligned with the current UK-US government onslaught against Mr Assange".[255] In July 2018, President Moreno said that he wanted Assange out of the embassy provided that Assange's life was not in danger.[256] By October 2018, Assange's communications were partially restored.[257]

On 16 October 2018, congressmen from the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs wrote an open letter to President Moreno which described Assange as a dangerous criminal and stated that progress between the US and Ecuador in the areas of economic co-operation, counter-narcotics assistance and the return of a USAID mission to Ecuador depended on Assange being handed over to the authorities.[258][259]

In October 2018, Assange sued the government of Ecuador for violating his "fundamental rights and freedoms" by threatening to remove his protection and cut off his access to the outside world, refusing him visits from journalists and human rights organisations and installing signal jammers to prevent phone calls and internet access.[260][261] An Ecuadorian judge ruled against him, saying that requiring Assange to pay for his Internet use and clean up after his cat did not violate his right to asylum.[262]

In November 2018, Pamela Anderson, a close friend and regular visitor of Assange, gave an interview in which she asked the Australian prime minister, Scott Morrison, to defend Assange.[263] Morrison rejected the request with a response Anderson considered "smutty". Anderson responded that "[r]ather than making lewd suggestions about me, perhaps you should instead think about what you are going to say to millions of Australians when one of their own is marched in an orange jumpsuit to Guantanamo Bay – for publishing the truth. You can prevent this."[264]

On 21 December 2018, the UN's Working Group on Arbitrary Detention urged the UK to let Assange leave the embassy freely. In a statement, the organisation said that the "Swedish investigations have been closed for over 18 months now, and the only ground remaining for Mr Assange's continued deprivation of liberty is a bail violation in the UK, which is, objectively, a minor offense that cannot post-facto justify the more than six years' confinement that he has been subjected to".[265]

In February 2019, the parliament of Geneva passed a motion demanding that the Swiss government extend asylum to Assange.[266] In January 2020, the Catalan Dignity Commission awarded Assange its 2019 Dignity Prize for supporting the Catalan people during the 2017 Catalan independence referendum.[267]

In March 2019, Assange submitted a complaint to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights asking the Ecuadorian government to "ease the conditions that it had imposed on his residence" at the embassy and to protect him from extradition to the US. It also requested US prosecutors unseal criminal charges that had been filed against him. Assange said the Ecuadorian embassy was trying to end his asylum by spying on him and restricting his visitors. The commission rejected his complaint.[268]

Surveillance of Assange in the embassy[edit]

On 10 April 2019, WikiLeaks said it had uncovered an extensive surveillance operation against Assange from within the embassy. WikiLeaks said that "material including video, audio, copies of private legal documents and a medical report" had surfaced in Spain and that unnamed individuals in Madrid had made an extortion attempt.[269][270]

On 26 September 2019, the Spanish newspaper El País reported that the Spanish defence and security company Undercover Global S.L. (UC Global) had spied on Assange for the CIA during his time in the embassy. UC Global had been contracted to protect the embassy during this time. According to the report UC Global's owner David Morales had provided the CIA with audio and video of meetings Assange held with his lawyers and colleagues. Morales also arranged for the US to have direct access to the stream from video cameras installed in the embassy at the beginning of December 2017. The evidence was part of a secret investigation by Spain's High Court, the Audiencia Nacional, into Morales and his relationship with US intelligence. The investigation was precipitated by a complaint by Assange that accused UC Global of violating his privacy and client-attorney privileges as well as committing misappropriation, bribery and money laundering.[271]

Morales was arrested in September on charges involving violations of privacy and client-attorney privileges, as well as misappropriation, bribery, money laundering and criminal possession of weapons. He was released on bail. On 25 September, Spanish Judge José de la Mata sent British authorities a European Investigation Order (EIO) asking for permission to question Assange by videoconference as a witness in the case against Morales. The United Kingdom Central Authority (UKCA), which is in charge of processing and responding to EIOs in the UK, provisionally denied De la Mata's request to question Assange, raised a number of objections to the request, and asked for more details. De la Mata responded to UKCA's objections on 14 October by stating that Assange was the victim who had filed the complaint and that unlawful disclosure of secrets and bribery are also crimes in the UK. He said that the crimes were partially committed on Spanish territory because the microphones used to spy on Assange were bought in Spain, and the information obtained was sent and uploaded to servers at UC Global S. L.'s headquarters in Spain.[272]

Spanish judicial bodies were upset at having their EIO request denied by UKCA and believed the British justice system is concerned by the effect the Spanish case may have on the process to extradite Assange to the US.[272]

In a November 2019 article, Stefania Maurizi said she had access to some of the videos, audios and photos showing a medical examination of Assange, a meeting between Ecuadorian ambassador Carlos Abad Ortiz and his staff, a meeting between Assange, Glenn Greenwald and David Miranda and lunch between Assange and British rapper M.I.A. Microphones had been placed in the women's toilets to capture meetings between Assange and his lawyers. Phones belonging to some of the embassy's visitors were compromised. Spanish lawyer Aitor Martinez, who is part of Assange's legal team, said videos were taken of meetings between Assange and his legal defence team. Maurizi concluded that, based on statements from former employees of UC Global, internal UC Global emails and the type of information collected, it was clear that the surveillance was conducted on behalf of the US government and the information gathered would be used by the US to assist in its case for extraditing Assange.[273]

Britain agreed to allow Judge De la Mata to interview Assange via video link on 20 December.[274] According to his lawyer, Assange testified that he was unaware that cameras installed by Undercover Global were also capturing audio and suggested the surveillance likely targeted his legal team.[275]

Imprisonment and extradition proceedings[edit]

Arrest in the embassy[edit]

Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019

On 2 April 2019, Ecuador's president Moreno said that Assange had violated the terms of his asylum, after photos surfaced on the internet linking Moreno to a corruption scandal.[276][277] WikiLeaks said it had acquired none of the published material, and that it merely reported on a corruption investigation against Moreno by Ecuador's legislature.[277] WikiLeaks reported a source within the Ecuadorian government saying that, due to the controversy, an agreement had been reached to expel Assange from the embassy and place him in the custody of UK police.[278][279] According to Assange's father, the revoking of Assange's asylum was connected to an upcoming decision by the International Monetary Fund to grant Ecuador a loan,[280] an assertion also made by critics of Moreno, such as former Ecuadorian foreign minister Guillaume Long.[281][282]

On 11 April 2019 the Ecuadorian government invited the Metropolitan Police into the embassy, and they arrested Assange on the basis of a US extradition warrant.[16] Moreno stated that Ecuador withdrew Assange's asylum after he interfered in Ecuador's domestic affairs, calling Assange a "miserable hacker".[283][284][285] British foreign secretary Jeremy Hunt and prime minister Theresa May applauded Moreno's actions,[286] while Australian prime minister, Scott Morrison, said the arrest "has got nothing to do with [Australia], it is a matter for the US".[287] United Nations Special Rapporteur Agnès Callamard said that British authorities had arbitrarily detained Assange and further endangered his life by their actions.[288]

Conviction for breach of bail[edit]

On the day of his arrest, Assange was charged with breaching the Bail Act 1976 and was found guilty after a short hearing.[289] Assange's defence said chief magistrate Emma Arbuthnot, who had dealt with his case, was biased against him as her husband was directly affected by WikiLeaks' allegations. Judge Michael Snow said it was "unacceptable" to air the claim in front of a "packed press gallery" and that Assange was "a narcissist who cannot get beyond his own selfish interest" and he had "not come close to establishing reasonable excuse".[290]

Assange was remanded to Belmarsh Prison, and on 1 May 2019 was sentenced to 50 weeks imprisonment.[17] The judge said he would be released after serving half of his sentence, subject to other proceedings and conditional upon committing no further offences.[291] The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention said that the verdict contravened "principles of necessity and proportionality" for what it considered a "minor violation".[292][293] Assange appealed his sentence, but dropped his appeal in July.[294]

Espionage indictment in the United States[edit]

Manning in 2017

In 2012 and 2013, US officials indicated that Assange was not named in a sealed indictment.[295][296] On 6 March 2018, a federal grand jury for the Eastern District of Virginia issued a sealed indictment against Assange.[297] In November 2018, US prosecutors accidentally revealed the indictment.[298][299][300][301][302]

In February 2019, Chelsea Manning was subpoenaed to appear before a grand jury in Virginia in the case.[303] When Manning condemned the secrecy of the hearings and refused to testify, she was jailed for contempt of court on 8 March 2019.[304][305][306][307] On 16 May 2019, Manning refused to testify before a new grand jury investigating Assange, stating that she "believe[d] this grand jury seeks to undermine the integrity of public discourse with the aim of punishing those who expose any serious, ongoing, and systemic abuses of power by this government". She was returned to jail for the 18-month term of the grand jury with financial penalties.[308] In June 2021, Chelsea Manning said her grand jury resistance was not contingent on Julian Assange being the target, and that she was not even sure he was. "I treated this no differently than if it was for a protest or for some other grand jury—if it was a grand jury in general, I would respond the same way. But it did appear that this one was about, specifically, the 2010 disclosures; the media was speculating, but our legal team and ourselves, we never got full confirmation as to whether that was the case."[309]

On 11 April 2019, the day of Assange's arrest in London, the indictment against him was unsealed.[310] He was charged with conspiracy to commit computer intrusion (i.e. hacking into a government computer), which carries a maximum 5-year sentence.[311][312] The charges stem from the allegation that Assange attempted and failed to crack a password hash so that Chelsea Manning could use a different username to download classified documents and avoid detection.[116] This allegation had been known since 2011 and was a factor in Manning's trial; the indictment did not reveal any new information about Assange.[116][313]

On 23 May 2019, Assange was indicted on 17 new charges relating to the Espionage Act of 1917 in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.[314] These charges carried a maximum sentence of 170 years in prison.[315] The Obama administration had debated charging Assange under the Espionage Act, but decided against it out of fear that it would have a negative effect on investigative journalism and could be unconstitutional. The New York Times commented that it and other news organisations obtained the same documents as WikiLeaks also without government authorisation. It said it was not clear how WikiLeaks' publications were legally different from other publications of classified information.[316][317]

Most cases brought under the Espionage Act have been against government employees who accessed sensitive information and leaked it to journalists and others.[318] Prosecuting people for acts related to receiving and publishing information has not previously been tested in court.[316] In 1975, the Justice Department decided after consideration not to charge journalist Seymour Hersh for reporting on US surveillance of the Soviet Union.[318] Two lobbyists for a pro-Israel group were charged in 2005 with receiving and sharing classified information about American policy toward Iran. The charges however did not relate to the publication of the documents and the case was dropped in 2009.[316][318]

The Associated Press reported that the indictment raised concerns about media freedom, as Assange's solicitation and publication of classified information is a routine job journalists perform.[319] Steve Vladeck, a professor at the University of Texas School of Law, stated that what Assange is accused of doing is factually different from but legally similar to what professional journalists do.[320] Suzanne Nossel of PEN America said it was immaterial if Assange was a journalist or publisher and pointed instead to First Amendment concerns.[321]

While some American politicians supported the arrest and indictment of Julian Assange, several non-government organisations for press freedom condemned it. Mark Warner, vice chairman of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence said that Assange was "a dedicated accomplice in efforts to undermine American security".[322] Several jurists, politicians, associations, academics and campaigners viewed the arrest of Assange as an attack on freedom of the press and international law.[323][324][325] Reporters Without Borders said Assange's arrest would "set a dangerous precedent for journalists, whistle-blowers, and other journalistic sources that the US may wish to pursue in the future".[326] Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch, wrote that Assange's prosecution for publishing leaked documents is "a major threat to global media freedom".[327] United Nations human rights expert Agnes Callamard said the indictment exposed him to the risk of serious human rights violations.[288] Ben Wizner from the American Civil Liberties Union said that prosecuting Assange "for violating US secrecy laws would set an especially dangerous precedent for US journalists, who routinely violate foreign secrecy laws to deliver information vital to the public's interest".[328][329]

Imprisonment in the UK[edit]

