Gold Coast, Queensland
Gold Coast skyline from Nobby Beach, 2014
|Population||569,997 (2016) (6th)|
|• Density||972/km2 (2,520/sq mi)|
|Area||414.3 km2 (160.0 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10:00)|
|Location||66 km (41 mi) SSE of Brisbane|
|LGA(s)||City of Gold Coast|
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland, approximately 66 kilometres (41 mi) south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and immediately north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 569,997, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, and Queensland's second-largest city.
The Gold Coast region remained largely uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. Later in 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents.
After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly. The area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become widely known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks, nightlife, and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry. The city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Governance
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
- 8 Media
- 9 Education
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 Notable residents
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region. The region remained largely uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, which was named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century.
A number of small townships developed along coast and in the hinterland. The western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had also been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed and renamed Southport, with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport quickly grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents.
The Gold Coast was originally known as the South Coast (because it was south of Brisbane). However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals initially considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" simply became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta. The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas (such as Burleigh Heads) from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, and on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast. The area was proclaimed a city less than one year later on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast.
The Gold Coast is approximately half covered by forests of various types. This includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, and patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest. Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain.
Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales (NSW) approximately 56 km (35 mi) south, and extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park.
The southernmost town of Gold Coast City, Coolangatta, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At , this is the most easterly point on the Queensland mainland (Point Lookout on the offshore island of North Stradbroke is slightly further east). From Coolangatta, approximately forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, and then further on Stradbroke Island. The suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre. The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but the swamps have been converted into man-made waterways (over 260 kilometres (160 mi) in length or over 9 times the length of the canals of Venice, Italy) and artificial islands covered in upmarket homes. The heavily developed coastal strip sits on a narrow barrier sandbar between these waterways and the sea.
To the west, the city borders a part of the Great Dividing Range commonly referred to as the Gold Coast hinterland. A 206 km2 (80 sq mi) section of the mountain range is protected by Lamington National Park and has been listed as a World Heritage area in recognition of its "outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species". The area attracts bushwalkers and day-trippers. Important rainforest pollinating and seed-dispersing Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) are found in the area and may be heard foraging at night.
The City of Gold Coast includes suburbs, localities, towns and rural districts.
The declaration of Southport as a Priority Development Area (PDA) and new investment into the CBD is driving transformative change and creating new business and investment opportunities. At the heart of the Gold Coast is the emergence of a CBD that is revitalised, dynamic and vibrant; a CBD that will position the Gold Coast as a globally competitive business, investment and lifestyle destination.
Waterfront canal living is a feature of the Gold Coast. Most canal frontage homes have pontoons. The Gold Coast Seaway, between The Spit and South Stradbroke Island, allows vessels direct access to the Pacific Ocean from The Broadwater and many of the city's canal estates. Breakwaters on either side of the Seaway prevent longshore drift and the bar from silting up. A sand pumping operation on the Spit pipes sand under the Seaway to continue this natural process.
Residential canals were first built in the Gold Coast in the 1950s and construction continues. Most canals are extensions to the Nerang River, but there are more to the south along Tallebudgera Creek and Currumbin Creek and to the north along the Gold Coast Broadwater, South Stradbroke Island, Coomera River and southern Moreton Bay. Early canals included Florida Gardens and Isle of Capri which were under construction at the time of a 1954 flood. Recently constructed canals include Harbour Quays and Riverlinks completed in 2007. There are over 890 kilometres (550 mi) of constructed residential waterfront land within the city that is home to over 80,000 residents.
The city consists of 70 kilometres (43 mi) of coastline with some of the most popular surf breaks in Australia and the world including, South Stradbroke Island, The Spit, Main Beach, Surfers Paradise, Broadbeach, Mermaid Beach, Nobby Beach, Miami, Burleigh Beach, Burleigh Heads, Tallebudgera Beach, Palm Beach, Currumbin Beach, Tugun, Bilinga, Kirra, Coolangatta, Greenmount, Rainbow Bay, Snapper Rocks and Froggies Beach. Duranbah Beach is one of the world's best known surfing beaches and is often thought of as being part of Gold Coast City, but is actually just across the New South Wales state border in Tweed Shire.
