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Visa policy of Russia

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Entry stamp
Exit stamp
Entry and exit passport stamps issued at Saint Petersburg port.

The visa policy of Russia deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter Russia must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter and remain in the country. Visa exemptions are based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Citizens of countries without such an agreement with the Russian Federation must obtain a visa in advance from one of the Russian diplomatic missions or visa centres.

Visa policy map[edit]

Visa policy of Russia

Visa[edit]

Russian visa

The Russian visa is a machine-readable document, which is placed in the passport. It contains a transcription of the name in the Cyrillic script and all fields are indicated in Russian and English. The indication of nationality and entry requirements however is only written in Russian. The machine-readable strip contains the name based on romanization of the Cyrillic name, and does not necessarily reflect the name as it was written in the Roman script (example in the figure: Christoph --> (Cyrillic) Kpиcтoф --> (transcription; roman) Kristof). Contrary to guidelines for machine-readable documents, the issuing country abbreviation (RUS) not is shown at the positions 2-4 (e.g. starting V>RUS), and the surname starts immediately in the second field: VSURNAME>>GIVENNAME. Photo must necessarily be in the Russian visa.

Types of visa[edit]

Depending on the purpose of entry of the foreign citizen into the Russian Federation and the purposes of his stay in the Russian Federation ordinary visas are subdivided on private, business, tourist, educational, working, humanitarian and entry visas to the Russian Federation for receiving a shelter or reception in citizenship of the Russian Federation.[1]

Diplomatic visa[edit]

A diplomatic visa shall be issued to a foreign citizen holding a diplomatic passport.
A diplomatic visa is issued:

  • to foreign heads of state, foreign heads of government, members of the foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to diplomatic agents of diplomatic missions and consular officials of consular establishments, the staff of representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation which have the diplomatic status in the Russian Federation, to family members of specified persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to foreign diplomatic and consular couriers for the term of business trip.
  • to officials of the foreign states who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to a diplomatic visa and who come for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or to the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.

Service visa[edit]

A service visa is issued to the foreign citizen having a service passport.
A service visa is issued:

  • to members of foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to administrative and technical and service personnel of diplomatic missions, consular employees and service personnel of consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation, representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation and to family members of such persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states and family members of such persons for a period of up to one year. Extension of term of stay in the Russian Federation by issuance of the multiple entry visa for a period of validity of the foreign trade contract registered in accordance with the established procedure, but no more than for five years is allowed to the military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states driving to the Russian Federation for implementation of international treaties of the Russian Federation and (or) decisions of public authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of military and technical cooperation, and family members of such persons.
  • to foreign state officials who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to be issued a service visa and those who travel for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or in the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.

Ordinary visa[edit]

Depending on the purpose of entry of the foreign citizen into the Russian Federation and the purpose of his stay in the Russian Federation ordinary visas are subdivided on private, business, tourist, educational, working, humanitarian and entry visas to the Russian Federation for temporary residence or citizenship ceremony

  1. An ordinary private visa is issued for a period of up to three months or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to the Russian Federation for a short visit on the basis of an invitation letter.
  2. An ordinary business visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to the Russian Federation for a business trip.
  3. An ordinary tourist visa is issued for a period of up to one month or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to six months to foreign citizens traveling to the Russian Federation as tourists, if holding an invitation letter by a Russian tour operator. Invitations can be issued by many hotels on request (sometimes for a fee) or through various online services associated with Russian tour operators.
    An ordinary tourist group visa is issued for a period of up to one month to foreign citizens traveling to the Russian Federation as a tourist in an organized tourist group (not less than five people), of holding a confirmation by an organization in the unified federal register of tour operators.
  4. An ordinary student visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to the Russian Federation for training in the educational institution.
  5. An ordinary work visa is issued to foreign citizens visiting the Russian Federation for work purposes for a period of validity of the employment contract or civil contract for performance of work (rendering services), but no more than for one year.
  6. An ordinary humanitarian visa is issued for a period of up to one year or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to five years to foreign citizens visiting the Russian Federation for a scientific, cultural, political or a sport visit, religious communication and contacts, pilgrimage, charity, delivery of humanitarian aid.
  7. An ordinary entry visa to the Russian Federation for receiving a shelter is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to three months if holding a decision of the federal executive authority authorized on implementation of functions on control and supervision in the sphere of migration on recognition of this foreign citizen as a refugee on the territory of the Russian Federation.
  8. An ordinary entry visa to the Russian Federation to obtain citizenship of the Russian Federation is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to one year if holding a decision on recognition of such foreign citizen as a native speaker of Russian.

Transit visa[edit]

A Transit visa is issued for a period of up to ten days to the foreign citizen for transit through the territory of the Russian Federation.

Visa of temporary living person[edit]

A visa of temporarily living person is issued for four months to the foreign citizen to whom entry into the Russian Federation is allowed for temporary residence, within a quota of delivery of permissions to temporary residence.

Applying for visa[edit]

All types of Russian entry visas are received through Russian embassies and consulates. Provided all the documents are ready, the process usually takes no more than 3-10 workdays for Russian travel visa.[2]

Russian Tourist Visa requirements:[3]

  • Original passport
  • One photo (colour, passport size photo)
  • Tourist invitation
  • Russian Consulate Application Form

The Russian Consulate requires the visa application form to be printed on A4 paper with right and bottom margins of 5mm. A failure to meet these requirements invalidates the form.

Exit[edit]

Russia requires that an alien who needs a visa on entry be in possession of a valid visa upon exit. To satisfy this formal requirement, exit visas sometimes need to be issued. Russia requires an exit visa if a visitor stays well past the expiration date of their visa. They must then extend their visa or apply for an exit visa and are not allowed to leave the country until they show a valid visa or have a permissible excuse for overstaying their visa (e.g., a note from a doctor or a hospital explaining an illness, missed flight, lost or stolen visa). In some cases, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs can issue a Return-Home certificate that is valid for ten days from the embassy of the visitor's native country, thus eliminating the need for an exit visa.[4][5][6]

A foreign citizen granted a temporary residence permit in Russia needs a temporary resident visa to take a trip abroad (valid for both exit and return). It is also colloquially called an exit visa.

Costs for visa[edit]

Some Russian embassies and consulates, but not all, require visa applications to be submitted in person to visa processing centres instead of directly to the consular section. Costs differ per administration center.

Visa-free entry[edit]

The citizens of the following 40 countries and territories are eligible to visit Russia with a valid passport and without obtaining a visa in advance.[7] These rules generally apply to holders of ordinary passports, rules for holders of diplomatic passports and other travel documents may differ.

As of 2014, citizens of the countries, except Belarus, who have the right to a visa-free entry to Russia must not stay longer than 90 days per every 180 days. Resetting the allowed period by leaving and re-entering the country is no longer allowed. Overstaying is punishable by a three-year entry ban.[8][9]

Unlimited period[edit]

90 days[edit]

1 – internal passport/national identification card accepted.

Stateless persons

Stateless persons who were citizens of the Soviet Union and now reside in the following countries are visa-exempt:

Non-commercial purposes[edit]

60 days for non-commercial purposes[edit]

30 days for non-commercial purposes[edit]

1 – if holding a letter of guarantee/invitation and a tourist voucher.

15 days for tourist groups[edit]

  •  China (Only for group tourism (from 5 to 50 persons) organized by accredited Chinese travel agencies)

14 days for non-commercial purposes[edit]

Visa-free zones[edit]

Local border traffic

  •  Latvia — 90 days within 6 month for holders of border traffic permit [14][15]
  •  Norway — 15 days for holders of border traffic permit.[16]
  •  Poland — 30 days but not more than 90 days within 180 for holders of border traffic permit.[17]

Vladivostok[edit]

Vladivostok again received, 106 years since it was last cancelled, the status of "porto franco" (free port) in 2015. Federal Law №212- FZ "On the free port of Vladivostok"[18] signed by the President of the Russian Federation of 13 July 2015, entered into force 12 October 2015. Among other simplifications of government procedures it will introduce visa-free regime in the territory of a free port. In 2016 foreign citizens will be allowed to stay of 8 days.[19] The list of countries will be approved by decree of the Government.