Aerial view of HM Prison Belmarsh

Since his arrest on 11 April 2019, Assange has been incarcerated in Belmarsh Prison in London.[17]

After examining Assange on 9 May 2019, the United Nations special rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Nils Melzer, concluded that "in addition to physical ailments, Mr Assange showed all symptoms typical for prolonged exposure to psychological torture, including extreme stress, chronic anxiety and intense psychological trauma."[330][331] The British government said it disagreed with some of his observations.[332] In a later interview, Melzer criticised the "secretive grand jury indictment in the United States", the "abusive manner in which Swedish prosecutors disseminated, re-cycled and perpetuated their 'preliminary investigation' into alleged sexual offences", the "termination by Ecuador of Mr Assange's asylum status and citizenship without any form of due process", and the "overt bias against Mr Assange being shown by British judges since his arrest". He said the United States, UK, Sweden and Ecuador were trying to make an example of Assange. He also accused journalists of "spreading abusive and deliberately distorted narratives".[333] Shortly after Melzer's visit, Assange was transferred to the prison's health care unit.[334]

On 13 September 2019, District Judge Vanessa Baraitser ruled that Assange would not be released on 22 September when his prison term ended, because he was a flight risk and his lawyer had not applied for bail.[335] She said when his sentence came to an end, his status would change from a serving prisoner to a person facing extradition.[335]

On 1 November 2019, Melzer said that Assange's health had continued to deteriorate and his life had become at risk.[336][334] He said that the UK government had not acted on the issue.[336][334]

On 22 November, in an open letter to the UK Home Secretary and Shadow Home Secretary, signed by a group of medical practitioners named Doctors for Assange, said Assange's health was declining to an extent that he could die in prison.[337] Subsequent attempts by the group, made to the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice Robert Buckland,[338][339] and to Marise Payne, the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, also yielded no result.[340]

On 30 December 2019, Melzer accused the UK government of torturing Julian Assange. He said Assange's "continued exposure to severe mental and emotional suffering ... clearly amounts to psychological torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."[341][342]

On 17 February 2020, the medical journal The Lancet published an open letter from Doctors for Assange,[343] in which they said Assange was in a "dire state of health due to the effects of prolonged psychological torture in both the Ecuadorian embassy and Belmarsh prison" which could lead to his death and that his "politically motivated medical neglect ... sets a dangerous precedent".[344][345][346] On the same day, Reporters Without Borders posted a separate petition which accused the Trump administration of acting in "retaliation for (Assange's) facilitating major revelations in the international media about the way the United States conducted its wars". The petition said, Assange's publications "were clearly in the public interest and not espionage".[347][348] Australian MPs Andrew Wilkie and George Christensen visited Assange and pressed the UK and Australian governments to intervene to stop him being extradited.[349][350]

On 25 March 2020, Assange was denied bail after Judge Baraitser rejected his lawyers' argument that his imprisonment would put him at high risk of contracting COVID-19.[351] She said Assange's past conduct showed how far he was willing to go to avoid extradition.[351] In November 2021, his father told a French interview program that Assange had received a non-mandatory COVID-19 vaccination in Belmarsh Prison.[352]

On 25 June 2020, Doctors for Assange published another letter in The Lancet, "reiterating their demand to end the torture and medical neglect of Julian Assange",[353] in which they state their "professional and ethical duty to speak out against, report, and stop torture".[354][355]

In September 2020, an open letter in support of Assange was sent to Boris Johnson with the signatures of two current heads of state and approximately 160 other politicians.[356] The following month, U.S. Representatives Tulsi Gabbard, a Democrat, and Thomas Massie, a Republican, introduced a resolution opposing the extradition of Assange.[357] In December 2020, German human rights commissioner Bärbel Kofler cautioned the UK about the need to consider Assange's physical and mental health before deciding whether to extradite him.[358]

Hearings on extradition to the U.S.[edit]

The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales (Old Bailey), London

On 2 May 2019, the first hearing was held in London into the U.S. request for Assange's extradition. When asked by Judge Snow whether he consented to extradition, Assange replied, "I do not wish to surrender myself for extradition for doing journalism that has won many, many awards and protected many people".[359][360] On 13 June, British Home Secretary Sajid Javid said he had signed the extradition order.[361]

Towards the end of 2019, Judge Emma Arbuthnot, who had presided at several of the extradition hearings,[362][363] stepped aside because of a "perception of bias".[364] Vanessa Baraitser was appointed as the presiding judge.[364]

On 21 October 2019, Assange appeared at the court for a case management hearing. When Judge Baraitser asked about his understanding of the proceedings, Assange replied:

I don't understand how this is equitable. This superpower had 10 years to prepare for this case and I can't access my writings. It's very difficult where I am to do anything but these people have unlimited resources. They are saying journalists and whistleblowers are enemies of the people. They have unfair advantages dealing with documents. They [know] the interior of my life with my psychologist. They steal my children's DNA. This is not equitable what is happening here.[365]

In February 2020, the court heard legal arguments.[366] Assange's lawyers contended that he had been charged with political offences and therefore could not be extradited.[367] The hearings were delayed for months due to requests for extra time from the prosecution and the defence and due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[368][369] In March, the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute, IBAHRI, condemned the mistreatment of Julian Assange in the extradition trial.[370]

Assange appeared in court on 7 September 2020, facing a new indictment with 18 counts:

  • Conspiracy to obtain and disclose national defence information;
  • Conspiracy to commit computer intrusions;
  • seven counts of Obtaining national defence information;
  • nine counts of Disclosure of national defence information.[371]

The US Department of Justice stated that the new indictment "broaden[s] the scope of ... alleged computer intrusions", alleging that Assange "communicated directly with a leader of the hacking group LulzSec ... and provided a list of targets for LulzSec to hack", and "[conspired] with Army Intelligence Analyst Chelsea Manning to crack a password hash".[371] Judge Baraitser denied motions by Assange's barristers to dismiss the new charges or to adjourn in order to better respond.[366]

Some witnesses who testified in September, such as Daniel Ellsberg, did so remotely via video link due to COVID-19 restrictions. Technical problems caused extensive delays.[372] Amnesty International, PEN Norway, and eight members of the European Parliament had their access to the livestream revoked. Baraitser responded that the initial invitations had been sent in error.[372][373] Torture victim Khaled el-Masri, who was originally requested as a defence witness, had his testimony reduced to a written statement.[374] Other witnesses testified that the conditions of imprisonment, which would be likely to worsen upon extradition to the U.S., placed Assange at a high risk of depression and suicide which was exacerbated by his Asperger syndrome.[375] During the court proceedings defence drew attention to a prison service report stating that a hidden razor blade had been found by a prison officer during a search of Assange's cell.[376] During the proceedings it was also revealed that Assange had contacted the Samaritans phone service on numerous occasions.[377]

Patrick Eller, a former forensics examiner with the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command, testified that Assange did not crack and could not have cracked the password mentioned in the U.S. indictment, as Chelsea Manning had intentionally sent only a portion of the password's hash. Moreover, Eller stated that password cracking was a common topic of discussion among other soldiers stationed at Forward Operating Base Hammer, suggesting that Manning's message was unrelated to the classified documents which were already in her possession.[378] Testimony on 30 September revealed new allegations surrounding the surveillance of the Ecuadorian embassy by UC Global. A former UC Global employee, who spoke anonymously fearing reprisals, stated that the firm undertook "an increasingly sophisticated operation" after it was put into contact with the Trump administration by Sheldon Adelson. According to the employee, intelligence agents discussed plans to break into the embassy to kidnap or poison Assange and attempted to obtain the DNA of a baby who was believed to be Assange's child.[379]

To coincide with the end of the hearing, Progressive International convened a virtual event called the Belmarsh Tribunal, modelled after the Russell Tribunal, to scrutinise what it calls "the crimes that have been revealed by Assange, and the crimes that have been committed against him, in turn".[380]

Hearings, including a statement in support of the defence by Noam Chomsky, concluded on 1 October 2020.[381]

On 4 January 2021, Judge Baraitser ruled that Assange could not be extradited to the United States, citing concerns about his mental health and the risk of suicide in a US prison.[382][383] She sided with the US on every other point, including whether the charges constituted political offences and whether he was entitled to freedom of speech protections.[384]

Appeal and other developments[edit]

On 6 January, Assange was denied bail on the grounds that he was a flight risk, pending an appeal by the United States.[21] The US prosecutors lodged an appeal on 15 January.[385] A spokesman for the U.S. Department of Justice confirmed in mid-February 2021 that it would continue the appeal under the new Biden administration.[384]

Following the decision by Judge Baraitser that it would be "oppressive to extradite [Assange] to the United States," in July 2021 the Biden administration assured the Crown Prosecution Services that "Mr Assange will not be subject to SAMs or imprisoned at ADX (unless he were to do something subsequent to the offering of these assurances that meets the tests for the imposition of SAMs or designation to ADX)". The United States also assured that it "will consent to Mr Assange being transferred to Australia to serve any custodial sentence imposed on him."[386] An Amnesty International expert on national security and human rights in Europe said, "Those are not assurances at all. It's not that difficult to look at those assurances and say: these are inherently unreliable, it promises to do something and then reserves the right to break the promise".[387]

In June 2021 Icelandic newspaper Stundin published details of an interview with Sigurdur Ingi Thordarson, the witness identified as "Teenager" in the U.S. Justice Department's case against Assange. In the interview Thordarson, who had received a promise of immunity from prosecution in return for co-operating with the FBI, stated he had fabricated allegations used in the U.S. indictment.[388][389][390][391][392][393]

Also in June 2021, Julian Assange's half brother Gabriel Shipton and father John Shipton left Australia to conduct a month-long 17 city tour of the United States to generate awareness and support for Assange and press freedom. In a St. Paul event, sponsored by Women Against Military Madness, the Shiptons asked supporters to appeal to members of Congress to weigh in with the Justice Department to reconsider its prosecution.[394] Ecuador revoked Assange's citizenship in July 2021.[251]

In August 2021 in the High Court, Lord Justice Holroyde decided that Judge Baraitser may have given too much weight to what Holroyde called "a misleading report" by an expert witness for the defence, psychiatrist Prof Michael Kopelman, and that the contested risk of suicide could now form part of the appeal.[395]

In October 2021, the High Court held a two-day appeal hearing presided over by Ian Burnett, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, and Lord Justice Holroyde.[396][397] On day one, the U.S. prosecution argued that Assange's health issues were less severe than claimed during the initial extradition hearing and that his depression was moderate rather than severe. They also drew attention to binding assurances given by the U.S. concerning his proposed treatment in custody. On day two, Assange's defence drew attention to a Yahoo! News report that the CIA had plotted to poison, abduct or assassinate Assange. Edward Fitzgerald QC argued: "Given the revelations of surveillance in the embassy and plots to kill [Assange]," "there are great grounds for fearing what will be done to him" if extradited to the U.S. He urged the court "not to trust [the] assurances" of the "same government" alleged to have plotted Assange's killing.[398] A ruling is expected by the end of November 2021,[397] after which the losing side can appeal to the Supreme Court.[399]

Writings and opinions[edit]

Quotations related to Julian Assange at Wikiquote

Assange has written a few short pieces, including "State and terrorist conspiracies" (2006),[400] "Conspiracy as governance" (2006),[401] "The hidden curse of Thomas Paine" (2008),[402] "What's new about WikiLeaks?" (2011),[403] and the foreword to Cypherpunks (2012).[404] Cypherpunks is primarily a transcript of World Tomorrow episode eight, a two-part interview between Assange, Jacob Appelbaum, Andy Müller-Maguhn, and Jérémie Zimmermann. In the foreword, Assange said, "the Internet, our greatest tool for emancipation, has been transformed into the most dangerous facilitator of totalitarianism we have ever seen".[404] He also contributed research to Suelette Dreyfus's Underground (1997),[37] and received a co-writer credit for the Calle 13 song "Multi Viral" (2013). In 2010, Assange said he was a libertarian and that "WikiLeaks is designed to make capitalism more free and ethical".[405]