There are also beaches along many of the Gold Coast's 860 km (530 mi) of navigable tidal waterways. Popular inland beaches include Southport, Budds Beach, Marine Stadium, Currumbin Alley, Tallebudgera Estuary, Jacobs Well, Jabiru Island, Paradise Point, Harley Park Labrador, Santa Barbara, Boykambil and Evandale Lake.
Beach safety and management
The Gold Coast has Australia's largest professional surf lifesaving service to protect people on the beaches and to promote surf safety throughout the community. The Queensland Department of Primary Industries carries out the Queensland Shark Control Program (SCP) to protect swimmers from sharks. Sharks are caught by using nets and baited drumlines off the major swimming beaches. Even with the SCP, sharks do range within sight of the patrolled beaches. Lifeguards will clear swimmers from the water if it is considered that there is a safety risk.
Gold Coast beaches have experienced periods of severe beach erosion. In 1967, a series of 11 cyclones removed most of the sand from Gold Coast beaches. The Government of Queensland engaged engineers from Delft University in the Netherlands to advise what to do about the beach erosion. The Delft Report was published in 1971 and outlined a series of works for Gold Coast Beaches including Gold Coast Seaway, works at Narrow Neck that resulted in the Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy and works at the Tweed River that became the Tweed River Entrance Sand Bypassing Project.
By 2005 most of the recommendations of the 1971 Delft Report had been implemented. City of Gold Coast commenced implementation of the Palm Beach Protection Strategy but ran into considerable opposition from the community participating in a NO REEF protest campaign. The City of Gold Coast Council then committed to completing a review of beach management practices to update the Delft Report. The Gold Coast Shoreline Management Plan will be delivered by organisations including the Environmental Protection Agency, City of Gold Coast and the Griffith Centre for Coastal Management. Gold Coast City is also investing into the quality and capacity of the Gold Coast Oceanway that provides sustainable transport along Gold Coast beaches.
The Gold Coast experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with mild winters and hot, humid summers. The city experiences substantial summer precipitation mostly concentrated in thunderstorms and heavy showers with rain events occasionally lasting up to a few weeks at time giving residents "the summer blues", while winter is pleasantly mild to warm with little rain. In fact, it is for this pleasant winter weather that both the city and the Sunshine Coast—the coastal region north of Brisbane—are internationally renowned. Extreme temperatures recorded at Gold Coast Seaway have ranged from 0.6 °C (33 °F) on 18 June 2018 to 40.5 °C (105 °F) on 22 February 2005, although the city rarely experiences temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F) in summer or below 5 °C (41 °F) in winter. The average temperature of the sea at Surfers Paradise ranges from 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) in July and August to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in February.
|Climate data for Gold Coast (1992–2017)|
|Record high °C (°F)||38.5
|Average high °C (°F)||28.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.3
|Average low °C (°F)||21.8
|Record low °C (°F)||17.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||135.8
|Average precipitation days||14.2||14.6||15.1||12.0||11.6||10.9||8.3||7.2||8.8||9.5||12.0||12.7||139.6|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||70||70||68||65||62||58||55||56||62||66||68||69||64|
The most commonly nominated ancestries were English (29.3%), Australian (22.5%), Irish (8.2%), Scottish (7.5%), and German (3.6%). 64% of people were born in Australia, while the other most common countries of birth were New Zealand (7.9%), England (5.2%), China and South Africa (1.2% each), and Japan (0.7%). Indigenous Australians accounted for 1.7% of the population.
The most commonly spoken languages other than English were Mandarin (1.6%), Japanese (1.0%), Korean and Spanish (0.6% each), and Cantonese (0.5%). The most common religious affiliations reported were none (31.8%), Catholic (20.7%), Anglican (16.2%), and Uniting Church (3.9%).