The Vladivostok visa-free regime was postponed indefinitely in January 2016.[20]

It was originally planned to provide a visa-free regime, but the draft agreement didn't pass coordination in government departments. The new draft agreement assumes that foreign citizens before entry into Vladivostok will fill in the special electronic questionnaire. After verification of the questionnaire by competent authorities of the Russian Federation foreigners will receive the notice of providing the entry visa. Electronic Authorization will be applied only after ensuring readiness of check points, modernizations of IT infrastructures systems occurs.[21]

Diplomatic and service category passports[edit]

  Russian Federation
  Diplomatic and service category passports
  Diplomatic passports only

Holders of diplomatic and service category passports: official, service, special, consular, of the following countries may enter Russia without a visa:[22][23]

* - diplomatic passports only (excluding Hungary D S and Slovakia D S)

D — diplomatic passports
S — service passports
O — official passports
Sp — special passports
C — consular passports

Visa on arrival[edit]

72-hour stay for Kaliningrad visits[edit]

From 1 February 2002 citizens of Schengen states, United Kingdom and Japan may visit the Kaliningrad region as tourists and obtain a 72-hour visa at the border check points of Bagrationovsk, Mamonovo and Khrabrovo Airport if travelling through one of the approved travel agencies. The Russian Government was planning to cancel this service in 2015, but after appeals management of Kaliningrad region and the MFA of Russia, this possibility has been extended to 2015.[24] Addressing parliament the Minister of Foreign Affairs reported about extension of service for 2016.[25]

Cruise ship passengers[edit]

Since May 2009 international tourists have been able to stay in Russia visa-free up to 72 hours when entering Russia through the ports of Anadyr, Kaliningrad, Korsakov, Novorossiysk, Sevastopol,[26] Sochi, St.Petersburg, Vladivostok, Vyborg by ferry.[27] In 2014 it was proposed to extend the policy to tourists arriving by train.[28]

Visa-free transit[edit]

Direct airside transit[edit]

Passengers travelling through international airports do not need a visa for a transit of less than 24 hours, provided a confirmed onward ticket is held and the traveller remains in the international transit area (without clearing passport control).[citation needed]

Only five Russian airports have an international transit area:

Saimaa canal[edit]

In accordance with a treaty between Russia and Finland, though there are passport controls at borders, a visa is not required for just passing through the Russian part of the Saimaa canal without leaving the vessel.[29]

Closed cities[edit]

Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[30]

Future changes[edit]

Russian government has instructed the Foreign Ministry to sign an agreement on visa-free regime with the following countries:

Visa-free agreements have already been signed with the following countries but are not yet ratified or applied:

  •  Bahrain 90 days within 180 for diplomatic and service passports, signed but is not yet ratified.[36]
  •  El Salvador 90 days within 180 for ordinary passports, signed but is not yet ratified.[37]
  •  Kuwait 90 days within 180 for diplomatic and service passports, signed but is not yet ratified.[38]
  •  Mauritius 60 days for all passports, signed but is not yet ratified.[39]
  •  Oman 90 days for diplomatic, service, special passports[40]
  •  Qatar 90 days for diplomatic passports[41]
  •  Senegal 90 days for diplomatic and service passports, signed but is not yet ratified.[42]

APEC Business Travel Card[edit]

Holders of APEC Business Travel Cards containing the "RUS" code on the reverse side have the right to enter the Russian Federation and exit from the Russian Federation without a visa from 5 Jun 2012.[43][44]

Fingerprinting[edit]

From January 2015 visa applicants from the United Kingdom, Denmark, Myanmar and Namibia will be obliged to provide fingerprint scans. After a trial period it will be decided whether to expand this to other countries as well.[45]

Crimea[edit]

As of 2014 the disputed territory of Crimea is under Russian control and Russia enforces its visa policy there.[46] However, Ukraine requires that foreigners should comply with Ukrainian visa regime including obtaining a Ukrainian visa if one is necessary. Otherwise, it may entail sanctions for "support of the temporary occupation of the Ukrainian territory".[47]

In April 2014 Crimea’s Tourism Minister proposed a visa-free regime for foreign tourists staying at Crimean resorts for up to 12 days and a 72-hour visa-free stay for cruise passengers.[48] Visa-free access for Chinese citizens was proposed in June 2014.[49] None of the proposals has been realized as of May 2015.

Local border traffic[edit]

Schengen regulations allow for the establishment of local border traffic zones only in a 30 km, and in exceptional cases 50 km, radius from the border. Russia has signed such agreements with Latvia, Poland, and Norway.

Latvia. On June 6, 2013 came into effect the agreement. Residents of border areas must obtain a special permit. The total period of stay in the border area of the state can not exceed 90 days within 6 months.[50]

Poland. The agreement was signed on 14 December 2011, entered into force on 27 July 2012. It is necessary to issue the permit in advance for residents of border areas, duration of stay 30 days but not more than 90 days out of 180.[51]

Norway. The agreement was signed in November 2010 and entered into force on 1 November 2011. Resolution on local border traffic entitles to multiple border crossing and stay up to 15 days in the border area.[52] Restrictions by number of entrances aren't present. Entry into the border area and exit from it through the border crossing "Borisoglebsk(ru) - Storskog". On 20 January 2016 Russia and Norway signed a protocol on the amendments to the attachment to the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Facilitation of Mutual Travel for Border Area Residents of Russia and Norway, which included the whole Norwegian village of Neiden in the agreement.[53]

History[edit]

At the initial stage of its development administrative-legal regime of the stay of foreigners was fixed unwritten customary law. As a rule, the following categories of foreigners coming - merchants and travelers, as well as mercenary soldiers, after the adoption of Christianity - the priests, painters, artisans engaged in the construction of the temple.

Rus'[edit]

In the X century Rus' concluded treaties establishing procedural rules for the issue. The most famous of these Treaty with Byzantium 911, which concluded Oleg of Novgorod, according to which the Russian who committed crimes in the Byzantine Empire, had to be issued for the punishment to the fatherland, and the Greeks - sended to Byzantium. The property was subject to confiscation.[54] Russkaya Pravda provided foreigners the state regime, providing for equal rights with Russian citizens.

Grand Duchy of Moscow[edit]

Russkaya Pravda is the main legal act regulating the status of foreign nationals in Grand Duchy of Moscow. One of the highlights of formation of the legal regime of foreign nationals were the entry, stay, residence and movement of foreigners in the territory of Russia for the purpose of trafficking. Some of these documents were treaties between Novgorod and Sweden - Treaty of Nöteborg (1323), Novgorod and Norway - Treaty of Novgorod (1326), allowing merchants to these countries to move freely along the Neva River. During this period, foreigners entering Russia began to issue a special document to travel across the country - Proezjaya Gramota (Russian: Проезжая Грамота, English: Charter for journey).

Tsardom of Russia[edit]

In this period there is the emergence of legal regulation of the arrival and stay of foreigners in Russia. In the 16-17 centuries the Russian borders were closed to the free entry of foreigners. The Russian government was interested in the arrival of specialists and agree on this with the monarch of the country where the foreigner was supposed to arrive. In some cases, accepted foreigners who arrived at the border on their own initiative, for the adoption of the service was preceded by a lengthy procedure to establish his identity and clarify the qualifications. Foreigners are allowed to settle only in certain places - cities, it was forbidden to travel to Russia unaccompanied Russian officials. In the 16-17 centuries the influx of foreigners in Russia was small, so do not demand the right to passport control - it was not. Almost every foreigner was in charge of the Posolsky Prikaz (foreign ministry).[55]

Foreigners in the 16th century - the first half of the 17th century, settled among the Russian population. Under pressure from the Church, in accordance with the Decree of 1652 there was an allocation area on the outskirts of cities - German Quarter, where immigrants from Western Europe settled where they were allowed to live on their own customs. Staying in the city center could only those foreigners who passed into Russian belief.[56]

In the 17th century, the government sought to invite foreign manufacturers in Russia for the establishment of important sectors of industry and therefore offer them favorable conditions for the activity: the donation of state-owned land for factories and plants, right to the enterprises by inheritance, loans from the Treasury, a monopoly on the production of goods for long term (15–20 years). Novotorgovsky tired on 22 April 1667 was the first attempt at legislative regulation of the legal status of foreigners in the Russian state. This act had a narrow focus, which regulates only questions the entry of foreign merchants. In Moscow and other cities could enter only those who have had a "special charter of trade, with a red seal." Those foreigners who did not have such charter, they could trade only in Arkhangelsk and in Pskov.

The board of Peter the Great (1682-1725) is characterized by large-scale formation of the state, the transformation of the Tsardom of Russia into Russian Empire. During the reign of Peter the Great in Russia is discussed in Section Russian Empire.