In 2010, Assange received a deal for his autobiography worth at least US$1.3 million.[406][407][408] In 2011, Canongate Books published Julian Assange, The Unauthorised Autobiography.[409] Assange immediately disavowed it, stating, "I am not 'the writer' of this book. I own the copyright of the manuscript, which was written by Andrew O'Hagan." Assange accused Canongate of breaching their contract by publishing, against his wishes, a draft that Assange considered "a work in progress" and "entirely uncorrected or fact-checked by me."[410] In 2014, O'Hagan wrote about his experience as Assange's ghostwriter. "The story of his life mortified him and sent him scurrying for excuses," O'Hagan recalled. "He didn't want to do the book. He hadn't from the beginning."[411] Colin Robinson, co-publisher of Assange's 2012 book Cypherpunks, criticised O'Hagan for largely ignoring the bigger issues about which Assange had been warning, and noted that O'Hagan's piece "is no part of an organised dirty tricks campaign. But by focusing as it does on Assange's character defects, it ends up serving much the same purpose."[412]

Assange's book When Google Met WikiLeaks was published by OR Books in 2014.[413] It recounts when Google CEO Eric Schmidt requested a meeting with Assange, while he was on bail in rural Norfolk, UK. Schmidt was accompanied by Jared Cohen, director of Google Ideas; Lisa Shields, vice president of the Council on Foreign Relations; and Scott Malcomson, the communications director for the International Crisis Group. Excerpts were published on the Newsweek website, while Assange participated in a Q&A event that was facilitated by the Reddit website and agreed to an interview with Vogue magazine.[414][415][416]

In 2011, an article in Private Eye by its editor, Ian Hislop, recounted a rambling phone call he had received from Assange, who was especially angry about Private Eye′s report that Israel Shamir, an Assange associate in Russia, was a Holocaust denier.[417][418][419] Assange suggested, Hislop wrote, "that British journalists, including the editor of The Guardian, were engaged in a Jewish-led conspiracy to smear his organization." Assange subsequently responded that Hislop had "distorted, invented or misremembered almost every significant claim and phrase." He added, "We treasure our strong Jewish support and staff, just as we treasure the support from pan-Arab democracy activists and others who share our hope for a just world."[417]

Personal life[edit]

While in his teens, Assange married a girl named Teresa, and in 1989 they had a son named Daniel.[29][47][420] The couple separated and disputed custody of Daniel until 1999.[30] According to Assange's mother, during the time of the custody dispute, his brown hair turned white.[23][30] In 2015, in an open letter to French President Hollande, Assange said that his youngest child was French, as was the child's mother.[114][421] He also said his family had faced death threats and harassment because of his work, forcing them to change identities and reduce contact with him.[114]

In 2015, Assange began a relationship with Stella Moris (AKA Stella Moris-Smith Robertson),[citation needed] his South African-born lawyer. They became engaged in 2017 and had two children. Moris revealed their relationship in 2020 because she feared for Assange's life.[422][423][424][425] On 7 November 2021, the couple said they were preparing legal action against Deputy UK Prime Minister Dominic Raab and Jenny Louis, governor of Belmarsh prison. Assange and Moris accused Raab and Louis of denying their and their two children's human rights, by blocking and delaying Moris and Assange from getting married.[426] On 11 November, the prison service said it had granted permission for the couple to marry in Belmarsh prison. The Service said the application had been "considered in the usual way by the prison governor".[427]

Assessments[edit]

Gun camera footage of the airstrike of 12 July 2007 in Baghdad, showing the deaths of journalists Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh by a US helicopter
The travelling art installation Anything to Say? by Davide Dormino featuring bronze sculptures of Assange, Snowden, and Manning standing on chairs, in Berlin on May Day 2015.[428]

Views on Assange have been given by a number of public figures, including journalists, well-known whistleblowers, activists and world leaders. In July 2010, Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg said that "Assange has shown much better judgment with respect to what he has revealed than the people who kept those items secret inside the government."[429] In October 2010, Ellsberg flew to London to give Assange his support.[430] In November 2010, an individual from the office of then-President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev suggested that Assange should be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[431][432] In December 2010, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, then President of Brazil, said "They have arrested him and I don't hear so much as a single protest for freedom of expression," and Vladimir Putin, then Prime Minister of Russia, asked at a press conference "Why is Mr Assange in prison? Is this democracy?"[433] In the same month, Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard described his activities as "illegal",[434] but the Australian Federal Police said he had not broken Australian law.[435] Then Vice President of the United States, Joe Biden, was asked whether he saw Assange as closer to a high-tech terrorist than to whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg. Biden responded that he "would argue it is closer to being a high-tech terrorist than the Pentagon Papers".[436] In November 2011, Vaughan Smith, founder of the Frontline Club, supported Assange,[437] and in July 2012 offered his residence in Norfolk for Assange to continue WikiLeaks' operations whilst in the UK.[438] In April 2012, interviewed on Assange's television show World Tomorrow, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa praised WikiLeaks and told his host "Cheer up! Cheer up! Welcome to the club of the persecuted!"[439] In August 2012, historian and journalist Tariq Ali and former ambassador and author Craig Murray spoke in support of Assange outside the Ecuadorian embassy.[440] In April 2013, filmmaker Oliver Stone stated that "Julian Assange did much for free speech and is now being victimised by the abusers of that concept".[441] In November 2014, Spanish Podemos party leader Pablo Iglesias also gave his support to Assange.[442] In July 2015, British Member of Parliament Jeremy Corbyn opposed Assange's extradition to the US,[443] and as Labour Party leader in April 2019 said the British government should oppose Assange's extradition to the US "for exposing evidence of atrocities in Iraq and Afghanistan."[444]

In July 2016, artist and activist Ai Weiwei, musicians Patti Smith, Brian Eno, and PJ Harvey, scholars Noam Chomsky and Yanis Varoufakis, fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, and filmmaker Ken Loach were amongst those attending an event in support of Assange at the embassy.[445] That same month, long-time supporter documentary filmmaker Michael Moore also visited Assange in the embassy.[446] In December 2019, Australian journalist Mary Kostakidis said "I became fascinated at this young, idealistic Australian, very tech-savvy, who developed a way for whistleblowers to upload data anonymously", and said she would be giving "100 per cent of my attention and resources" to his defence.[447] In January 2021, Australian journalist John Pilger stated that were Assange to be extradited "no journalist who challenges power will be safe".[448][141]

American politicians Mitch McConnell, Newt Gingrich and Sarah Palin each either referred to Assange as "a high-tech terrorist" or suggested that through publishing U.S. diplomatic traffic he was engaged in terrorism.[449][450][451] Other American and Canadian politicians and media personalities, including Tom Flanagan,[452][453] Bob Beckel,[454] Mike Huckabee,[455] and Michael Grunwald,[456] called for his assassination or execution, though Grunwald later apologised for this saying "It was a dumb tweet. I'm sorry. I deserve the backlash."[457]

Honours and awards[edit]

Works[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier (1997)
  • Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet. OR Books, 2012. ISBN 978-1-939293-00-8.
  • When Google Met WikiLeaks. OR Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-939293-57-2.[413]
  • The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to The US Empire. By WikiLeaks. Verso Books, 2015. ISBN 978-1-781688-74-8 (with an Introduction by Julian Assange).[480]

Filmography[edit]

Producer
Title Year
Collateral Murder 2010
World Tomorrow 2012 (host)
Mediastan 2013
The Engineer 2013[481]
As himself