Administratively, the Gold Coast is a local government area called the City of Gold Coast. The City of Gold Coast Council has 14 elected councillors, each representing a division of the City. Businessman Tom Tate is the current Mayor of the Gold Coast, first elected in 2012. Former mayors include Ron Clake, Gary Baildon, Lex Bell, Ray Stevens, Ern Harley and Sir Bruce Small, who was responsible for the development of many of the canal estates that are now home to thousands of Gold Coast residents.
At the state level, the Gold Coast area is represented by eleven members in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The seats they hold are: Bonney, Broadwater, Burleigh, Coomera, Currumbin, Gaven, Mermaid Beach, Mudgeeraba, Southport, Surfers Paradise and Theodore. Federally, the Gold Coast area is split between five divisions in the House of Representatives: Fadden (northern), Moncrieff (central) and McPherson (southern) are located entirely within the Gold Coast, while Forde (north-west) and Wright (south-west) encompass parts of the Gold Coast and other areas of Southeast Queensland.
Politically, the Gold Coast has often tilted conservative. It was a Country Party bastion for most of the first three decades after World War II, but increasing urbanisation has made it a Liberal stronghold. Labor has historically only done well around Labrador and Coolangatta. Only one Labor MP has ever represented a significant portion of the Gold Coast at the federal level since 1949; the three Gold Coast divisions have only returned Liberals since 1984. At the state level, Labor was fairly competitive in the Gold Coast for most of the early part of the 21st century. However, as part of its massive landslide in the 2012 state election, the Liberal National Party won every seat there. The LNP repeated its sweep of the Gold Coast seats at the 2015 election, and retained all but one Gold Coast seat at the 2017 state election.
Southport Courthouse is the city's major courthouse and has jurisdiction to hear petty criminal offences and civil matters up to A$250,000. Indictable offences, criminal sentencing and civil matters above A$250,000 are heard in the higher Supreme Court of Queensland which is located in Brisbane. There are subsidiary Magistrates Courts, also located at the northern and southern suburbs of Beenleigh and Coolangatta.
In 2013 a brawl between members of Outlaw motorcycle gangs also called "bikies" who fought each other outside a Broadbeach restaurant caused mass fear to restaurant patrons and police. This led to the toughest anti-bikie laws introduced in Australia known as Vicious Lawless Association Disestablishment Act 2013.
In fifty years, Gold Coast City has grown from a small beachside holiday destination to Australia's sixth largest city (and the country's most populous non-capital city). Situated within South East Queensland's growth corridor, the Gold Coast is one of Australia's fastest growing large cities, with a 5-year annual average population growth rate to 2015 of 1.8%, compared to 1.5% nationally. Gross Regional Product has risen from A$9.7 billion in 2001, to A$15.6 billion in 2008, a rise of 61 percent. Tourism remains fundamental to Gold Coast City's economy, with almost 10 million visitors a year to the area. In the past the economy was driven by the population derived industries of construction, tourism and retail. Some diversification has taken place, with the city now having an industrial base formed of marine, education, information communication and technology, food, tourism, creative, environment and sports industries. These nine industries have been identified as the key industries by the City of Gold Coast Council to deliver the city's economic prosperity. Gold Coast City's unemployment rate (5.6 per cent) is below the national level (5.9 per cent). The declaration of Southport as the Gold Coast central business district (CBD) and a Priority Development Area (PDA), as well as new investment into the CBD, is driving transformative change and creating new business and investment opportunities.
The Gold Coast Economic Development Strategy 2013 - 2023 outlines the framework for the city's long-term growth and prosperity. The strategy outlines actions in the following areas, Innovation, Culture, Infrastructure, Competitive business, Workforce, International.