Russian Empire[edit]

The legislation of the Russian Empire in phases in sufficient detail to determine the order of entry and residence of foreigners in Russia. The legislation was allocated the categories of foreigners who have the right of free entry to the territory of Russia, to stay in it and receive citizenship, as well as the category of those who did not have such a right. Foreigners arriving in Russia, had to have a passport of their country, and have the form (permission) to permit for a specified period. Rules of admission (entry) were not the same for all, and dependent on the category of an alien (specialization) and other factors (the border drove through some alien, his nationality, the purpose of travel, religion, etc.). The expulsion of foreigners from Russia also had a legislative regulation. In 1649- 1866 there are one-off international instruments on extradition of deserters, fugitives and political prisoners, with figures of 1866 and other violations.[57] Large-scale changes began with Peter I's decrees of 13 December 1695 and on 16 November 1696. According to the first decree it was necessary "arrived for service to pass all foreigners without detention", and in relation to other visitors "to do under former decrees". The second decree it was offered "all foreigners, for whatever purpose they went, having asked, to pass without detention".[58]

The first half of the 18th century (1702-1762) - the beginning of formation of legal status of foreigners in the Russian Empire it was connected with Peter I's reforms. Peter I, seeking to make Russia more powerful and in every possible way to improve and expand trade with the foreign states, the Manifesto of 16 April 1702. "About a call of foreigners to Russia, with the promise it freedoms of worship" really were opened for foreigners by a free access to Russia and guaranteed them a number of the rights, privileges and a freedom of worship. The Manifesto gave a powerful spur in development of the Russian legislation regulating an order of entrance and departure of foreigners. The Manifesto of 1702 open borders for free entrance of foreigners. The ban lodges out of the German Quarter was cancelled. Entry into Russia was allowed only persons of "a military rank", merchants and different masters. Originally provisions of the Manifesto 1702 touched only military faces, handicraftsmen and merchants, later to Russia began to invite also other categories of foreigners, first of all scientists, foreigners jurists. But by 20th years of the 18th century stay of foreigners in Russia received quite rigid legislative regulation by means of a number of the decrees of Peter I concerning specially foreigners that is explained by internal and external factors. The decree of 31 August 1719 in Office of police affairs it was decided to write down (accounting) of foreigners, coming to St. Petersburg from other states, and after poll to send materials to boards: in the Admiralty board - on those who came on service in fleet, in College of War - on coming to army. Thus, foreigners were attributed to the relevant boards for definition of a residence and service. The office of Collegium of Commerce created in January, 1722 in Moscow supervised questions of trade with foreign merchants The special passport ("pass") - the internal document proving their identity was issued to foreigners. It should be noted that, the freedom of movement across Russia for foreigners declared in the Manifesto 1702 didn't act on practice. Obligation of existence of "letters for journey" or "proezjaya gramota " and "passports" for all foreigners moving across the territory of the state or crossing its border was established by decrees. For example, decree on 30 October 1719.

For departure from Russia foreigners received passports from boards to which they were attached, the passports receive legal force when they stamped by the Collegium of Foreign Affairs and the mark on the absence of the chief of police leaving debts. Terms of departure from the capital (two days) and out of borders of the state were specified in exit passports of foreigners, thus on departure from boundary provinces three weeks, from internal - three months.

From 1762 and until the end of the 18th century. This period can be characterized as the stage connected with the most favored treatment in a legal status of foreigners in Russia: extensive allotments were allocated for them, money, different privileges in taxes and duties were provided. But such extensive privileges in a legal status of foreigners had also a negative side which consisted in too big isolation and autonomy of foreigners from indigenous people. Foreigners lived and worked under the charter and represented as if the state in the state. During this period open access to the country was got even by Jews who on pain of punishment were forbidden to live before in the Russian state.

Catherine the Great being guided by practical reasons - about multiplication of the population in Russia, and also development of agriculture that the local population could borrow ways of processing of the earth, cultivations of cattle and in general improvement of rules of housekeeping - on 4 December 1762 the empress published the Manifesto "About a permission to foreigners, except Jews, to arrive and settles in Russia and about free return for russian people running abroad". This act resolved an issue of free entry of foreigners into Russia and granted them the considerable rights and privileges, the right of the free settlement in Russia. On 23 July 1763 there was the Imperial manifesto of the empress "About the permission to all foreigners coming to Russia to settle in those provinces in which they will wish and about granted to them is right". This document in many respects defined immigration policy of Russia on 1760 - 1770 The treaty of commerce between Great Britain and Russia 1766 in which on the basis of reciprocity were provided "freedoms and benefits" for trade people.

In the second half of the 18th eyelid a number of considerable changes was brought in the legislation on an order of entry into Russia and departure of foreign citizens. So, the admission through the Russian borders of foreigners began to be carried out only at presentation of passports.[59] The legal status of foreigners was fixed in regulations of the period - the Police Ustav 1782 and Charter to the cities 1785 Article 121 of the Police Ustav provided assignment on police of a duty of the accounting of foreigners in each city. Mode of stay of foreigners who are not in public service became legally regulated. Charter to the cities prescribed foreign merchants and craftsmen who settled in the country, but did not accept Russian citizenship, recorded in the guild, as well as to pay the established taxes and fees. They were recorded in the city office, and had no right to leave them a certain place of residence (Art. Art. 12, 60). Article 129 of the Charter to regulate the procedure departure of foreigners from the Russian cities. Foreigners are allowed to travel with the family out of the city only after notification to the municipal authorities - magistrates, confirming the payment of all debts and the local tax for three years.

The end of the 18th century - 1860 period was associated with a number of legislative acts of the Russian emperors Paul I and Alexander I by which introduced a number of restrictions of a privileged legal status of foreigners in Russia. Beginning with the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic wars, the Russian government has been refers very cautious to foreigners, mainly for political reasons. This led to various constraints, particularly affected citizens of France and the French dependent states. In the period of 1789-1820 entry for foreigners was difficult, special surveillance for arriving foreigners. Paul I ordered to strictly observe the foreigners arriving in both the capital and other areas of Russia. 26 December 1796 there were two decrees concerning the surveillance of foreigners. In the first decree, the Moscow authorities were given the right to expel from the city untrustworthy foreigners. The second decree, local authorities were obliged to ensure monitoring of all visiting foreigners, paying particular attention to the French and Swiss, suspicious foreigners could be expelled.[60] In 1806 Alexander I issued a decree "On the expulsion from Russia of all French citizens and different German regions that will not want to receive citizenship; banning them entry into Russia without passports Minister of Foreign Affairs; the termination of the trade treaty with France". Manifesto on 1 January 1807 significantly restricted the rights of foreign merchants. However, nationals of those states with which Russia has concluded trade agreements, used in Russia prior rights over other foreigners.[61] Restrictions on the rights of foreign trade and other fields existed until 1860.

1860 -1917. Reforms in Russia in 1860 and the expansion of the country's cooperation with other countries contributed to the improvement of legislation in this area. Laws have reflected a number of factors especially against foreigners: their rights, occupation, purpose of visit, religion, nationality, certain other factors, and with the participation of Russia in World War I - and external factors.

Restrictions on the rights of foreign trade and other fields existed until 1860, when Alexander II signed a decree "On the rights of foreigners residing in Russia," it ordered that foreigners staying in Russia for trade, agriculture and industry are guaranteed such rights as are enjoyed by citizens of Russia.

Under the decree of 1894 the admission of foreigners to Russia became possible according to special passports for foreigners which were given in the Russian diplomatic missions and consulates or to foreign passports which were testified by the seal in the same places. The charter about passport 1903. The foreigners arriving to Russia received the passport for a period of one year with the indication of the place of residence. The foreigners living in the large cities had to hand over the passports in police office. From there passports after check sent to special boards. To leave the country, it was necessary to wait until the police office checks lack of debts, after coordination with Board of foreign affairs the exit visa was given. Passports of those who went from the country by sea or in the courts leaving the Russian ports registered in the Admiralty board.

Legal status of foreigners during this period got the many-sided standard characteristic. Legislation was systematic, but it was extremely numerous and detailed. Since living in Russia in the late XIX century, a significant number of foreigners (in 1897 there were 605,500 foreign nationals - 0, 5% of the population), the question of their legal status was of great political as well as economic significance.[62]

From the middle of 1914 till 1917 - there was a correction of legal status of foreigners in the conditions of World War I. Legal status of foreigners was defined by a number of the decrees which followed during this period. Especially it is necessary to allocate the Decree "About Rules by Which Russia Will Be Guided during War of 1914" on 28 June 1914. Decrees limited the rights of all foreigners and practically deprived of all the rights of foreigners citizens of the states hostile to Russia during war.