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  2. ^ "WikiLeaks names one-time spokesman as editor-in-chief". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  3. ^ "The Julian Assange Show: Cypherpunks Uncut (p.1)" on YouTube
  4. ^ a b Collateral Murder on YouTube, 5 April 2000. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Q&A: Julian Assange and the law". BBC News. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  6. ^ a b Yost, Pete (29 November 2010). "Holder says WikiLeaks under criminal investigation". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  7. ^ "Wikileaks' Assange faces international arrest warrant". BBC News. 20 November 2010.
  8. ^ "Julian Assange should be extradited to Sweden: British MPs". Deutsche Welle. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  9. ^ "What is Julian Assange accused of and why is the WikiLeaks founder being extradited?". The Telegraph (UK). 25 February 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  10. ^ Bowater, Donna (20 June 2012). "Julian Assange faces re-arrest over breaching his bail condition by seeking asylum in Ecuador". The Daily Telegraph.
  11. ^ Neuman, William; Ayala, Maggy (16 August 2012). "Ecuador Grants Asylum to Assange, Defying Britain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  12. ^ Wallace, Arturo (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange: Why Ecuador is offering asylum". BBC. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Julian Assange: Sweden drops rape investigation". BBC. 19 November 2019.
  14. ^ "Leaked DNC emails reveal details of anti-Sanders sentiment". The Guardian.
  15. ^ Ma, Alexandra (14 April 2019). "Assange's arrest was designed to make sure he didn't press a mysterious panic button he said would bring dire consequences for Ecuador". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Police arrest Julian Assange at Ecuadorian Embassy in London". CNN. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  17. ^ a b c "Julian Assange jailed over bail breach". BBC News. 1 May 2019.
  18. ^ "The U.S. says Julian Assange 'is no journalist.' Here's why that shouldn't matter". The Washington Post. 25 May 2019.
  19. ^ "Washington Post, New York Times editors blast Assange indictment". The Hill. 24 May 2019.
  20. ^ Rebaza, Claudia; Fox, Kara (4 January 2021). "UK judge denies US request to extradite Julian Assange". CNN. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  21. ^ a b "UK judge denies bail for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange". CNN. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  22. ^ "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange is planning to get married inside top-security Belmarsh prison". Evening Standard. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  23. ^ a b c Kwek, Glenda (8 December 2010). "Magnet for trouble: how Assange went from simple island life to high-tech public enemy number one". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  24. ^ a b "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange a born and bred Queenslander". The Courier-Mail. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  25. ^ Strutton, Andrew (29 July 2010). "Rogue website author local lad". Townsville Bulletin. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Family notices". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 March 1951. p. 44. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  27. ^ a b c d Leigh, David; Harding, Luke (2011). Wikileaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy. ISBN 978-0-85265-239-8.
  28. ^ a b Guilliatt, Richard (15 June 2013). "For John Shipton, the Wikileaks Party isn't just a political cause". The Australian. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  29. ^ a b c d e Robert Manne (March 2011). "The cypherpunk revolutionary: Julian Assange". The Monthly. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i Khatchadourian, Raffi (7 June 2010). "No secrets: Julian Assange's mission for total transparency". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  31. ^ "The secret life of Julian Assange". CNN. 2 December 2010. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  32. ^ a b Feain, Dominic (29 July 2010). "WikiLeaks founder's Lismore roots". The Northern Star. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  33. ^ Assange, Julian (23 September 2011). "Julian Assange: 'We just kept moving'". The Independent. Retrieved 24 September 2011. Leif Meynell was a member of an Australian cult called The Family.
  34. ^ Calabresi, Massimo (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks' war on secrecy: truth's consequences". Time. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  35. ^ a b Obrist, Hans Ulrich (May 2011). "In conversation with Julian Assange, Part I". e-flux. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  36. ^ "Jeremy Geia first Australian to interview Assange". Gilimbaa. 24 October 2012. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  37. ^ a b c Dreyfus, Suelette (1997). Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier. ISBN 1-86330-595-5.
  38. ^ Bustillos, Maria (17 June 2013). "He Told You So: Julian Assange, the NSA, and Edward Snowden". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 16 September 2021. Assange's youthful hacker name was Mendax ('lying'), allegedly from Horace's phrase 'splendide mendax,' or 'nobly lying'.
  39. ^ a b Lagan, Bernard (10 April 2010). "International man of mystery". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  40. ^ Guilliatt, Richard (30 May 2009). "Rudd Government blacklist hacker monitors police". The Australian. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  41. ^ a b Leigh, David; Harding, Luke Daniel (30 January 2011). "Julian Assange: the teen hacker who became insurgent in information war". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  42. ^ Lowe, Adrian (15 January 2011). "For lonely teenager Assange, a computer was his only friend". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  43. ^ Wilson, Lauren (17 January 2011). "Assange's hacking offences laid bare". The Australian. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  44. ^ a b c Rintoul, Stuart; Parnell, Sean (11 December 2010). "Julian Assange, wild child of free speech". The Australian. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  45. ^ Pearce, Frazer (18 December 2010). "Assange studied at CQU". The Morning Bulletin. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  46. ^ "Meet the Aussie behind Wikileaks". Stuff. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  47. ^ a b Whyte, Sarah (6 December 2010). "Driven to dissent—like father, like son". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  48. ^ Butcher, Steve (12 February 2011). "Assange helped our police catch child pornographers". The Age. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  49. ^ Le Grand, Cipe (12 February 2011). "Julian Assange helped crack Victorian kid porn ring". The Australian. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  50. ^ "Suburbia Public Access Network". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  51. ^ Assange, Julian (9 March 1995). "Strobe v1.01 super optimised TCP port surveyor". Seclists.org. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  52. ^ "Strobe 1.06: A super optimised TCP port surveyor". HP-UX Porting and Archive Centre. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  53. ^ "Contributor profiles". Postgresql.org. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  54. ^ "PostgreSQL commits". Git.postgresql.org. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  55. ^ "NNTPCache Mailing List". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  56. ^ Singel, Ryan (3 July 2008). "Immune to critics, secret-spilling WikiLeaks plans to save journalism ... and the world". Wired. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  57. ^ Dreyfus, Suelette. "The Idiot Savants' Guide to Rubberhose" (PDF). Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  58. ^ a b c Dreyfus, Suelette (15 November 1999). "Network: This is just between us (and the spies)". The Independent. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  59. ^ "Surfraw: Shell Users' Revolutionary Front Rage Against the Web". Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  60. ^ Symington, Annabel (1 September 2009). "Exposed: Wikileaks' secrets". Wired. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  61. ^ "WikiLeaks' Advisory Board". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  62. ^ "Julian Assange answers your questions". The Guardian. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  63. ^ Obrist, Hans Ulrich (May 2011). "In conversation with Julian Assange, Part II". e-flux. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  64. ^ Assange, Julian (22 September 2011). "Julian Assange: 'I knew my life would never be the same'". The Independent. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  65. ^ Shenon, Philip (10 June 2010). "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange hunted by Pentagon over massive leak". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  66. ^ Karhula, Päivikki (5 October 2012). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?". International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  67. ^ "WikiLeaks Cables Help Uncover What Made Tunisians Revolt". PBS. 25 January 2011.
  68. ^ McConnell, Tristan (7 March 2009). "Rights activist Oscar Kamau Kingara shot dead in central Nairobi". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
  69. ^ Sweney, Mark (19 March 2008). "Wikileaks defies 'great firewall of China'". The Guardian.
  70. ^ "Aparecen 86 nuevos petroaudios de Rómulo León" (in Spanish). Terra Peru. 28 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  71. ^ "Former Swiss Banker Is Arrested in WikiLeaks Case, After a Conviction". The New York Times. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2019. Mr. Elmer, who helped bring WikiLeaks to prominence three years ago when he used the Web site to publish secret client details, had admitted sending Julius Baer data to tax authorities.
  72. ^ Jemima Kiss (3 March 2008). "Judge reverses Wikileaks injunction". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  73. ^ Somaiya, Ravi; Werdigier, Julia (17 January 2021). "Ex-Banker Gives Data on Taxes to WikiLeaks". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  74. ^ Zetter, Kim (17 September 2008). "Group Posts E-Mail Hacked From Palin Account – Update". Wired.
  75. ^ Booth, Robert (20 October 2009). "BNP membership list appears on Wikileaks". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  76. ^ "Serious nuclear accident may lay behind Iranian nuke chief's mystery resignation". wikileaks. 16 July 2009. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  77. ^ "6 mysteries about Stuxnet". Blog.foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  78. ^ "Leaks by Year". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  79. ^ "Leaked video shows US military killing of civilians, Reuters staff". France 24. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  80. ^ Vos, Elizabeth (23 April 2019). "New CN Series: The Revelations of WikiLeaks: No. 1—The Video that Put Assange in US Crosshairs". Consortium News. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  81. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 5, 2010). "Video Shows U.S. Killing of Reuters Employees". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 8, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
  82. ^ "Wikileaks defends Iraq war leaks". BBC. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  83. ^ "Wikileaks's leaks mostly confirm earlier Iraq reporting". The Washington Post. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  84. ^ Shubert, Atika (25 October 2010). "WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange dismisses reports of internal strife". CNN. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  85. ^ Davies, Nick; Leigh, David (25 July 2010). "Afghanistan war logs: Massive leak of secret files exposes truth of occupation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  86. ^ a b Poulsen, Kevin (25 April 2011). "WikiLeaks Releases Guantánamo Bay Prisoner Reports". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  87. ^ Leigh, David (28 November 2010). "US embassy cables leak sparks global diplomatic crisis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  88. ^ Lynch, Lisa (2018). "3: The Leak Heard Round the World? Cablegate in the Evolving Global Mediascape". In Brevini, Benedetta; Hintz, Arne; McCurdy, Patrick (eds.). Beyond Wikileaks. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 56. doi:10.1057/9781137275745_4.
  89. ^ a b Marmura, Stephen (2018). The WikiLeaks Paradigm: Paradoxes and Revelations. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-97139-1. Retrieved 13 August 2019. The drama surrounding the leaks reached its peak during 'Cablegate', when Assange decided to release the remaining bulk of nearly 250,000 US diplomatic cables directly on WikiLeaks.org, for fear that the encrypted cache of documents was about to be compromised ... the more WikiLeaks disclosed in 2010, the more public opinion hardened against it. By contrast, the organisation's popularity in the Arab world during roughly the same timeframe was high ... it played a small but arguably important role in the early Arab Spring uprisings of 2011.
  90. ^ "WikiLeaks embassy cables: the key points at a glance". The Guardian. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  91. ^ Booth, Robert; Borger, Julian (28 November 2010). "US Diplomats Spied on UN Leadership – Diplomats Ordered To Gather Intelligence on Ban Ki-Moon – Secret Directives Sent to More than 30 US Embassies – Call for DNA Data, Computer Passwords and Terrorist Links". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  92. ^ MacAskill, Ewen; Booth, Robert (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks Cables: CIA Drew Up UN Spying Wishlist for Diplomats — Agency Identified Priorities for Information on UN Leaders — Cables Reveal Further Evidence of Intelligence Gathering". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  93. ^ White, Gregory (14 January 2011). "This Is The Wikileak That Sparked The Tunisian Crisis". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  94. ^ York, Jillian (2018). "13: The Internet and Transparency Beyond WikiLeaks". In Brevini, Benedetta; Hintz, Arne; McCurdy, Patrick (eds.). Beyond Wikileaks. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 229. doi:10.1057/9781137275745_14.