Around 10 million tourists visit the Gold Coast area every year: of 849,114 international visitors, 3,468,000 domestic overnight visitors and 5,366,000 daytrip visitors. Tourism is the region's biggest industry, directly contributing more than $4.4 billion into the city economy every year and directly accounting for one in four jobs in the city There are approximately 65,000 beds, 60 kilometres (37 mi) of beach, 600 kilometres (370 mi) of canal, 100,000 hectares of nature reserve, 500 restaurants, 40 golf courses and five major theme parks in the city. There have been various prospects and proposals raised for even more theme parks.
Gold Coast Airport provides connection across Australia and internationally with airlines including Flyscoot, Jetstar, Qantas, Air New Zealand, Virgin Australia and Airasia X. Brisbane Airport is less than one hour from the centre of Gold Coast, and direct trains operate.
Tourism is Gold Coast City's main industry, generating a total of $2.5 billion in revenue per annum. The Gold Coast is the most popular tourist destination in Queensland. It is Australia's 5th most visited destination by international tourists.
The city has over 13,000 available guest rooms contributing over $335 million to the local economy each year. Accommodation options available range from backpacker hostels to five star resorts and hotels. The most common style of accommodation is three and four star self-contained apartments. Tourist attractions include surf beaches, and theme parks including Dreamworld, Sea World, Wet'n'Wild Water World, Warner Bros. Movie World, WhiteWater World, Top Golf, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary, David Fleay Wildlife Park, Australian Outback Spectacular, and Paradise Country.
Since the opening of what was then the world's highest residential tower in 2005 (it is now the fifth highest), the Q1 building has been a destination for tourists and locals alike. It is the second highest public vantage point in the southern hemisphere after the Eureka Tower in Melbourne. The observation deck at level 77 is the highest of its kind in Queensland and offers views in all directions, from Brisbane to Byron Bay. It towers over the Surfers Paradise skyline, with the observation deck 230 metres (755 feet) high, and the spire extending nearly another hundred metres up. In total, the Q1 is 322.5 metres (1058 feet) high, making it the tallest building in Australia. Another famous tourist attraction are the Surfers Paradise Meter Maids, instituted in 1965 to put a positive spin on new parking regulations. To avoid tickets being issued for expired parking, the Meter Maids dispense coins into the meter and leave a calling card under the windscreen wiper of the vehicle. The Maids are still a part of the Surfers Paradise culture but the scheme is now run by private enterprise.
The Gold Coast is the major film production hub in Queensland and has accounted for 75% of all film production in Queensland since the 1990s, with an expenditure of around $150 million per year. The Gold Coast is the third largest film production centre in Australia behind Sydney and Melbourne.
It is the filming site for major motion pictures including Scooby Doo (2002), House of Wax (2005), Superman Returns (2006), Unbroken (2014), The Inbetweeners 2 (2014), San Andreas (2015) Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales (2017), Kong: Skull Island (2017), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Pacific Rim: Uprising (2018), Aquaman (2018), Dora the Explorer (2019) and Godzilla vs. Kong (2020).
Village Roadshow Studios are adjacent to the Warner Bros Movie World Theme Park at Oxenford. The Studios consists of eight sound stages, production offices, editing rooms, wardrobe, construction workshops, water tanks and commissary. These sound stages vary in size and have an overall floor area of 10,844 sq metres, making Warner Roadshow Studio one of the largest studio lots in the Southern Hemisphere.The Queensland Government actively supports the film and television production industry in Queensland and provides both non-financial and financial assistance through the Pacific Film and Television Commission.
The Gold Coast's culture has been impacted by rapid development and traditional marketing programs orbiting around 'sun, sand, surf and sex.'
Despite rapid socio-economic changes and a tourist-centred image, there is evidence of local resident-driven culture (such as surf gangs) in geographical pockets and a broader 'Gold Coaster' identity drawn from globalised resort and real estate marketing material. The Gold Coast hosts cultural activities that attract tourists and residents alike.
Music groups in this region include the Northern Rivers Symphony Orchestra and Operator Please. Musicians Cody Simpson and Ricki-Lee Coulter are from the Gold Coast. Music events include Big Day Out, Good Vibrations Festival, Summafieldayze, the Blues on Broadbeach Festival and V Festival (2007–2009).