Soviet Union[edit]

Soviet Russia[edit]

Changing the state ideology after October Revolution 1917 caused a corresponding change in the whole system as the protection of borders and of border crossing points. Control at the crossing points was gradually organized in such a way that, first of all, to prevent the penetration of external spies, counterrevolutionaries, politically harmful literature, means of sabotage and terror.
2 December 1917, Trotsky signed a decree the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs "On vizatsii passports upon entry to Russia." It attempted to restrict the entry into Russia persons without passports, certified by the Soviet representative abroad.[63] In circumstances where a representative acted in the only capital city in Europe - Stockholm, the value of the decision does not go beyond the demonstration of certain intentions. The same character was an attempt to establish the rules of entry of foreigners from Russia. First, 5 December 1917 the Resolution of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was a ban on leaving the country for citizens of the states which were at war with Russia without permission from the local councils. It was followed by two decisions of the Council of People's Commissars in 1917, starring travel ban persons with special permission of the Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, including diplomats, in accordance with international law. They determined the order of departure. At the same time it has been allowed entry to the Soviet Russia political refugees, received a personal certificate from established overseas emigrant committees, as well as diplomats of neutral or allied with the Russian state, having a resolution of the Soviet embassy.

In July 1919 it was announced about the first registration of foreign citizens in the territory of the RSFSR. Within 7 days after the publication of the Resolution of the Commissariat for Internal Affairs. They had to fill out a questionnaire. In addition to standard data, they were required to specify the time and the purpose of his arrival in Russia, occupation at home and in Russia, the party affiliation, marital status, attitudes toward military service. It was also necessary to call the guarantors (the Party or government workers, the factory committee, Soviet institution), which could confirm the "loyalty to the Soviet regime." But to bring order entry and residence of foreigners in 1919, marching in a Civil War, it was not possible.

Formation of the USSR[edit]

All work on the elimination of the previous shortcomings and develop modes of entry and residence of foreigners in Russia belongs to the 1921-1925. In 1921, all the old rules and regulations were abolished, the Soviet Government began to issue new rules that meet the normal requirements of international law. For example, the entry was allowed only on special permits issued by the Russian plenipotentiary representative abroad, in the form of a visa stamped in their passports, with the obligatory pictures attached thereto, if any, is not on passport. Wishes to enter Russia had to fill out a questionnaire. In 1923 the right to issue entry visas were granted Soviet consuls in countries where there were no plenipotentiaries (1925 - all consulates). Identify and types of visas: entry, transit, with the right of entry and exit, a temporary residence for multiple crossing the border group. The visa was imposed by applying mastic stamp on the document that serves as a residence (passport) persons traveling on visa lists, and following it with the person. Entry visa of any kind operated for 14 days, a visa with the right to re-entry - 1 month.[64]

In the 30s of the rules for obtaining visas gradually became more sophisticated. Instructions and rules are periodically reviewed, refined and supplemented. Features of the political system in the pre-war period, the Soviet Union turned in a very closed country. At the same time, all foreigners arriving in the territory of the country, subject to strict accounting.

After World War II[edit]

After the World War II, the Soviet Union began arriving foreigners to train highly qualified specialists to create cadres of the communist asset of the new Europe that can ensure the implementation of the program of socialist construction. Since 1946 in the Soviet Union began to study students from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, from 1947 - North Korea, since 1949 - China, since 1951 - from East Germany and Vietnam, since 1960 - Cuba.
For some military armies, primarily taking place in the USSR training was introduced a simplified procedure of exit and entry into the country. From 1945 – 1946 years of visa obtained in a simplified manner by officers of Army of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Mongolia. Only after the Yugoslav crisis in 1948 a simplified visa procedure for them has been canceled.[65]
All work with the foreigners was based on obsolete regulatory legal acts, departmental instructions 1925-1935. Non-compliance of certain provisions of these documents to new conditions created numerous difficulties. Students were required to obtain a visa to enter and leave every time, execution and coordination of different departments of visas takes time. To optimize this line of work in 1950 adopted a special instruction in 1953 pleased the decision on visa facilitation for foreign students.[66]

The liberalization of the visa regime[edit]

19 July 1959 the Council of Ministers approved the "Regulation on the entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR".[67] The entry of foreign citizens in the USSR permitted for foreign passports and other documents replacing them, in the presence of Soviet entry visas.[68] For the first time entry into the USSR became possible not only according to the international passport.

Treaty regulatory documents, terms and conditions for obtaining visas or the abolition of visas for certain categories of citizens of the socialist countries in Europe have been concluded the Government of the USSR with Bulgaria (1965, 1969), Czechoslovakia (before 1969, 1969), Hungary (1969), Poland (before 1970, 1970), Romania (1956, 1963, 1966 1969), Yugoslavia (1965, 1967).

24 June 1981 the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a law "On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the USSR» №5152-x. Foreign nationals arriving in the USSR are obliged to register their foreign passports or equivalent documents in place to stop and get out of the Soviet Union after a certain period of stay.[69]

Since 70s years with socialist countries were signed standard visa-free agreement, which replaced all previously existing arrangements. For entry to the USSR for tourist trips was needed a voucher, for private trips - invitation, transit without a visa. With Bulgaria in 1978, Cuba in 1985, Czechoslovakia in 1981, Hungary in 1978, North Korea in 1986, Poland in 1979, Romania in 1991, Yugoslavia in 1989.

Russian Federation[edit]

General Rules[edit]

The law "On the legal status of foreign citizens in the USSR" was used by the Russian Federation. Action extended from 1 January 1993. Chapter III of the law "entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR Foreign citizens" was replaced adopted the Federal Law No.114-FZ 1996 "On the Order of Exit from the Russian Federation". The law was repealed with the adoption of the Federal Law 115-FZ on 25 Jul 2002 On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation. The laws establishes that as a general rule all foreign citizens and stateless persons need visas for entry and exit from the territory of Russia and the period of temporary stay (90 days within 180). It also establishes a number of exceptions addressing certain groups of travelers. It should be noted that the basis of the legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons are secured primarily by the Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 - Art. 62 and Art. 63.[70]

According to the Russian Constitution, international treaties of Russia override the domestic legislation. Russia has concluded a number of bilateral or multilateral treaties on visa abolishing or simplification and is seeking to negotiate new such treaties. The visa policy Russia applies the principle of reciprocity, the principle of specular.

International events[edit]

Art events
Participants and members of delegations coming to participate in the musical events are either provided with a simplified visa regime (e.g. Eurovision Song Contest 2009) or the right of visa-free entry (e.g. International Tchaikovsky Competition 2015).[71]
Currently (September 2015) the law providing permanent visa abolition for participants and jury members of art competitions is being planned by the Government of Russia. The focus of this regulation will be on the International Tchaikovsky Competition.[72]

Economic events
Participants of the 1st Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok did not require a visa. Entrance was allowed with passport and the accreditation certificate only.[73]

Sporting events
Prior to the adoption of a special law, participants and members of delegations arriving to sporting events, could count on a visa-free entry or visa facilitation (determined by law for each event which has to pass ratification in parliament and to be signed by the president). On 13 May 2013 the presidential decree on the abolition of visas for athletes, coaches, team leaders and members of foreign official delegations, as well as judges from the international sports competitions came into effect. It envisages entry on the basis of passport and accreditation certificate.[74] The order of the President or the Government of Russia is sufficient for visa abolition or simplification of registration of visas.
Visas were abolished for participants of the 2013 Summer Universiade,[75] the 2014 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Moscow, the 2014 World Judo Championships in Chelyabinsk and the 16th FINA World Championships in Kazan.[76] Participants of the XVI World Aquatics Championships in the Masters category were exempted from visa fees.[77]

The right to enter Russia without a visa was also given to visitors during thee 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi if they were in a possession of tickets for the event.[78]

Players of 2016 IIHF World Championship will be able to obtain visas on arrival for the fans will be simplified procedure for issuing visas.[79]
This experiment is planned to be extended to the visitors of the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[80][81]

ex-USSR[edit]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union was formed 15 states. To solve the visa, consular, customs and border issues have been concluded unilateral and multilateral agreements in a few years.

Estonia Latvia Lithuania[edit]

Estonia introduced visas to citizens of Russia on 1 July 1992, the visa could be issued in the presence of the invitation in Moscow for 10 dollars or on border for 30 dollars.[82] On 1 June 1993 Estonia stopped issue of visas on border, the visa could be issued only in Moscow or St. Petersburg.[83][84]
Latvia introduced visas to citizens of Russia since 22 March 1993.[85]
On 13 April 1993 as a countermeasure the Russian Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin signed the government resolution "About introduction of a visa (allowing) order of entrance of citizens of the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia on the territory of the Russian Federation".[86] The resolution came into force after 30 days.[87] For citizens of former USSR permanently residing in Estonia and Latvia, and have not received citizenship, visa-free entry in force until 6 February 1995.