  95. ^ Dorling, Philip (23 June 2012). "Are Assange's fears justified?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  96. ^ Greeenwald, Glenn (27 April 2011). "FBI serves grand jury subpoena likely relating to WikiLeaks". Salon. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  97. ^ Daðason, Kolbeinn Tumi (22 December 2014). "Siggi "The Hacker" receives a two year prison sentence". Vísir.is. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  98. ^ Poulsen, Kevin (27 June 2013). "WikiLeaks Volunteer Was a Paid Informant for the FBI". Wired. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  99. ^ Zetter, Kim (19 December 2011). "Jolt in WikiLeaks case: Feds found Manning-Assange chat logs on laptop". Wired. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  100. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (20 December 2011). "Bradley Manning case: Investigators show evidence of WikiLeaks link, Assange chats". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  101. ^ Gavett, Gretchen (19 December 2011). "New evidence of Assange-Manning link". PBS. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  102. ^ "Interview Julian Assange". Frontline. PBS. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  103. ^ "'WikiSecrets' Julian Assange Full Interview Footage". WikiLeaks. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  104. ^ Usborne, David (12 June 2013). "Bradley Manning court-martial hears 'evidence of online chats' with Wikileaks founder Julian Assange". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  105. ^ Klasfield, Adam (12 June 2013). "The only chats recovered between Pfc. Bradley Manning and an online chat buddy". Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  106. ^ Weiner, Rachel; Nakashima, Ellen (1 March 2019). "Chelsea Manning subpoenaed to testify before grand jury in Julian Assange investigation". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  107. ^ Horwitz, Sari (25 November 2013). "Julian Assange unlikely to face U.S. charges over publishing classified documents". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  108. ^ Carr, David; Somaiya, Ravi (24 June 2013). "Assange, back in news, never left U.S. radar". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  109. ^ Dorling, Philip (20 May 2014). "Assange targeted by FBI probe, US court documents reveal". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  110. ^ a b Greenwald, Glenn; Gallagher, Ryan (18 February 2014). "Snowden Documents Reveal Covert Surveillance and Pressure Tactics Aimed at Wikileaks and Its Supporters". The Intercept. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  111. ^ Shenon, Philip (10 August 2010). "U.S. Urges Allies to Crack Down on WikiLeaks". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  112. ^ "Google hands data to US Government in WikiLeaks espionage case". Wikileaks. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  113. ^ a b c d Julian Assange (3 July 2015). "Julian Assange : 'En m'accueillant, la France accomplirait un geste humanitaire'". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2019. Je suis un journaliste poursuivi et menacé de mort par les autorités états-uniennes du fait de mes activités professionnelles.
  114. ^ Manning v. U.S. Department of Justice and FBI (D.D.C. 15 December 2015).Text
  115. ^ a b c Greenwald, Glenn; Lee, Micah (12 April 2019). "The U.S. Government's Indictment of Julian Assange Poses Grave Threats to Press Freedoms". The Intercept. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  116. ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Goldman, Adam; Savage, Charlie (16 November 2018). "How the Trump Administration Stepped Up Pursuit of WikiLeaks's Assange". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  117. ^ Evan Perez; Pamela Brown; Shimon Prokupecz; Eric Bradner (20 April 2017). "Sources: US prepares charges against WikiLeaks' Assange". CNN.
  118. ^ "Chelsea Manning subpoenaed to testify before grand jury in Assange investigation". The Washington Post.
  119. ^ "Sex, Lies and Julian Assange". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  120. ^ a b Davies, Nick (17 December 2010). "10 days in Sweden: the full allegations against Julian Assange". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  121. ^ Addley, Esther (17 August 2014). "Julian Assange has had his human rights violated, says Ecuador foreign minister". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  122. ^ Khatchadourian, Raffi (14 August 2017). "Julian Assange, a Man Without a Country". The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 September 2021. He spoke of Sweden's 'very, very poor judicial system,' weakened by external political meddling, careerism, and a culture of 'crazed radical feminist ideology.' More important, though, the case was a matter of international politics. 'Sweden is a U.S. satrapy,' he said.
  123. ^ Colvin, Marie (27 December 2010). "WikiLeaks founder baffled by sex assault claims". The Australian. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2021. 'Sweden is the Saudi Arabia of feminism,' he said. 'I fell into a hornets' nest of revolutionary feminism.'
  124. ^ "Timeline: Julian Assange saga". BBC. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  125. ^ Bowcott, Owen; MacAskill, Ewen (11 February 2018). "Sweden tried to drop Assange extradition in 2013, CPS emails show". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  126. ^ "Explained: Assange to be interviewed over sexual assault allegations". ABC News. 14 November 2016.
  127. ^ Domonoske, Camila (14 November 2016). "Prosecutors Question Julian Assange Over Sex-Crime Accusations". the two-way. NPR. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  128. ^ Hawley, Caroline (12 August 2015). "Assange Assault Inquiry to Be Dropped". BBC News.
  129. ^ "Wikileaks' Assange inquiry by Sweden 'improper'". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  130. ^ Green, David Allen (3 September 2012). "The legal mythology of the extradition of Julian Assange". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  131. ^ "Julian Assange: Sweden drops rape investigation". BBC News. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  132. ^ Addley, Esther; Travis, Alan (19 May 2017). "Swedish prosecutors drop Julian Assange rape investigation". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  133. ^ Avila, Renata (19 May 2017). "Human Rights Lawyer: Sweden Dropping Investigation of WikiLeaks' Assange is 'Long Overdue Decision'". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  134. ^ "Swedish prosecutor reviewing witness accounts in Assange case". Reuters. 9 September 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  135. ^ Hough, Andrew (19 June 2012). "Julian Assange: WikiLeaks founder seeks political asylum from Ecuador". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  136. ^ Specia, Megan (13 May 2019). "Sweden Reopens Rape Case Against Julian Assange". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  137. ^ Williams, Jennifer (13 June 2019). "UK signs order for WikiLeaks' Julian Assange to be extradited to the US". Vox. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  138. ^ a b c Dorling, Philip (20 June 2012). "Assange felt 'abandoned' by Australian government after letter from Roxon". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  139. ^ "Britain says it will not grant Julian Assange safe passage". The Irish Times. 16 August 2012.
  140. ^ a b "Julian Assange: Bail cash decision delayed". BBC News. 3 October 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  141. ^ Batty, David (22 June 2012). "Jemima Khan 'would like to see Julian Assange confront rape allegations'". The Guardian.
  142. ^ Pearse, Damien (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange can be arrested in Ecuador embassy, the UK warns". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  143. ^ "Julian Assange: Police end guard at Wikileaks founder's embassy refuge". BBC News. 12 October 2015.
  144. ^ "Declaración del Gobierno de la República del Ecuador sobre la solicitud de asilo de Julian Assange", Comunicado No. 042, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Integration of Ecuador, 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  145. ^ Lee Ferran and Raisa Bruner, "Ecuador grants WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange political asylum", ABC News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  146. ^ "Julian Assange: Ecuador grants WikiLeaks founder asylum", BBC News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  147. ^ "U.K.: WikiLeaks' Assange won't be allowed to leave", CBS News, 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  148. ^ "Statement of the Government of the Republic of Ecuador on the asylum request of Julian Assange". Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  149. ^ "Julian Assange row: Ecuador backed by South America". BBC News. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  150. ^ "Julian Assange: UK embassy 'threat' angers South American leaders". The Guardian (London). 20 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  151. ^ "American states back Ecuador over Assange", Google News (Agence France-Presse), 25 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  152. ^ "OAS urges Ecuador, Britain to end row peacefully" Archived 30 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Xinhua News Agency (Beijing). 25 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  153. ^ Nathan Gill and Randy Woods, "Correa says Assange may stay in Ecuador embassy indefinitely", Bloomberg Businessweek, 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014. Archived 21 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  154. ^ "Ricardo Patiño: Ecuador 'acts on principles'," Al Jazeera, 26 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  155. ^ "Ecuadorians rally behind Assange asylum bid," Al Jazeera, 21 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  156. ^ "Full transcript of Julian Assange's speech outside Ecuador's London embassy". The Independent (London). 19 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  157. ^ "Julian Assange urges US to end WikiLeaks 'witch-hunt'," BBC News, 19 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  158. ^ Atika Shubert, "Embassy life like 'a space station,' Assange says," CNN, 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  159. ^ Ben Child, "Oliver Stone meets Julian Assange and criticises new WikiLeaks films," The Guardian, 11 April 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  160. ^ Alexandra Valencia, "Ecuador says UK violating human rights of WikiLeaks' Assange," Reuters, 29 May 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  161. ^ "Julian Assange: A timeline of Wikileaks founder's case". BBC News. 19 November 2019.
  162. ^ "Guantánamo leaks lift lid on world's most controversial prison". the Guardian. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  163. ^ "WikiLeaks says starts releasing hacked Syria emails". Reuters. 5 July 2012.
  164. ^ "Kissinger Cables: Wikileaks publishes 1.7m US diplomatic documents from 1970s". The Daily Telegraph. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  165. ^ "Interview with Julian Assange: 'We Are Drowning in Material'". Der Spiegel. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  166. ^ Markson, Sharri (29 September 2015). "UK deal to back Saudi Arabia for UN Human Rights Council exposed". The Australian. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  167. ^ "Yemen Files". WikiLeaks. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  168. ^ Lewontin, Max (20 July 2016). "Turkey blocks access to WikiLeaks after email leak". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  169. ^ "Revealed: The Four Articles That Got Wikipedia Banned in Turkey". Haaretz. 26 April 2018.
  170. ^ "Latest Wikileaks Dump Sheds New Light on Erdogan's Power in Turkey". Foreign Policy. 7 December 2016.
  171. ^ "Julian Assange: WikiLeaks party will continue". The Guardian. 8 September 2013.
  172. ^ Reilly, Claire (23 July 2015). "WikiLeaks Party deregistered, says AEC review uses 'old' technology". CNET.
  173. ^ Owens, Jared (14 March 2014). "Julian Assange wants full control of WikiLeaks Party, says party figure". The Australian.
  174. ^ a b c "Assange on the Untold Story of the Grounding of Evo Morales' Plane During Edward Snowden Manhunt". Democracy Now!. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2020. In 2013, Julian Assange of WikiLeaks played a pivotal role in helping National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden leave Hong Kong for Russia. During the U.S. hunt for Snowden, Bolivian President Evo Morales' plane was forced to land in Austria for 14 hours after Spain, France, Portugal and Italy closed their airspace under pressure from the United States over false rumors Snowden was on board. 'And so we just spoke about Bolivia in order to distract from the actual candidate jet,' said Assange.
  175. ^ "Bolivia president's jet grounded in Snowden search". BBC.
  176. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (2 July 2013). "Bolivia: Presidential plane forced to land after false rumors of Snowden onboard". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  177. ^ CNN, Catherine E. Shoichet (2 July 2013). "Bolivia: Presidential plane forced to land after false rumors of Snowden onboard". CNN.
  178. ^ "Greenwald, Dotcom, Snowden and Assange take on 'adolescent' John Key". the Guardian. 15 September 2014.
  179. ^ Michael Safi & Hannah Jane Parkinson (15 September 2014). "Kim Dotcom accuses New Zealand government of mass spying – live updates". The Guardian.
  180. ^ "France rejects Julian Assange's asylum request". The Guardian. London. 3 July 2015.
  181. ^ a b Maurizi, Stefania (29 June 2019). "WikiLeaks, London court to decide on Assange documentation access". la Repubblica. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  182. ^ Maurizi, Stefania (14 September 2019). "The London Upper Tribunal rejects La Repubblica's appeal on the Assange documents". la Repubblica. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  183. ^ "Britain, Sweden should accept ruling on Julian Assange: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights". Firstpost. India. 6 February 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  184. ^ "The Working Group on Arbitrary Detention Deems the deprivation of liberty of Mr Julian Assange as arbitrary". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). 5 February 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  185. ^ "UK, Sweden reject UN ruling on Assange". Sky News Australia. 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016.
  186. ^ "Hammond calls U.N. Assange report 'ridiculous'". Reuters. 5 February 2016.
  187. ^ "Philip Hammond rejects 'ridiculous' UN decision on Assange – video". The Guardian. 5 February 2016.
  188. ^ "Svenska åklagarna: FN-gruppens rapport betydelselös". svt.se (in Northern Sami). 5 February 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  189. ^ "Britain: WikiLeaks founder faces arrest regardless of U.N. panel ruling". The Washington Post. 4 February 2016.
  190. ^ Bowcott, Owen (5 February 2016). "Julian Assange Q&A: What now for the WikiLeaks founder?". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  191. ^ Feldman, Noah (7 February 2016). "The curious case of Julian Assange and the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention". The Age. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  192. ^ Shen, Lucinda (16 September 2016). "Julian Assange Says He'll Turn Himself in if Obama Pardons Chelsea Manning". Fortune. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  193. ^ Helsel, Phil and The Associated Press (18 January 2017). "After Extradition Pledge, Assange Lawyers Say Manning Commutation Fell Short". NBC News. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  194. ^ "Obama's Last News Conference: Full Transcript and Video". The New York Times. 18 January 2017. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  195. ^ "Julian Assange emerges on embassy balcony to say he will not 'forgive or forget' as Swedish rape investigation is dropped". The Telegraph. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  196. ^ Carissimo, Justin (4 July 2016). "WikiLeaks publishes more than 1,000 Hillary Clinton war emails". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  197. ^ "WikiLeaks publishes searchable archive of Clinton emails". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  198. ^ Calabresi, Massimo (5 July 2016). "Why the FBI Let Hillary Clinton Off the Hook". Time. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  199. ^ "Why Julian Assange Doesn't Want Hillary Clinton to Be President". The Observer. 24 June 2016.
  200. ^ "Assange Warns More Leaks Coming, Compares Trump and Clinton to 'Cholera and Gonorrhea'". Haaretz. 27 July 2016.
  201. ^ Julian Assange: Choosing Between Trump or Clinton is Like Picking Between Cholera or Gonorrhea, 25 July 2016 (Democracy Now! website)
  202. ^ "Assange: 2016 election is like choosing between 'cholera or gonorrhea'". Politico. 27 July 2016.
  203. ^ "WikiLeaks criticizes both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, condemns 'McCarthyite' Russia accusations". Salon. 9 November 2018.