Home of the Arts (HOTA) is the Gold Coast's premier cultural facility for visual and performing arts with a performance theatre, two cinemas and an underground venue. The theatre has hosted performance by the Imperial Russian Ballet, The Australian Ballet and the Queensland Ballet. Musicals, plays and a variety of performances are regularly scheduled. The city is also home to the Gold Coast City Art Gallery. Film festivals and the Comedy Club host international artists.[clarification needed] A redeveloped Gold Coast cultural precinct opened before the city hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
Sport and recreation
The Gold Coast is represented in two national competitions by the following teams:
|Gold Coast Titans||National Rugby League||Rugby league football||2007–present|
|Gold Coast Suns||Australian Football League||Australian rules football||2011–present|
Sporting facilities include the Carrara Stadium, Carrara Indoor Sport Centre, Nerang Velodrome and the Sports Super Centre. Some of these facilities are being superseded by newer and larger capacity facilities. Two examples of these are the Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre to play host to a Gold Coast Basketball team and Skilled Park to host NRL games.
Former World Wrestling Entertainment performer Nathan Jones comes from the Gold Coast, as do Olympic gold medal winning swimmer Grant Hackett, 2011 US Open tennis champion Samantha Stosur and Sally Pearson (who received the keys to the city).
The Gold Coast 600 (formerly known as Lexmark Indy 300) is a car racing event held annually, usually in October. The course runs through the streets of Surfers Paradise and Main Beach. The GC 600 comprises many other events such as the Indy Undie Ball and the Miss Indy Competition. Formerly an Indy car event, V8 Supercars are now the headline attraction, using a similar track route, as the circuit was cut in half by a hairpin.
The Magic Millions horse racing auction at the Gold Coast Turf Club was the brainchild of entrepreneurs Gerry Harvey (of retailer Harvey Norman) and John Singleton. There are plans to relocate and build a state-of-the-art new racetrack at Palm Meadows which will incorporate the Magic Million sale with facilities for up to 4000 horses.
Each June, Coolangatta hosts the Wintersun Festival renamed as Cooly Rocks On for 2011, a two-week 1950s and 1960s nostalgia festival with free entertainment and attractions, including hot rods, restored cars and revival bands playing music of the era. Every July, more than 25,000 congregate on the Gold Coast from around the world to participate in the Gold Coast Marathon. It is also the largest annual community sporting event held on the Gold Coast. In 2015, it will be held on 4–5 July and the 37th Gold Coast Airport Marathon is set to motivate and challenge more than 25,000 people of all ages and abilities. The Gold Coast Airport Marathon will feature an event for all ages and abilities, including the full Gold Coast Airport Marathon, ASICS Half Marathon, Southern Cross University 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) Run, Suncorp Bank 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) Challenge, and Junior Dash over 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) and 2 kilometres (1.2 mi).
In August Currumbin hosts the annual half distance Challenge Gold Coast triathlon, with the 1.9 km swim taking place in the Currumbin River, the 90 km bike going through the Currumbin and Tallebudgera Valleys in the Hinterland, and the 21.1 km run going along the beach to Elephant Rock and Tugun.
Late November to early December sees thousands of school leavers across the country descend on the Gold Coast for Schoolies, a two-week period of celebration and parties throughout Surfers Paradise, hosted by the City of Gold Coast. The event is often criticised nationally and locally for its portrayal of drinking and acts of violence, however every effort by the Queensland Police Service and State Government to ensure all school leavers have a good time are put into place, including locals volunteering by walking the streets and keeping an eye out for those in need of assistance. Early each year the Gold Coast hosts one leg of the ASP World Tour of surfing, where some of the worlds best surfers compete in the Quiksilver Pro at Coolangatta.
The Arts Centre Gold Coast located in Evandale, features a fine art gallery featuring local and international works from painting to sculpture and new media. In addition, there is a theatre for live productions including musicals as well two arts cinemas showing foreign and independent films from Australia and abroad.