In December 1994, between Russia and Latvia signed an agreement on simplified crossing the border line border residents (on special lists). 10 October 2000 Latvia has unilaterally denounced the Russian-Latvian agreement on the facilitation of border crossing for border residents.[88]
At the end of 1996, Russia and Estonia agreed on a simplified border crossing by residents of border areas. Simplified visa regime distributed a total of 10 000 people - residents of Ivangorod and Narva . At the initiative of the Estonian side to the 11 September 2000 simplified border regime was abolished.[89]

Lithuania from 1 October 1993 banned the entry of internal documents, as from 1 November 1993 introduced a visa regime.[90][91] 24 February 1995 (entered into force on 25 June) between Russia and Lithuania signed an agreement on mutual trips of citizens. Citizens of both countries were to obtain visas in advance. Special protocols were established visa-free regime between Lithuania and the Kaliningrad region. The agreement was terminated at the initiative of Lithuania from 1 January 2003.[92]

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania introduced a full visa regime with Russia due to the EU accession and the duty to harmonize their visa policy. After joining in 2007 these countries to the Schengen Agreement visa issues are decided by the European Commission.

Commonwealth of Independent States[edit]

Russia signed a multilateral agreement on visa-free movement of citizens of the CIS countries on 9 October 1992.[93] Under the agreement, citizens of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia (from 1 July 1995), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan might be on each other's territory without visas unlimited amount of time for all types of identity.
Turkmenistan withdrew from the agreement of 16 June 1999
After the election of President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin were revised visa agreement. Russia withdrew from the CIS multilateral visa agreement 3 December 2000.
Since then, the citizens of Georgia must obtain a visa in advance. The agreement was renegotiated due to a terrorist threat.[94]

Azerbaijan and Ukraine refused to sign a multilateral agreement on the trips. Citizens of these countries have the right to enter the territory of Russia's internal documents, without visas for an unlimited period of time to develop individual agreements in 1997.

Eurasian Economic Union[edit]

Agreement on visa-free travel between the members of Eurasian Economic Community Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan was signed on 30 November 2000.[95] Terms and conditions regulated by internal migration laws. Citizens could located on the territory of Russia without visas for all types of documents indefinitely. The limit of 90 days was introduced on 1 November 2002. Changes were made to the agreement in 2005. The documents were corrected. Entry on internal passports was excluded from this agreement. Mode of entry on internal passports was transferred to the competence of the bilateral agreements. Russia has signed such agreements with all countries. In practice, nationals of changes in the contract base have not noticed.
Belarus. Pursuant to paragraph 9 of Article 14 of the Treaty establishing the Union State between Russia and Belarus entry can be carried out on internal passports. There is a plan to introduce a uniform visa with Belarus. The first step in the implementation of the common visa space will be an agreement on mutual recognition of visas between Russia and Belarus.[96] On 30 November 2015 decision to refuse entry is recognized as grounds for refusing a foreign citizen or stateless person entry, a visa or reducing the period of temporary stay.[97]
Kazakhstan. Government Decree 341 "On mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan" of 31 May 2005 [98]
Kyrgyzstan. Government Decree 575 "On mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic" dated September 21, 2005 [99]
Tajikistan. Government Decree 574 "On mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Tajikistan" dated 21 September 2005
Eurasian Economic Community was transformed into the Eurasian Economic Union in 2015. On 1 January 2015 entry with internal passports in Russia is possible only for members of the EEU.[100]
Government Decree on mutual trips of citizens of Tajikistan was canceled.[101]
There is a plan to introduce a uniform visa with Belarus. The first step in the implementation of the common visa space will be an agreement on mutual recognition of visas between Russia and Belarus.[96]

Europe[edit]

Russia is the state successor of the Soviet Union. Visa agreements of the Soviet Union concluded with the socialist countries continue to act to enter the territory of the Russian Federation.

Bulgaria. Entry implemented without a visa for travel vouchers or private invitations to up to 7 May 2002. In March 2002, an agreement was reached on the abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic and service passports for 90 days.[102]

Czech Republic. Citizens of Czechoslovakia had the opportunity to be in Russia without visa for vouchers or invitations. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia visa-free entry to Russia remained for Czech citizens. The new agreement signed 7 December 1995 is allowed without a visa of 30 days for all types of passports. The agreement terminated in May 2000.[103]

Hungary. Until 14 June 2001 the citizens of Hungary could be in Russia without visas in the presence of a voucher or invitations. On the same day entered into force a new agreement providing for holders of diplomatic and service passports is in Russia for 90 days without visa.[104]

Poland. The owners of all kinds of Polish passports might be in Russia without visas. For private visits had to be an invitation for travel - voucher. The agreement was terminated on 1 October 2003. The agreement on visa-free regime for holders of diplomatic and service passports for 90 days was signed 1 October 2003.[105]

Slovakia. Citizens of Czechoslovakia had the opportunity to be in Russia without visa for vouchers or invitations. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia visa-free entry to Russia remained for Slovakia citizens. The agreement was signed in 1994 and 1995 have allowed citizens of Slovakia without visas is 30 days on all types of passports. The agreement terminated in in 2001. The signed 29 December 2000 agreement allowed the holders of diplomatic and service passports is in Russia to 90 days without visas.[106]

Romania The citizens of Romania might be in Russia without a visa until 1 March 2004. It was an agreement on visa-free entry to holders of diplomatic and service passports up to 90 days.[107]

Agreement between the USSR and Yugoslavia continued to operate after the collapse of Yugoslavia in respect of the newly independent states. The citizens of Yugoslavia could located on the territory of Russia without a visa for a tourist voucher or invitation of up to 90 days.

Croatia until 31 March 2013. On that date the agreement came into effect allowing holders of diplomatic and service passports is in Russia to 90 days within 6 months.

Bosnia and Herzegovina until 1 May 2008. On May 1, 2008 came into effect the agreement that allowed to enter Russia without a visa for ordinary passports for 90 days with invitation and 30 days with voucher, holders of diplomatic and service passports 90 days. On 20 October 2013 is an agreement within 30 days about 60 days for ordinary passports.

Macedonia until 31 October 2008, when came into effect a new agreement allowing citizens of Macedonia is in Russia without visas to 30 days; for holders of diplomatic and service passports 90 days.

Montenegro until 21 November 2008 came into force a new agreement allowing citizens of Montenegro is in Russia without visas to 30 days; for holders of diplomatic and service passports 90 days.

Slovenia until 1 December 1999.

Serbia until 10 June 2009. On that date the beginning of the existing arrangement, which allows the Serbian citizens to enter Russia without a visa up to 30 days, holders of diplomatic and service passports up to 90 days.

Cyprus and Russia signed an agreement abolishing visa requirements in 1994, the agreement is allowed Cypriots without a visa up to 90 days for all passports. The agreement operated for 10 years.

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia were forced to cancel the visa-free agreements with Russia before joining the EU and the Schengen area. It was made for the unification of visa requirements.

European Union[edit]

An agreement between the European Community and Russia on the facilitation of the issuance of visas[108] has been in force since June 1, 2007. It has unified the cost of visas, and made it easier to obtain visas for close relatives, journalists, official delegations, transport crew members and some other groups of visitors. An agreement to abolish visas for holders of diplomatic passports. Similar agreements have been signed and ratified between Russia and Denmark on 1 October 2009 as well as Russia and Norway on 19 October 2011.[109][110] Silvio Berlusconi, the former Prime Minister of Italy, and later Alexander Stubb, the Foreign Minister of Finland have started public discussions on the future possibility for visa-free travel between the EU countries and Russia.[111][112] On 4 May 2010, the EU and Russian Federation raised the prospect of beginning negotiations on a visa-free regime between their territories.[113] However it was announced by the Council of Ministers of the EU that the EU is not completely ready to open up the borders due to high risk of increase in human trafficking and drug imports into Europe and because of the loose borders of Russia with Kazakhstan. They will instead work towards providing Russia with a "roadmap for visa-free travel." While this does not legally bind the EU to providing visa-free access to the Schengen zone for Russian citizens at any specific date in the future, it does greatly improve the chances of a new regime being established and obliges the EU to actively consider the notion, should the terms of the roadmap be met. Russia on the other hand has agreed that should the roadmap be established, it will ease access for EU citizens for whom access is not visa-free at this point, largely as a result of Russian foreign policy which states that "visa free travel must be reciprocal between states." Both the EU and Russia acknowledge, however, that there are many problems to be solved before visa-free travel is introduced.

Talks were suspended by the EU in March 2014 during the 2014 Crimean crisis.[114]

Visa facilitation talks with the United Kingdom, an EU member state that does not belong to the Schengen zone and thus determines its visa policy independently, were suspended by the British government in 2007 following the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.[115]

In 2013, Russia and the European Union have agreed on the issue of biometric service passports.[116]

According to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Russia in his time fulfilled all the conditions for transition to a visa-free regime with the EU, from a technical point of view, everything was ready, all agreed on the road map have been performed, but in Brussels, took a negative stand. Some EU countries have demanded not to sign the agreement on the abolition of visas between Russia and the European Union before the first visa-free regime from the EU do not get the Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, these conditions have been directly nominated.[117]

17 June 2008 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree "On the order of entry into the Russian Federation and exit from the Russian Federation, stateless persons, citizens of the USSR, and living in the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia."[118] Holders of an alien passport of Estonia and holders of a non-citizen passport of Latvia can stay in Russia to 90 days within 180.