  204. ^ Schleifer, Theodore; Scott, Eugene (24 July 2016). "DNC treatment of Sanders at issue in emails leaked to Wikileaks". CNN. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  205. ^ Peters, Maquita (23 July 2016). "Leaked Democratic Party Emails Show Members Tried To Undercut Sanders". NPR. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  206. ^ Savage, Charlie (26 July 2016). "Assange, Avowed Foe of Clinton, Timed Email Release for Democratic Convention". The New York Times.
  207. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (7 October 2016). "Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005". The Washington Post.
  208. ^ a b c Bump, Philip (13 July 2018). "Timeline: How Russian agents allegedly hacked the DNC and Clinton's campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  209. ^ Bennett, Cory. "Ecuador admits restricting Internet access for WikiLeaks over election meddling". Politico. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  210. ^ "Julian Assange: 'Donald? It's a change anyway'". The Greanville Post. 29 December 2016.
  211. ^ Lake, Eli (25 July 2016). "Cyber-Experts Say Russia Hacked the Democratic National Committee". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  212. ^ Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Miller, Greg (9 December 2016). "Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  213. ^ Katelyn Polantz; Stephen Collinson (14 July 2018). "12 Russians indicted in Mueller investigation". CNN. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  214. ^ "Julian Assange: Russian government not source of leaked DNC and Podesta emails – WikiLeaks editor contradicts CIA claims in new interview". The Belfast Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  215. ^ Hains, Tim (15 December 2016). "WikiLeaks' Julian Assange: Russian Government Was Not Source For Podesta, DNC Emails". realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  216. ^ Sciutto, Jim; Gaouette, Nicole; Browne, Ryan (14 October 2016). "US finds growing evidence Russia feeding emails to WikiLeaks". CNN. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  217. ^ Cavanaugh, Darien (27 November 2016). "Julian Assange Interview With John Pilger Becomes Most Viral Video Of The Year For 'RT'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  218. ^ "Assange 'considering' testifying on Russian role in Trump vote". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 August 2018.
  219. ^ "Statement by Julian Assange on U.S. Presidential Election". Newsweek. 8 November 2016.
  220. ^ a b McLaughlin, Jenna (17 August 2017). "WikiLeaks Turned Down Leaks on Russian Government During U.S. Presidential Campaign". FP. FP. Meanwhile, Assange's position on Russia was evolving. Assange in 2012 had his own show on the Kremlin-funded news network RT, and that same year, he produced episodes for the network where he interviewed opposition thinkers like Noam Chomsky and so-called 'cypherpunks'.
  221. ^ Colangelo, Anthony (11 August 2018). "Democrats serve Australia-based WikiLeaks with lawsuit via Twitter". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  222. ^ Asher-Schapiro, Avi (29 May 2018). "By suing WikiLeaks, DNC could endanger principles of press freedom". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  223. ^ Re, Gregg (31 July 2019). "Judge dismisses DNC lawsuit against Trump campaign, Russia, WikiLeaks over hacking". MSN. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  224. ^ "Julian Assange hints murdered DNC staffer Seth Rich was source of damaging email leaks". news.com.au. 12 August 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  225. ^ "Julian Assange on Seth Rich". Nieuwsuur.
  226. ^ a b Seitz-Wald, Alex (10 August 2016). "WikiLeaks Fuels Conspiracy Theories About DNC Staffer's Death". NBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  227. ^ "A right-leaning newspaper is finally retracting the conspiracy theories it published about Seth Rich". Vox. 1 October 2018.
  228. ^ Bump, Philip. "Don't blame the Seth Rich conspiracy on Russians. Blame Americans". Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  229. ^ Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 15 October 2018. pp. 159–162. ISBN 978-0-19-092363-1.
  230. ^ a b Mervosh, Sarah (20 April 2019). "Seth Rich Was Not Source of Leaked D.N.C. Emails, Mueller Report Confirms". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  231. ^ Knott, Matthew (19 April 2019). "'A monster not a journalist': Mueller report shows Assange lied about Russian hacking". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  232. ^ Jamie Dupree, Cox Washington Bureau. "Mueller: Wikileaks used dead DNC worker in bid to cover Russia ties". ajc. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  233. ^ Shane, Scott; Rosenberg, Matthew; Lehren, Andrew W. (7 March 2017). "WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  234. ^ Warren Strobel; Mark Hosenball (13 April 2017). "CIA chief calls WikiLeaks a 'hostile intelligence service'". Reuters.
  235. ^ "Assange lashes out against CIA after Pompeo rips WikiLeaks". Fox News Channel. 15 April 2017.
  236. ^ Dorfman, Zach; Naylor, Sean D.; Isikoff, Michael (26 September 2021). "Kidnapping, assassination and a London shoot-out: Inside the CIA's secret war plans against WikiLeaks". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  237. ^ Bourke, Latika (27 September 2021). "Trump administration floated kidnapping, killing Julian Assange: report". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  238. ^ Grim, Ryan; Sirota, Sara (28 September 2021). "Julian Assange Kidnapping Plot Casts New Light on 2018 Senate Intelligence Maneuver". The Intercept. New York: First Look Media.
  239. ^ White, Debbie. "CIA 'discussed kidnapping or assassinating Wikileaks founder Julian Assange'". The Times. London. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  240. ^ Goodwin, Bill (28 October 2021). "CIA sought revenge against Julian Assange over hacking tool leaks, court hears". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  241. ^ "Assange lawyer dismisses US extradition promise over mental health concerns". ABC News (Australia). 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021. Mr Assange's defence team also referred to recent allegations the CIA and US government had considered plans to 'seriously harm' him—including alleged discussions to 'kidnap or poison' him while he was inside the Ecuadorian embassy in London.
  242. ^ Specia, Megan (29 October 2021). "British Court Hears Appeal in Julian Assange Extradition Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2021. During the two-day hearing this week, Mr. Assange's defense team argued that new accusations—from a Yahoo News investigation published in September—that the C.I.A. plotted to kidnap or kill Mr. Assange during the Trump administration, as well as fears that he would be placed in harsh prison conditions and concerns about his mental state, should be barriers for his extradition to the United States.
  243. ^ Singman, Brooke (6 June 2017). "Who is Reality Winner? Accused leaker wanted to 'resist' Trump". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  244. ^ Uchill, Joe (6 June 2017). "WikiLeaks offers $10,000 to get Intercept reporter fired". The Hill. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  245. ^ a b Bowcott, Owen and Julian Borger (19 February 2020). "Donald Trump 'offered Julian Assange a pardon if he denied Russia link to hack'". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  246. ^ a b Mai-Duc, Christine (17 August 2017). "Rohrabacher on meeting with WikiLeaks' Assange: We talked about 'what might be necessary to get him out'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  247. ^ Isikoff, Michael (20 February 2020). "Rohrabacher confirms he offered Trump pardon to Assange for proof Russia didn't hack DNC email". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  248. ^ "Wikileaks founder Assange slams Al Arabiya report against Qatar as 'absurd fabrication'". The Peninsula. 22 August 2017.
  249. ^ "Is it the Kremlin's turn to get WikiLeaked?". The Christian Science Monitor. 21 September 2017.
  250. ^ a b Ecuador revokes citizenship of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange
  251. ^ Croft, Jane (7 February 2018). "UK judge upholds arrest warrant for Assange". www.ft.com. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  252. ^ Croft, Jane (14 February 2018). "Julian Assange loses bid to discharge UK arrest warrant". Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  253. ^ Solano, Gonzalo (28 March 2018). "Ecuador cuts WikiLeaks founder Assange's internet at embassy". Associated Press. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  254. ^ Collyns, Dan; Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Harding, Luke (15 May 2018). "Revealed: Ecuador spent millions on spy operation for Julian Assange". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  255. ^ "Ecuador wants Assange out of asylum, but safe". Associated Press. 27 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  256. ^ ITV Report (14 October 2018). "Julian Assange's communications partly restored by Ecuadorian government". ITV News. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  257. ^ Quinn, Ben; Collyns, Dan (19 October 2018). "Julian Assange launches legal action against Ecuador". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  258. ^ "His Excellency Lenin Moreno" (PDF). Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  259. ^ Rebaza, Claudia; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (20 October 2018). "Julian Assange sues Ecuador for 'violating his rights'". CNN. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  260. ^ BBC Report (19 October 2018). "Julian Assange: Wikileaks co-founder takes legal action against Ecuador". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  261. ^ "Julian Assange: Ecuador court rejects lawsuit over embassy rules". BBC News. 30 October 2018.
  262. ^ Little, Liz (5 November 2018). "Pamela Anderson puts pressure on Scott Morrison to bring Julian Assange home". Nine News. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  263. ^ Lauth, Laura (18 November 2018). "Pamela Anderson blasts Scott Morrison for 'smutty' comments after Assange plea". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  264. ^ "UN experts urge the UK to honour rights obligations and let Mr Julian Assange leave Ecuador embassy in London freely". United Nations Human Rights. Office of the High Commissioner. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  265. ^ "Geneva politicians vote to propose Julian Assange asylum". Associated Press. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  266. ^ a b O'Brien, Natalie (10 January 2020). "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange awarded Dignity Prize from Catalans". News Corp. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  267. ^ "Human rights agency rejects Assange complaint against Ecuador". Reuters. 15 March 2019.
  268. ^ Quinn, Ben (10 April 2019). "Spanish police 'recover Julian Assange surveillance footage'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  269. ^ Andrew MacAskill (10 April 2019). "WikiLeaks Says Julian Assange Is Being Spied On in Ecuadorean Embassy". Reuters.
  270. ^ Irujo, Jose Maria (26 September 2019). "Spanish security company spied on Julian Assange in London for the United States". El Pais. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  271. ^ a b Irujo, Jose Maria (23 October 2019). "UK blocks Spanish judge from questioning Julian Assange over spying allegations". El Pais. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  272. ^ Maurizi, Stefania (18 November 2019). "A massive scandal: how Assange, his doctors, lawyers and visitors were all spied on for the U.S." la Repubblica. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  273. ^ Irujo, Jose Maria (29 November 2019). "Spanish judge to question Julian Assange over Ecuador embassy spying claims". El Pais. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  274. ^ Laudette, Clara-Laeila (21 December 2019). "Wikileaks' Assange appears in court in Spain spying investigation". Reuters. Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  275. ^ "Ecuador's president says Assange breached terms of London embassy asylum". Reuters. 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  276. ^ a b "Ecuador president blames WikiLeaks for leak of private data". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  277. ^ Orozco, Jose; Penny, Thomas; Biggs, Stuart. "Ecuador to Expel Assange Within 'Hours to Days,' WikiLeaks Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  278. ^ Grierson, Jamie (5 April 2019). "Why is WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in Ecuador's embassy?". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  279. ^ Booth, William; Adam, Karla. "WikiLeaks' Julian Assange sentenced to 50 weeks prison for jumping bail". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  280. ^ Gibbons, Chip (14 May 2019). "The Crackdown on Chelsea Manning and Julian Assange Is About Protecting U.S. Empire". In These Times. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  281. ^ "Ecuadorian President's Motives for Surrendering Assange: Vengeance & IMF Loan?". The Real News Network. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  282. ^ "Wikileaks co-founder Julian Assange arrested". 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  283. ^ Epstein, Kayla (15 April 2019). "Ecuador's president alleges Assange used London embassy as a 'center for spying'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  284. ^ "Why Ecuador evicted 'spoiled brat' Assange from embassy". NBC News. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  285. ^ "Julian Assange's arrest draws fierce international reaction". Fox News Channel. 11 April 2019.
  286. ^ "PM says no special treatment for Assange as his legal team vows to fight extradition". SBS News. 11 April 2019.
  287. ^ a b "UN experts warn Assange arrest exposes him to risk of serious human rights violations". UN News. United Nations. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  288. ^ Smout, Alistair (11 April 2019). "Out of the embassy, straight into custody: Assange's court hearing". Reuters. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  289. ^ Murphy, SImon (11 April 2019). "Assange branded a 'narcissist' by judge who found him guilty". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  290. ^ "Sentencing remarks of HHJ Deborah Taylor: R v Assange (Bail Act offence)" (PDF). Courts and Tribunals Judiciary. 1 May 2019.
  291. ^ "United Kingdom: Working Group on Arbitrary Detention expresses concern about Assange proceedings". Reuters. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  292. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (3 May 2019). "U.N. rights experts cite concern at 'disproportionate' Assange detention". Reuters. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  293. ^ "Assange drops appeal against length of jail term for breaching bail". The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 July 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  294. ^ Mark Hosenball, "Despite Assange claims, U.S. has no current case against him", Reuters, 22 August 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  295. ^ Sari Horwitz, "Assange not under sealed indictment, U.S. officials say", The Washington Post, 18 November 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  296. ^ Charlie Savage, Adam Goldman & Eileen Sullivan,Julian Assange Arrested in London as U.S. Unseals Hacking Conspiracy Indictment, The New York Times (11 April 2019).
  297. ^ Charlie Savage; Adam Goldman; Michael S. Schmidt (16 November 2018). "Assange Is Secretly Charged in U.S., Prosecutors Mistakenly Reveal". The New York Times. Washington DC. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Mr. Hughes, the terrorism expert, who is the deputy director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University, posted a screenshot of the court filing on Twitter shortly after The Wall Street Journal reported on Thursday that the Justice Department was preparing to prosecute Mr. Assange.