Moldova
Agreement between Russia and Moldova on mutual visa-free travel was signed on 30 November 2000.[119] Terms and conditions regulated by internal Russian migration laws. The limit of 90 days was introduced on November 1, 2002. Amendments to the agreement entered into force on 17 July 2006 - entry of internal documents was denied. Rule 90 days within 180 days was introduced from 1 January 2014.[120]

Ukraine
Until 1997 entry regime between Russia and Ukraine wasn't issued legally. Ukrainian citizens could located on the territory of Russia without visas for all types of documents indefinitely, subject to the rules of internal migration in Russia. These conditions were legally enshrined in the agreement on visa-free trips of citizens of 16 January 1997.[121] Unlimited the period was lifted 1 November 2002 for all foreigners, and replaced by 90 days.[122] Amendments to the agreement were adopted on 1 November 2004. The amendments to the agreement adopted in 2007 corrected the list of documents for entry, the possibility of entry is saved on internal passports.
Starting from 1 January 2014 for all foreigners introduced a limit of 90 days within 180. This rule was abolished from July 2014 to 1 August 2015 due to the difficult internal political situation in that country. From 1 November to 1 December 2015 citizens of Ukraine have been identified with the status of residence - refugee, migrant worker, a tourist, a private visit and obtain permits.[123]
On 1 March 2015 Ukraine has banned citizens from entering Russian internal passports.[124] Russia did not enter a symmetrical response.

Asia[edit]

Most Asian countries have a mutual agreements on visa-free entry to Russia for diplomatic and official passports.

Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Russia recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia in 2008. There have been agreements on visa-free trips on all types of passports. Citizens of Abkhazia and South Ossetia can be in Russia without visas 90 days 180.

Armenia. Russia and Armenia signed an agreement on visa-free trips of citizens of 25 September 2000.[125] Citizens of Armenia can be located on the territory of Russia without a visa for 90 days from November 1, 2000. Starting from December 1, 2014 for all foreigners introduced a limit of 90 days within 180.

Azerbaijan. Until 1997 entry regime between Azerbaijan and Russia wasn't issued legally. Azerbaijani citizens can stay in Russia without visas for all types of documents indefinitely, subject to the rules of internal migration. These conditions were legally enshrined in the agreement on visa-free trips of citizens of 3 July 1997.[126] Unlimited period was canceled 1 November 2002, and replaced by 90 days. The Protocol to the Agreement of 2 February 2005 adjusted the list of accepted documents. Entry with internal passports was prohibited. Starting from 1 January 2014 for all foreigners introduced a limit of 90 days within 180.

China. Russia strives to facilitate visa formalities for Chinese citizens. Holders of diplomatic and service passports can enter Russia without a visa. First, on the basis of an agreement concluded between the USSR and China, after several agreements were renegotiated, from 26 April 2014 without a visa up to 30 days.
There have been agreements on visa-free travel to Hong Kong - 14 days and Macao - 30 days.
Since 2000, the visa-free agreement for group travel. Initially, the rules of entry allowed groups from 5 people to stay in Russia for 30 days. In 2006 the term was reduced to 15 days.[127] Tourist agencies of Russia and China approved the change of visa-free group tours between the two countries. planned to increase the visa-free stay up to 21 days, and a minimum number of people in the "visa-free" group cut up to 3.[128]

Israel. 20 March 2008 signed a historic agreement on visa-free trips of citizens of ordinary passports. Israel has refused to sign a similar agreement for diplomatic and official passport forms.

India. Visa-free regime for diplomatic and official passports from 2005. The agreement is being prepared for group travel of citizens and visa facilitation for certain categories of citizens (businessmen and tourists). December 21, 2010 was signed an agreement on simplification of mutual trips of citizens of both countries. December 24, 2015 signed a protocol to the agreement. Businessmen will need only the invitation for receipt of a visa.[129]

Iran In 2015, Russia signed an agreement with Iran on the simplification of visa formalities.[130] The agreement came into force on 6 February 2016.[131] Procedure of receipt of a visa was simplified, terms of consideration of the visa statement are reduced. Negotiations on visa abolition for tourist groups are conducted.[132]

South Korea. In 2004, it began the liberalization of visa requirements. In 2004, it was canceled visas for diplomats, in 2006 for service passports. In 2013, an agreement on the abolition of visas for holders of ordinary passports was signed. Citizens of South Korea may be in Russia without visas 60 days from 1 January 2014.

North Korea. Until 1997, North Korea's citizens had been able to travel to Russia without a visa in the presence of a tourist voucher. After the agreement was renegotiated and the visa waiver stay only diplomatic and service trips.

Laos and Russia are completing the approval procedure of the bilateral intergovernmental agreement on the abolition of visa requirements.[133]

Agreement on visa-free trips to Mongolia was concluded during the time of the union, but Mongolia denounced the agreement in 1995. Visa-free entry renewed in 2014. The agreement on visa-free regime was made possible when the Mongolian side has agreed to sign a readmission agreement.

Thailand and Russia signed an agreement on abolishing visas for diplomats and Missal in 2002. March 26, 2007 came into force an agreement on abolishing visas, Thai citizens traveling to Russia can visit Russia without a visa of 30 days.

Japan. Of the Agreement on the abolition of visa procedures for certain categories of citizens:
1.Residents of the central and southern Kuril Islands and the citizens of Japan. Group travel for pre-approved lists of the Foreign Ministry. Visits are carried out on the basis of identity cards and inserts.[10]
2. No visas for citizens of Japan who visit the burial place of relatives located in the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island. By pre- authorized list in the regional Russian-Japanese consultations.[11] In 2012 came into effect the agreement on simplification of procedures for issuing visas to citizens of both countries.[134]

Turkey. The liberalization of the visa regime with Turtstey began 5 November 1999, when an agreement on visa-free travel for diplomatic passports was signed. 12 May 2000 signed an agreement on visa-free travel, and office holders of ordinary passports.
24 November 2015 there was an incident with the Russian military aircraft. In response, the Russian president signed a decree "On measures to ensure the national security of the Russian Federation and the protection of Russian citizens from criminal and other illegal activities and the use of special economic measures against the Republic of Turkey." Paragraph 2 of the decree suspended the visa-free regime for owners ordinary passports from 1 January 2016.
Officials called different conditions of the cancellation of restrictive measures. The head of the State Duma's international affairs committee said "until Turkey stops helping ISIS".[135] Russia's ambassador to Turkey said that conditions are normalizing relations - "an apology from the Turkish authorities search for the perpetrators and bring them to justice, Turkey paid compensation for damages."[136]

Turkmenistan. Between Russia and Turkmenistan signed an agreement on mutual trips of citizens of July 17, 1999. Under the agreement, holders of ordinary passports had to obtain a visa in advance, holders of diplomatic and service passports are exempted from visa for 30 days.[137]

Uzbekistan. Agreement between the Government of Russia and Uzbekistan on mutual trips of citizens was signed on November 30, 2000. In 2005, an amendment that reduced the permitted list of documents for border crossing. Citizens of Uzbekistan are located in Russia without a visa for 90 days without 180.[138]

Other[edit]

Africa[edit]

Holders of diplomatic and service passports of the following 17 countries can enter Russia without a visa: Angola (2006), Benin (2001), Botswana (2005), Burkina Faso (2000), Cape Verde (1995), Congo (2016), Egypt (2003 ), Ethiopia (2003), Gabon (2011), Guinea (1998), Mali (2009), Morocco (2008), Mozambique (2010), Seychelles (2015), South Africa (2010), Tunisia (2013), Zimbabwe (1991).

Republic of Seychelles is first African state, whose citizens can travel to Russia without a visa for 30 days for ordinary passports.[139]

In August 2015 President of Russia proposed a visa-free regime for the citizens of South Africa visiting as tourist groups.[140]

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States[edit]

Most countries have CLACS bilateral agreements on visa-free travel with Russia.

In the nineties began the liberalization of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic and service passports. The two thousandth for holders of ordinary passports. Russian Foreign Minister at a meeting with ambassadors of countries of South America and the Caribbean once again confirmed the mindset to create a visa-free space with all countries.[141] at a bilateral meeting (Dominican Republic,[142] Costa Rica[143]) attitude confirmed the signing of agreements.

Canada[edit]

Canadian visa - one of the most difficult to obtain visas for citizens of Russia.It requires a large package of documents, the examination of a few weeks, a high percentage of failure. Following the principle of specular, Russia applies the same conditions for obtaining visas for Canadian citizens. On the proposal on the simplification of procedures vizrvyh Canadian side has refused.

USA[edit]

The agreement on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Bering Strait. The Intergovernmental Agreement was signed on September 23, 1989 at Jackson Hole, State of Wyoming, USA. From 1996 - the visa-free application fee was abolished. Crossing the border takes place on the basis of the passport and insert, which can be obtained on the basis of an invitation.[13] Agreement is rarely used and is a political rather.

In March 2009, US Consul General Kurt Amend stated that the US and Russia were having talks on abolishing the visa regime between the two countries.[144]

During a meeting in Moscow on March 10, 2011, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin proposed the introduction of reciprocal visa-free travel to US Vice President Joe Biden, saying, "it would be a historical step in the development of Russian-US relations "and would create" an absolutely new atmosphere between our countries."[145] The Vice President's immediate reaction was cordial, but non-committal. According to Biden's national security advisor Anthony Blinken, visa liberalization had been discussed prior to the meeting, but he added, "The Russians know full well, as do the Americans, that there are legal requirements set by Congress to be met for visa liberalization that the Russians have not yet achieved. " Among the requirements was that the refusal rate for Russians seeking visas to the United States fall below 3 percent.[146] Blinken said visa free travel could happen "... next year, [or] it could be in 10 years." However Dimitri V. Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, considered Putin's proposal to be merely a political tactic in his public exchange with Biden, calling it, "... a way to attract attention ... as a way to knock someone off course, maybe it also worked."[146]

Agreement on simplification of visa regime between Russia and the United States entered into force in 2011. The agreement provides, inter alia, the issuance of the citizens of the two countries' multi-entry visas for a stay of up to 6 months from the date of each entry and valid for 36 months from the date of issue. Under the agreement, the Russian Federation will be issued to business, private, humanitarian and tourist visas for the direct invitation of the host side.[147]

Oceania[edit]

Fiji became the first Pacific country whose citizens may visit Russia without a visa for all types of passports. Cancellation of visa regime took place July 29, 2014. Since 2015 the citizens of Nauru may stay in Russia without a visa for 14 days.[148]

Agreements[edit]

Russia has visa-free agreements with 117 jurisdictions.
Some agreements contain article on determination of total term of stay in the territory of Russia the domestic legislation.
In the table agreements in force and signed but not ratified (are allocated red) agreements.

Visitor statistics[edit]

According to the Federal Security Service and the Federal State Statistics Service. In the table top-50 for 2014, 2013, 2012. For 2011 without CIS countries.

The number of arrivals to the territory of Russia by countries:[287]