  298. ^ Jack Stripling (16 November 2018). "How a George Washington U. Researcher Stumbled Across a Huge Government Secret". the Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 29 September 2017. But the Journal's report made clear that Hughes had stumbled upon something quite remarkable: a major government secret that was hidden in plain sight.
  299. ^ "Julian Assange charged in US: WikiLeaks". Agence-France Presse. 16 November 2018.
  300. ^ Hosenball, Mark (16 November 2018). "U.S. prosecutors get indictment against Wikileaks' Assange: court..." Reuters.
  301. ^ Kevin Poulsen; Spencer Ackerman (16 November 2018). "Julian Assange 'Has Been Charged', According to Justice Department Filing". Daily Beast.
  302. ^ Shortell, David (5 March 2019). "Judge rejects effort by Chelsea Manning to avoid grand jury testimony". CNN. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  303. ^ Barakat, Matthew (8 March 2019). "Chelsea Manning jailed for refusing to testify on WikiLeaks". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  304. ^ "Chelsea Manning: Wikileaks source jailed for refusing to testify". BBC News. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  305. ^ Dukakakis, Ali (8 March 2019). "Chelsea Manning taken into custody for refusing to testify before secret grand jury". ABC News. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  306. ^ "Chelsea Manning freed from jail – for now". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. Associated Press. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  307. ^ Fortin, Jacey (16 May 2019). "Chelsea Manning Ordered Back to Jail for Refusal to Testify in WikiLeaks Inquiry". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  308. ^ Grim, Ryan (25 June 2021). "Chelsea Manning meets Ken Klippenstein". The Intercept. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  309. ^ Megerian, Chris; Boyle, Christina; Wilber, Del Quentin (11 April 2019). "WikiLeaks' Julian Assange faces U.S. hacking charge after dramatic arrest in London". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  310. ^ Sullivan, Eileen; Pérez-Peña, Richard (11 April 2019). "Julian Assange Charged by U.S. With Conspiracy to Hack a Government Computer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  311. ^ "WikiLeaks Founder Charged in Computer Hacking Conspiracy". U.S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Virginia. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  312. ^ Gerstein, Josh. "Defense: Manning was 'overcharged'". Politico. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  313. ^ Gurman, Sadie; Viswanatha, Aruna; Volz, Dustin (23 May 2019). "WikiLeaks Founder Julian Assange Charged With 17 New Counts". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  314. ^ "US charges WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange with violating Espionage Act, threatening him with up to 170 years in jail". South China Morning Post. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  315. ^ a b c Savage, Charlie (23 May 2019). "Assange Indicted Under Espionage Act, Raising First Amendment Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  316. ^ "WikiLeaks founder indicted on criminal charges". CNN. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  317. ^ a b c Tillman, Zoe (23 May 2019). "The New Charges Against Julian Assange Are Unprecedented. Press Freedom Groups Say They're A Threat To All Journalists". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  318. ^ "New charges were filed Thursday against the WikiLeaks founder". Associated Press. 23 May 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  319. ^ Barrett, Devlin (23 May 2019). "WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange charged with violating Espionage Act". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  320. ^ Keneally, Meghan (24 May 2019). "New charges against Julian Assange raise concerns about ripple effects on press freedom". ABC News. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  321. ^ "World reacts to arrest of WikiLeaks founder of Julian Assange". The CEO Magazine. 12 April 2019.
  322. ^ "Les inculpations contre Julian Assange sont sans précédent, effrayantes, et un coup porté à la liberté de la presse". Le Monde.fr. 24 May 2019 – via Le Monde.
  323. ^ Opsahl, David Greene and Kurt (24 May 2019). "The Government's Indictment of Julian Assange Poses a Clear and Present Danger to Journalism, the Freedom of the Press, and Freedom of Speech". Electronic Frontier Foundation.
  324. ^ Pilkington, Ed (12 April 2019). "Julian Assange's charges are a direct assault on press freedom, experts warn". The Guardian.
  325. ^ "Julian Assange: Wikileaks co-founder arrested in London". BBC News. 11 April 2019.
  326. ^ "The Assange prosecution threatens modern journalism". The Guardian. 12 April 2019.
  327. ^ Oprysko, Caitlin; Cheney, Kyle (11 April 2019). "WikiLeaks' Assange arrested on U.S. charges he helped hack Pentagon computers". Politico.
  328. ^ "Julian Assange arrested after U.S. extradition request, charged with hacking government computer". CBC News. 11 April 2019.
  329. ^ Stanley-Becker, Isaac; Booth, William (31 May 2019). "U.N. official says Julian Assange is a victim of 'psychological torture,' warns against U.S. extradition". Washington Post. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  330. ^ Nils Melzer (31 May 2019). "UN expert says 'collective persecution' of Julian Assange must end now". United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  331. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (31 May 2019). "Julian Assange Is Suffering Psychological Torture, U.N. Expert Says". The New York Times.
  332. ^ McEvoy, John (6 June 2019). "UN torture expert says Assange's persecution 'very similar to historic witch-hunts' in exclusive interview". The Canary. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  333. ^ a b c "OHCHR | UN expert on torture sounds alarm again that Julian Assange's life may be at risk". ohchr.org.
  334. ^ a b "Julian Assange to remain in jail pending extradition to US". The Guardian. 14 September 2019.
  335. ^ a b "Julian Assange's treatment in prison putting his life at risk, UN rights expert warns". ABC News (Australia). Agence France-Presse. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  336. ^ "Julian Assange's health is so bad he 'could die in prison', say 60 doctors". The Guardian. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  337. ^ McEvoy, John (4 December 2019). "Medical doctors lambast home secretary's failure to respond to concerns over Julian Assange". The Canary. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  338. ^ "Doctors condemn failure of British government to answer letter demanding medical care for Julian Assange". World Socialist Web Site. 5 December 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  339. ^ Harris, Rob; Shields, Bevan (17 December 2019). "Doctors ask government to evacuate Assange to an Australian hospital". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  340. ^ Melzer, Nils (29 October 2019). "Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment". OHCHR.
  341. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (31 December 2019). "WikiLeaks: UN official accuses UK and US of torture over treatment of Assange and Manning". The Independent.
  342. ^ Frost S, Johnson L, Stein J, Frost W, et al. (19 February 2020). "End torture and medical neglect of Julian Assange". The Lancet. 395 (10226): e44–e45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30383-4. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 32078804. S2CID 211141391.
  343. ^ Collins, Padraig (18 February 2020). "Doctors call for end of Assange 'torture'". MSN News. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020.
  344. ^ Mee, Emily (18 February 2020). "Julian Assange 'in dire state of health due to psychological torture', doctors claim". Sky News.
  345. ^ "Ärzte kritisieren Haft von Wikileaks-Gründer Assange als Folter" (in German). Deutsche Welle. 18 February 2020.
  346. ^ "Doctors, media freedom group rally around Assange". New Straits Times. 18 February 2020.
  347. ^ "Médecins et journalistes apportent leur soutien à Julian Assange" (in French). France 24. 18 February 2020.
  348. ^ Quinn, Ben (18 February 2020). "Julian Assange: Australian MPs call on UK to block US extradition". The Guardian.
  349. ^ Silk, Marty (18 February 2020). "UK PM Johnson urged to end Assange trial". The Canberra Times.
  350. ^ a b "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange denied bail by London court". Reuters. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  351. ^ Lauria, Joe (16 November 2021). "Assange's Father Says His Son Has Been Vaccinated". Consortium News. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  352. ^ Hogan W, Frost S, Johnson L, Schulze T, Nelson E, Frost W, et al. (25 June 2020). "The ongoing torture and medical neglect of Julian Assange". The Lancet. 396 (10243): 22–23. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31444-6. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7316471. PMID 32593324. S2CID 220056656.
  353. ^ Untersinger, Martin (26 June 2020). "Des médecins dénoncent la 'torture' subie par Julian Assange, le fondateur de WikiLeaks" [Doctors denounce the 'torture' suffered by WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange]. Le Monde (in French). Paris. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  354. ^ "Doctors for Assange Say UK May be Liable for His Torture". Consortium News. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  355. ^ Massie, Graeme (22 September 2020). "More than 160 world leaders and diplomats call for UK to release Julian Assange". The Independent. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  356. ^ "Congress moves to save journalism". NJ Today. 5 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  357. ^ Melissa Sou-Jie Brunnersum (30 December 2020). "Germany urges UK to uphold human rights in Assange case". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  358. ^ Quinn, Ben (2 May 2019). "US begins extradition case against Julian Assange in London". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  359. ^ "Julian Assange doesn't consent to US extradition, court hears". BBC. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  360. ^ Weaver, Matthew (13 June 2019). "Sajid Javid signs US extradition order for Julian Assange". The Guardian.
  361. ^ "Julian Assange too ill to appear in court via video link, lawyers say". The Guardian. 30 May 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  362. ^ "Julian Assange to face US extradition hearing in UK next year". The Guardian. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  363. ^ a b Curtis, Mark; Kennard, Matt (3 September 2020). "Declassified UK: As British judge made rulings against Julian Assange, her husband was involved with right-wing lobby group briefing against WikiLeaks founder". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  364. ^ Busby, Mattha (21 October 2019). "Julian Assange extradition judge refuses request for delay". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  365. ^ a b "Julian Assange appears in dock as extradition hearing resumes". BBC News. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  366. ^ Perraudin, Frances (28 February 2020). "Julian Assange's lawyers: US files were leaked for political ends". The Guardian.
  367. ^ "Extradition hearing for WikiLeaks' Assange to be split in two parts". Reuters. 23 January 2020.
  368. ^ Bourke, Latika (10 September 2020). "Assange's extradition hearing delayed by lawyer's wife's COVID scare". Sydney Morning Herald.
  369. ^ "IBAHRI condemns UK treatment of Julian Assange in US extradition trial". IBAHRI.
  370. ^ a b "WikiLeaks Founder Charged in Superseding Indictment". United States Department of Justice. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  371. ^ a b Specia, Megan (16 September 2020). "At Assange's Extradition Hearing, Troubled Tech Takes Center Stage". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  372. ^ Priston, Sander (15 September 2020). "MEPs denied access as observers to Julian Assange extradition hearing". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  373. ^ Dawson, Tim (25 September 2020). "Assange trial hears evidence from Khaled el-Masri". National Union of Journalists. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  374. ^ Goodwin, Bill (23 September 2020). "WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange has Asperger syndrome and depression, court hears". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  375. ^ "Julian Assange faces 'torturous' months in parking space-sized cell if extradited to US, court hears". PressGazette. 28 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  376. ^ "Julian Assange will not be extradited to US to face charges over WikiLeaks, judge rules". The Independent. 4 January 2021.
  377. ^ Lee, Micah (30 September 2020). "Crumbling case against Assange shows weakness of 'hacking' charges related to whistleblowing". The Intercept. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  378. ^ Quinn, Ben (30 September 2020). "US intelligence sources discussed poisoning Assange, court told". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  379. ^ Horvat, Srećko (2 October 2020). "The Belmarsh Tribunal". Open Democracy. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  380. ^ Pylas, Pan (1 October 2020). "WikiLeaks' Assange won't get U.S. extradition ruling this year". CTV News. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  381. ^ "Julian Assange: Wikileaks founder refused extradition to US, judge rules". BBC. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  382. ^ Peltier, Elian; Specia, Megan (4 January 2021). "U.K. Judge Blocks Assange's Extradition to U.S., Citing Mental Health Concerns". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  383. ^ a b "Assange defence mulls cross-appeal of January verdict, partner says". The Duran. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  384. ^ "US lawyers lodge appeal against block on Julian Assange's extradition". Express & Star. 19 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  385. ^ Savage, Charlie (7 July 2021). "U.S. promises not to imprison Julian Assange under harsh conditions if Britain extradites him". The New York Times.
  386. ^ Maurizi, Stefania (24 July 2021). "Julia Hall, Amnesty International expert on National security: 'Assange should be released'". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  387. ^ "Key witness in Assange case admits to lies in indictment". Stundin. Reykjavik: Útgáfufélagið Stundin ehf. 26 June 2021.
  388. ^ Quinn, Ben (26 October 2021). "Julian Assange: what to expect from the extradition appeal". the Guardian.
  389. ^ Homan, Timothy R. (3 July 2021). "Marianne Williamson calls on Biden to drop efforts to extradite Assange". TheHill.
  390. ^ Keßler, Felix (7 July 2021). "Julian Assange: Britisches Gericht lässt Berufung gegen abgelehnte Auslieferung zu" [Assange's extradition process enters the next round]. Der Spiegel (in German).
  391. ^ von Hein, Matthias (11 August 2021). "Julian Assange: US still pushing for extradition". Deutsche Welle.
  392. ^ William Booth; Rachel Weiner (8 July 2021). "U.S. offers that Assange could serve sentence in Australia in extradition appeal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  393. ^ "Julian Assange indictment is attack on press freedom, his father and brother tell St. Paul forum". Star Tribune. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  394. ^ Rawlinson, Kevin (11 August 2021). "Julian Assange loses court battle to stop US expanding extradition appeal". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  395. ^ "US begins legal appeal to get Julian Assange extradited". BBC News. 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  396. ^ a b Hussain, Murtaza (28 October 2021). "Julian Assange's Health Is Central to Upcoming Ruling on Extradition to the U.S." The Intercept. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  397. ^ Barry, Eloise (29 October 2021). "What to Know About Julian Assange's Extradition Appeal". Time. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  398. ^ Lawless, Jill (27 October 2021). "US set to appeal UK refusal to extradite WikiLeaks' Assange". Associated Press. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  399. ^ "State and Terrorist Conspiracies," 10 November 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2014. This file contains both 2006 papers; they are also available elsewhere online.