Excluding intersections Russian-Belarusian border, in the absence of border control.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ FEderal law on the procedure for exiting and entring the Russian Federasion (in Russian)
  2. ^ "Getting your Russian travel visa - tips and tricks". Moscow Russia Insider's Guide. 
  3. ^ "Russia Visa requirements". SSCvisa. 
  4. ^ Visahouse.com
  5. ^ Russianvisa.org
  6. ^ Visalink-Russia.com
  7. ^ "Visa Information - Russia". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Russia brings in new travel rules for nationals of visa-free countries, including Armenia
  9. ^ Visa-free stay in Russia limited to 90 days during 6 months
  10. ^ a b The intergovernmental agreement on visa-free exchanges between the USSR and Japan (in Russian)
  11. ^ a b http://mininvest.admsakhalin.ru/bezviz_obmen
  12. ^ http://ria.ru/world/20150723/1143152396.html#ixzz3gfw9vCIS
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  14. ^ More visa-free traveling in the Baltic
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Visa-free zone between Norway and Russia
  17. ^ EU makes visa exception for Kaliningrad
  18. ^ http://www.rg.ru/2015/07/15/fz212-dok.html
  19. ^ http://tass.ru/ekonomika/2368238
  20. ^ Vladivostok visa-free regime indefinitely delayed
  21. ^ http://ria.ru/politics/20160111/1358268617.html
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ http://www.kdmid.ru/docs.aspx
  24. ^ http://kaliningrad.mid.ru/-/prekrasaetsa-vydaca-kratkosrocnyh-turisticeskih-viz-eksperiment-prodlen?redirect=
  25. ^ http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/1852611
  26. ^ http://en.portnews.ru/news/187193/
  27. ^ "New window to Russia: tourists could spend three days in St Petersburg without a visa". Telegraph.co.uk. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  28. ^ Russia Considers Waiving Tourist Visas for Train Passengers
  29. ^ Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Finnish Republic on leasing to the Finnish Republic of the Russian part of Saimaa canal and adjoining territory and on the conditions of navigation through Saimaa canal, article 6, paragraph 3.
  30. ^ "Russian Federation Country Specific Information - Entry/Exit Requirements for U.S. Citizens". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  31. ^ http://ips.pravo.gov.ru/?docbody=3&nd=102163012
  32. ^ http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201511110010?index=1&rangeSize=1
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  34. ^ http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0001201512210003
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  37. ^ http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=2456401
  38. ^ http://kremlin.ru/supplement/5034
  39. ^ Mauritius: Govt and Russia Sign Agreement on Mutual Abolition of Visa Requirements
  40. ^ http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/2052898?p_p_id=101_INSTANCE_cKNonkJE02Bw&_101_INSTANCE_cKNonkJE02Bw_languageId=en_GB
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  149. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Abkhazia on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Abkhazia (in Russian)
  150. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Albania "On mutual trips of citizens" (in Russian)
  151. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Angola on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  152. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Argentine Republic on visa-free trips on diplomatic, official or service passports (in Russian)
  153. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Argentinian Republic on visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Argentinian Republic (in Russian)
  154. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Armenia on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Armenia (in Russian)
  155. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan on visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan (in Russian)
  156. ^ a b c d Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic , the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan on mutual visa-free trips of citizens (in Russian)
  157. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Benin on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  158. ^ Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia on visa-free trips on diplomatic, official or service passports (in Russian)
  159. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Council of Ministers Bosnia and Herzegovina on terms of mutual trips of citizens The Russian Federation and citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Russian)
  160. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  161. ^ Agreement in the form of an exchange of notes between the Government of the USSR and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil on the abolition of visa with regard to diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  162. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil to waive visa requirements for short-term travel of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Federative Republic of Brazil (in Russian)
  163. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Brunei Darussalam on the abolition of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic and service ( official ) passports in the implementation of short-term travel (in Russian)
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h The agreement between the Russian Federation and the European Community on the facilitation of issuance of visas to citizens of the Russian Federation and the European Union (in Russian)
  165. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria on mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  166. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Burkina Faso on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  167. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Cape Verde on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  168. ^ Agreement between the Government of the USSR and the Government of the People's Republic of Kampuchea on visa-free regime for citizens of both countries , undertaking an official journey through diplomatic or service passports (in Russian)
  169. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Chile on visa-free trips on diplomatic passports (in Russian)
  170. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Chile on the abolition of visas for holders of official Russian passports and official Chilean passport (in Russian)
  171. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Chile on the conditions of refusal of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Chile (in Russian)
  172. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of facilitating travel for citizens (in Russian)
  173. ^ About the Group Tourism Visa-free Agreement between China and Russia (in Chinese)
  174. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Colombia on the abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic , service or official passports (in Russian)
  175. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Colombia on the conditions of refusal of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Colombia (in Russian)
  176. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Congo on visa-free trips of owners of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  177. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica on the abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic and service oassports (in Russian)
  178. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Croatia on mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Croatia (in Russian)
  179. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Cuba on the terms of mutual trips of citizens of both countries (in Russian)
  180. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports .rtf (in Russian)
  181. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark on simplification of issue of visas to citizens of the Kingdom of Denmark of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
  182. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Dominican Republic on mutual abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  183. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Ecuador on the abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic and official Russian and diplomatic , official and special passports of Ecuador (in Russian)
  184. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Ecuador on the terms of rejection of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Ecuador (in Russian)
  185. ^ Memorandum between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt on visa-free trips on diplomatic , service and special passports (in Russian)
  186. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of El Salvador on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports of the Russian Federation and the diplomatic and official passports of the Republic of El Salvador. It concluded by an exchange of notes (in Russian)
  187. ^ [The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of El Salvador about refusal conditions from visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of El Salvador] (in Russian)
  188. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on visa-free travel for diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  189. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Fiji on mutual abolition of visa requirements for citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Fiji (in Russian)
  190. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Gabonese Republic on the abolition of visas for holders of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  191. ^ Agreement in the form exchange of notes between Government of the Russian Federation and the Government the Republic of Guatemala on the Abolition of of visas for holders of diplomatic and official passports the Russian Federation and of diplomatic, consular and official of passports the Republic of Guatemala (in Russian)
  192. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Guatemala on the conditions of refusal of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Guatemala from (in Russian)
  193. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government the Republic of Guinea on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  194. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana of the visa-free travel for holders of diplomatic and official Russian passports and diplomatic Guyanese passport (in Russian)
  195. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana on the conditions of refusal of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana (in Russian)
  196. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government the Republic of Honduras on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports citizens of the Russian Federation and the diplomatic and the official passports citizens of the Republic Honduras (in Russian)
  197. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government the Republic of Honduras about the conditions of of refusal from visa formalities when mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens the Republic of Honduras (in Russian)
  198. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government Hong Kong SAR the PRC, on mutual abolition of visa requirements for citizens of the Russian Federation and permanent residents Hong Kong SAR the PRC (in Russian)
  199. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Hungarian Republic on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  200. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of India on mutual travel for holders of diplomatic and service (official) passports (in Russian)
  201. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on refusal of visa formalities at implementation by owners of diplomatic and service passports of short-term trips (in Russian)
  202. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom Iceland on simplification of issue of visas (in Russian)
  203. ^ The memorandum between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran of visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  204. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the State of Israel on refusal of visa requirements at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the State of Israel (in Russian)
  205. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Jamaica on visa abolition for owners of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  206. ^ [The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the State of Kuwait on visa-free travel for holders of diplomatic, service and special passports] (in Russian)
  207. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic on conditions of mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  208. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein on simplification of procedure of issue of visas to citizens of the Russian Federation and Principality of Liechtenstein (in Russian)
  209. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of SAR Macau People's Republic of China on mutual cancellation of visa requirements (in Russian)
  210. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Macedonia on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Macedonia (in Russian)
  211. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Mali on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  212. ^ http://ianews.ru/articles/73022/?usemobile=0&noredir=1
  213. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Mauritius on mutual abolition of visa requirements (in Russian)
  214. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United Mexican States on visa-free trips on diplomatic, service and official passports (in Russian)
  215. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Moldova on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Moldova (in Russian)
  216. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of Mongolia on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of Mongolia (in Russian)
  217. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Montenegro on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of Montenegro (in Russian)
  218. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Kingdom of Morocco on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  219. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Mozambique on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  220. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Union Myanmar about abolition of visas to owners of diplomatic, service and official passports (in Russian)
  221. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Nauru on mutual cancellation of visa requirements for citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Nauru .(in Russian)
  222. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom Nepal on abolition of visas to owners of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  223. ^ The agreement in the form of an exchange of notes between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua about visa-free trips according to diplomatic, service and official passports (in Russian)
  224. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua on cancellation of visa requirements at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Nicaragua (in Russian)
  225. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of Democratic People's Republic of Korea on mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  226. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway on simplification of issue of visas to citizens of the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Norway (in Russian)
  227. ^ http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/2052898?p_p_id=101_INSTANCE_cKNonkJE02Bw&_101_INSTANCE_cKNonkJE02Bw_languageId=en_GB
  228. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Panama on visa-free trips on diplomatic, service, consular, official and special passports (in Russian)
  229. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Panama on conditions of refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Panama (in Russian)
  230. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Paraguay on visa-free trips on diplomatic, service Russian or official Paraguayan passports (in Russian)
  231. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay on conditions of refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Paraguay (in Russian)
  232. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Peru on abolition of visas to owners of diplomatic, service and special passports (in Russian)
  233. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Peru on conditions of refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Peru (in Russian)
  234. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of the Philippines on conditions of mutual trips of owners of diplomatic and service (official) passports (in Russian)
  235. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Poland on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Poland (in Russian)
  236. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Romania on mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  237. ^ [The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Senegal on visa-free trips of owners of diplomatic or service passports] (in Russian)
  238. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic Serbia on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of two countries (in Russian)
  239. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Seychelles on cancellation of visa requirements at short-term trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Seychelles (in Russian)
  240. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Singapore on the conditions of mutual abolition of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic and service (official) passports (in Russian)
  241. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of South Africa on refusal of visa requirements for owners of diplomatic and service/official passports (in Russian)
  242. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Korea on abolition of visa formalities for owners of diplomatic passports (in Russian)
  243. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Korea on mutual visa abolition for owners of service/official passports (in Russian)
  244. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Korea on mutual cancellation of visa requirements (in Russian)
  245. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic South Ossetia about mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and the Republic South Ossetia (in Russian)
  246. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka about on visa-free trips of owners of diplomatic and service (official) passports (in Russian)
  247. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Syrian Arab Republic on visa-free trips of owners of diplomatic, service and special passports (in Russian)
  248. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Federal Council of the Swiss Confederation on simplification of issue of visas to citizens of the Russian Federation and Swiss Confederation (in Russian)
  249. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand on mutual refusal of visa formalities for owners of diplomatic and service passports (in Russian, in English)
  250. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand on conditions of refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Kingdom of Thailand. (in Russian)
  251. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tunisia on cancellation of a visa regime for owners of diplomatic, special or service passports (in Russian)
  252. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Turkey on visa-free trips on diplomatic passports (in Russian)
  253. ^ a b Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Turkey on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and Republic of Turkey (in Russian)
  254. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Turkmenistan on mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  255. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of Ukraine on visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and Ukraine (edition of 14.03.2007) (in Russian)
  256. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United Arab Emirates on mutual cancellation of entry visas for owners of diplomatic passports (in Russian)
  257. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Oriental Republic of Uruguay on visa abolition for owners of diplomatic, service and official passports (in Russian)
  258. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Oriental Republic of Uruguay on conditions of refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of Oriental Republic of Uruguay (in Russian)
  259. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan on mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan (in Russian)
  260. ^ The agreement in the form of an exchange of notes between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela about visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports (in Russian)
  261. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on refusal of visa formalities at mutual trips of citizens of two countries (in Russian)
  262. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on conditions of mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  263. ^ The agreement between the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Zimbabwe on a visa-free regime for the citizens of the USSR and Zimbabwe who are carrying out mutual trips on diplomatic and service passports (it is concluded by an exchange of notes) (in Russian)
  264. ^ Decree of the Russian President "About an order of entry into the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation the stateless persons consisting in nationality of the USSR and living in the Republic of Latvia or the Republic of Estonia" (in Russian)
  265. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Council of ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina on conditions of mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Russian)
  266. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Government of the National Republic of Bulgaria on conditions of mutual visa-free trips of citizens (in Russian)
  267. ^ Agreement on an order of mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and citizens of the National Republic of Bulgaria (in Russian)
  268. ^ [3] (in Russian)
  269. ^ Agreement on visa-free movement of citizens of the Commonwealth of Independent States on the territory of its participants (in Russian)
  270. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of People's Republic of China on mutual trips of citizens
  271. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of People's Republic of China on visa-free trips on diplomatic and service passports
  272. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus visa-free entry - exit
  273. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Russian Federation on visa-free trips of citizens
  274. ^ Agreement between the government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic about conditions of mutual trips of citizens of both states
  275. ^ Agreement on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and citizens of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (in Russian)
  276. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Government of the Hungarian National Republic on conditions of mutual visa-free trips of citizens (in Russian)
  277. ^ Agreement on an order of mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and citizens of the Hungarian National Republic (in Russian)
  278. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic on a visa-free regime for citizens of both states making office trips on diplomatic or service passports
  279. ^ Interim agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and Government of the Republic of Lithuania on mutual trips of citizens
  280. ^ Agreement on an order of mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and citizens of the Monolsky National Republic (in Russian)
  281. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Abkhazia on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Abkhazia Agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Government of the Polish National Republic on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of both states (in Russian)
  282. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Government of the Polish National Republic on mutual visa-free trips of citizens of both states (in Russian)
  283. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania on visa abolition for office, tourist, private and transit trips (in Russian)
  284. ^ The agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania on cancellation of the entrance - exit visas at trips on office affairs, on a visit to relatives and acquaintances and about cancellation of transit visas (in Russian)
  285. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Slovak Republic on visa-free travel (in Russian)
  286. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Allied Executive Veche of Skupstina of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on mutual trips of citizens (in Russian)
  287. ^ http://www.russiatourism.ru/contents/statistika/statisticheskie-pokazateli-vzaimnykh-poezdok-grazhdan-rossiyskoy-federatsii-i-grazhdan-inostrannykh-gosudarstv/strany-lidiruyushchie-po-kolichestvu-pribytiy-na-territoriyu-rossiyskoy-federatsii/

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