  400. ^ "Conspiracy as Governance," 3 December 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2014. This file contains both 2006 papers; they are also available elsewhere online.
  401. ^ "The Hidden Curse of Thomas Paine," 29 April 2008. This version is at Guernica Magazine. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  402. ^ "What's new about WikiLeaks?" New Statesman, 14 April 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  403. ^ a b Assange, Julian; Appelbaum, Jacob; Muller-Maguhn, Andy; Zimmermann, Jérémie (October 2016). Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet. ISBN 978-1-944869-08-3.
  404. ^ Andy Greenberg, "An interview with WikiLeaks' Julian Assange," Forbes, 29 November 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  405. ^ Sonne, Paul (27 December 2010). "Assange memoir sold in U.S., U.K.". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  406. ^ Somaiya, Ravi (27 December 2010). "WikiLeaks founder signs book deal". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  407. ^ Dolak, Kevin (26 December 2010). "Julian Assange signs $1.3 million book deal". ABC News. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  408. ^ Addley, Esther (21 September 2011). "Julian Assange publishers to release autobiography without his consent". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  409. ^ Assange, Julian (22 September 2011). "Statement on the Unauthorised, Secret Publishing of the Julian Assange 'autobiography' by Canongate". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  410. ^ O'Hagan, Andrew (6 March 2014). "Ghosting". London Review of Books. 36 (5). Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  411. ^ Robinson, Colin (7 March 2014). "In defence of Julian Assange". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  412. ^ a b "When Google Met WikiLeaks". OR Books. OR Books. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  413. ^ DW Gibson (24 October 2014). "Julian Assange Talks to Vogue.com About His New Book, When Google Met WikiLeaks". Vogue. Condé Naste Digital. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  414. ^ Taylor Wofford (16 September 2014). "WikiLeaks Founder Julian Assange Answers Questions About His New Book on Reddit". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  415. ^ Julian Assange (23 October 2014). "Assange: Google Is Not What It Seems". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  416. ^ a b Somaiya, Ravi (1 March 2011). "Report Says Assange Cited Jewish Conspiracy". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 September 2021. He was especially angry about a Private Eye report that Israel Shamir, an Assange associate in Russia, was a Holocaust denier. Mr. Assange complained that the article was part of a campaign by Jewish reporters in London to smear WikiLeaks.
  417. ^ "Confirmed for the Media: infamous anti-Semite works with Wikileaks". Sveriges Radio. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2021. Wikileaks spokesperson Kristinn Hrafnsson confirms Israel Shamir's involvement with Wikileaks.
  418. ^ Lee, Micah and Cora Currier (14 February 2018). "In Leaked Chats, WikiLeaks discusses preference for GOP over Clinton, Russia, Trolling, and Feminists They Don't Like". The Intercept. Retrieved 12 September 2021. In 2013, former WikiLeaks volunteer James Ball explained that he left the group over what he said was Assange's close relationship with the Holocaust denier Israel Shamir ... Former WikiLeaks spokesperson Daniel Domscheit-Berg raised similar concerns about Shamir.
  419. ^ Johns-Wickberg, Nick (17 September 2010). "Daniel Assange: I never thought WikiLeaks would succeed". Crikey. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  420. ^ Morrow, Amanda (19 April 2019). "Julian Assange: France urged to take a stand for the whistleblower nobody wants". RFI. Retrieved 27 October 2021. Back in 2015, Assange wrote an open letter to then-president Francois Hollande, published in Le Monde, warning his life was in danger and asking for help. 'My youngest child and his mother are French.'
  421. ^ Jones, Alan (12 April 2020). "Assange's partner pleas for his release". Australian Associated Press. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  422. ^ Otte, Jedidajah (12 April 2020). "Release Julian Assange, says woman who had two children with him while in embassy". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  423. ^ "Julian Assange's fiancee publicly joins the campaign for his release". SBS. AAP. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  424. ^ Keane, Dan (13 April 2020). "Wikileaks founder Julian Assange fathered two children while inside the Ecuadorean embassy". News.com.au.
  425. ^ Quinn, Ben (7 November 2021). "Julian Assange and fiancee claim they are being blocked from marrying". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  426. ^ "Wikileaks: Julian Assange given permission to marry partner in prison". BBC News. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  427. ^ "Snowden among statues unveiled in Berlin". The Local. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  428. ^ "Eight questions for Daniel Ellsberg". The Economist. 31 July 2010.
  429. ^ Burns, John F.; Somaiya, Ravi (23 October 2010). "WikiLeaks Founder Gets Support in Rebuking U.S. on Whistle-Blowers". The New York Times.
  430. ^ "Russia: Julian Assange deserves a Nobel Prize". The Jerusalem Post. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  431. ^ Harding, Luke (9 December 2010). "Julian Assange should be awarded Nobel peace prize, suggests Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  432. ^ "Wikileaks: Brazil President Lula backs Julian Assange". BBC News. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  433. ^ "WikiLeaks acting illegally, says Gillard". 2 December 2010.
  434. ^ Welch, Dylan (17 December 2010). "Julian Assange has committed no crime in Australia: AFP". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  435. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (20 December 2010). "Julian Assange like a hi-tech terrorist, says Joe Biden". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  436. ^ Giglio, Mike (2 November 2011). "Julian Assange's Guardian Angel, Frontline Club Founder Vaughan Smith". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  437. ^ Sennott, Charles M. (15 July 2012). "A bold stand in support: Vaughan Smith on Julian Assange". Global Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  438. ^ "When Wikileaks founder Julian Assange met Ecuadorean president Rafael Correa". The Daily Telegraph. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012.
  439. ^ "Craig Murray and Tariq Ali speak in support of WikiLeaks' Julian Assange outside Ecuadorean embassy". Democracy Now!. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  440. ^ Child, Ben (11 April 2013). "Oliver Stone meets Julian Assange and criticises new WikiLeaks films". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  441. ^ "Podemos denuncia en Londres la 'terrible persecución' que sufre Assange". Terra España (in Spanish). 8 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016.
  442. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn: 'I think we have to think in terms of the disillusioned who didn't vote'". New Statesman. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  443. ^ "UK's Labour Party calls for PM to prevent Assange's extradition". Al Jazeera. 12 April 2019.
  444. ^ "'Angry' Julian Assange starts fifth year living in Ecuador's London embassy". The Guardian. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  445. ^ "Film-maker Michael Moore visits Julian Assange at embassy". The Belfast Telegraph. 10 July 2016.
  446. ^ Hooton, Amanda (6 December 2019). "Love him or hate him or simply don't care, Julian Assange's fight for freedom concerns us all". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 May 2021. The 65-year-old is one of only a handful of Australians to have seen Assange since his imprisonment; she has travelled, at her own expense, on her own time, to see him; and recently she committed herself to giving '100 per cent of my attention and resources' to his defence. She's been a supporter since 2006, long before he was famous.
  447. ^ "Veteran reporter John Pilger says if Julian Assange extradited to US 'no journalist who challenges power will be safe'". The Independent. 3 January 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  448. ^ Curry, Tom (5 December 2010). "McConnell optimistic on deals with Obama". NBC News. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  449. ^ D'Aprile, Shane (5 December 2010). "Gingrich: Leaks show Obama administration 'shallow,' 'amateurish'". The Hill.
  450. ^ Beckford, Martin (30 November 2010). "Sarah Palin: hunt WikiLeaks founder like al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  451. ^ "Flanagan regrets WikiLeaks assassination remark". CBC News. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  452. ^ Smith, Charlie (4 December 2010). "Police complaint filed after Tom Flanagan calls for assassination of Wikileaks' Julian Assange". Straight.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  453. ^ "Fox News' Bob Beckel calls for 'Ilegally' [sic] killing Assange: 'A dead man can't leak stuff'". HuffPost. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  454. ^ Sidiqqui, Haroon; Weaver, Matthew (1 December 2010). "US embassy cables culprit should be executed, says Mike Huckabee". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  455. ^ Davidson, Amy (18 August 2013). "Michael Grunwald and the Assange precedent problem". The New Yorker. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  456. ^ "Time correspondent under fire for tweet suggesting Assange be killed in drone strike". Yahoo! News. 18 August 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  457. ^ "Index on Censorship Award winners 2008". Index on Censorship. 16 December 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  458. ^ "Amnesty International Media Awards 2009: full list of winners". The Guardian. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  459. ^ "Julian Assange: Readers' Choice for TIME's Person of the Year 2010". Time. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  460. ^ "Julian Assange". Sam Adams Associates for Integrity in Intelligence. 23 October 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  461. ^ Xiao, Edward (24 December 2010). "Julian Assange 'Man of the Year' according to Le Monde". Digital Journal. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  462. ^ Squires, Nick (14 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: Julian Assange crowned 'Rock Star of the Year' by Italian Rolling Stone". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  463. ^ "Journalists' union shows support for Assange". ABC News. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  464. ^ "Julian Assange Given Press Freedom Award". CBS News. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  465. ^ "Sydney Peace Medal: Julian Assange". Sydney Peace Foundation. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  466. ^ "Statement of the Walkley Foundation Board". Walkley Foundation. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  467. ^ "Previous Winners". The Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  468. ^ "Liberty Victoria overview 2010–2011". Liberty Victoria. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  469. ^ "Big Brother Award Italia 2012". Big Brother Award. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  470. ^ "Past Honorees". Global Exchange Human Rights Awards. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  471. ^ "Yoko Ono Lennon Presents 2013 Courage Award to Julian Assange". Imagine Peace. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  472. ^ "Piece No. 1 – The Julian Assange Show with Hassan Nasrallah". New York Festivals. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  473. ^ "ABI homenageia defensores da liberdade de imprensa e de informação".
  474. ^ "Kazakh Journalists' Union Honors WikiLeaks Founder". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  475. ^ Jones, Alan (17 April 2019). "Julian Assange wins EU journalism award". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  476. ^ Whitehead, Joanna (28 September 2019). "Julian Assange held in 'sordid' solitary confinement for up to 23 hours a day, says father". iNews. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  477. ^ "This Year, the Stuttgart Peace Prize is Awarded to Julian Assange". Pressenza. Pressenza. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  478. ^ "Assange receives honorary membership at German PEN Centre". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  479. ^ Assange, Julian (20 September 2016). The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire. Verso Books. Verso Books. ISBN 9781784786212. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  480. ^ Andreas Wiseman2013-10-24T14:35:00+01:00. "WikiLeaks backs second film". Screen. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  481. ^ John Pilger (10 December 2010). "Clips from John Pilger's The War You Don't See". The Guardian.
  482. ^ Snierson, Dan (30 January 2012). "WikiLeaks' Julian Assange to guest on 'The Simpsons'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  483. ^ Kohn, Eric (19 May 2016). "Cannes Review: Laura Poitras' Julian Assange Doc 'Risk' is a Prequel to 'Citizenfour'". IndieWire. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  484. ^ Felsenthal, Julia (15 June 2015). "How the Yes Men Found Themselves in a Flourishing Bromance With Julian Assange". Vogue. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  485. ^ "Terminal F/Chasing Edward Snowden". The Film Sufi. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  486. ^ Benjamin Lee (25 August 2015). "Citizenfour director to preview Assange documentary at New York film festival". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  487. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (29 June 2017). "Laura Poitras on her WikiLeaks film Risk: 'I knew Julian Assange was going to be furious'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  488. ^ Haring, Bruce (12 August 2017). "Officials Angry at Billboard Ban For 'Architects of Denial' Film". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  489. ^ Jaworowski, Ken (30 November 2017). "Review: 'The New Radical' Asks, Is It O.K. to Build Your Own Gun?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 April 2019.

Further reading[edit]

Books[edit]

Films[edit]

  • Underground: The Julian Assange Story (2012), Australian TV drama that premiered at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival.
  • Julian (2012), Australian short film about nine-year-old Julian Assange. The film won several awards and prizes.
  • The Fifth Estate (2013), American thriller that Assange said was a 'serious propaganda attack' on WikiLeaks and its staff.
  • Mediastan (2013), Swedish documentary produced by Assange to challenge The Fifth Estate.
  • We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks (2013), American documentary.
  • Risk (2016), American documentary.
  • Hacking Justice (2017), German documentary.
  • Ithaka (2021), Australian documentary produced by Assange’s brother Gabriel Shipton, which deals with his father’s worldwide campaign for Julian’s release from prison.[1]

External links[edit]