Chinatown, Gold Coast, located in Southport, hosts the annual citywide Lunar New Year festival as well as regular monthly events.
The daily local newspaper is the Gold Coast Bulletin which is published by News Corporation. National surfing magazine Australia's Surfing Life is published in the Gold Coast suburb of Burleigh Heads by Morrison Media.
The Gold Coast straddles the boundary between the television licence areas of both Brisbane (metropolitan) and Northern New South Wales (regional): the Brisbane primary channels are Seven's BTQ, Nine's QTQ and Ten's TVQ, while the regional affiliates are Prime7's NEN, Nine Northern NSW and WIN Television.
Both sets of commercial stations are available throughout the Gold Coast, as well as the ABC and SBS television services. Other channels include 10 Boss, 10 Peach, Sky News on WIN (regional), ABC Comedy, ABC Me, ABC News, SBS Viceland, 7TWO, 7mate, 7flix, 9Gem, 9Go! & 9Life. Subscription television service Foxtel is also available.
In 2017 it was announced The Logie Awards will be hosted on the Gold Coast for the next four years.
There are numerous commercial, ABC and community stations broadcasting along the Gold Coast.
Colleges and universities
The Gold Coast is home to two major university campuses: Bond University at Robina and Griffith University at Southport. Southern Cross University also operates a smaller campus in Bilinga near the Gold Coast Airport. The Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) has five campuses at Southport, Ridgeway (Ashmore), Benowa, Coomera and Coolangatta.
Schools and libraries
There are over 100 primary and secondary schools, both public and private and of a variety of denominations, including the selective state high school Queensland Academy for Health Sciences and single-sex private schools The Southport School and St Hilda's School. The longest established public school on the Gold Coast is Southport State High School, having originally opened in 1916. There are a number of libraries located on the Gold Coast. For a full list see Gold Coast libraries.
Electricity for the Gold Coast is sourced from Powerlink Queensland at bulk supply substations which is provided via the National Electricity Market from an interconnected multi-State power system. The Government-owned electricity corporation Energex distributes and retails electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and value-added products and services to residential, industrial and commercial customers in South-East Queensland.
The Hinze Dam 15 km (9.3 mi) southwest of Nerang is the population's main water supply. The Little Nerang Dam which feeds into Hinze Dam can supplement part of the city area's water needs, and both are managed by the city council directorate Gold Coast Water. Reforms of the way in which the water industry is structured have been announced by the State Government, with transfer of ownership and management of water services from local government to the state occurring in 2008–09. City of Gold Coast also sources water from Wivenhoe Dam, west of Brisbane for northern suburbs when the Hinze Dam, at one-tenth of Wivenhoe's capacity, becomes low.
Water shortage and water restrictions have been current local issues, and a few new Gold Coast residential areas have recently included dual reticulation in their planning and development to supply water from a new water recycling plant being built concurrently. This will make available highly treated recycled water for use around the home in addition to potable water. The Gold Coast has received world recognition for this scheme in its Pimpama-Coomera suburbs.
Gold Coast Water has also been recognised for its world leading HACCP water quality management system by the World Health Organization which published Gold Coast Water's system as a good model for managing water quality and safety from catchment to tap. The Gold Coast desalination plant, which opened in February 2009, has the capacity to supply up to 133 megalitres of desalinated water per day.
The car is the dominant mode of transport in the Gold Coast, with over 70% of people using it as their sole mode of travelling to work. The Gold Coast has an extensive network of arterial roads that link coastal suburbs with inland suburbs. In recent the years the local and state governments have invested money in transport infrastructure on the Gold Coast to combat the increasing congestion on many of the city's roads. The Gold Coast has an extensive public transport network that includes buses, heavy rail & the new light rail for commuting to work, visiting attractions, and travelling to other destinations.
A number of major roads connect the Gold Coast with Brisbane, New South Wales, and the surrounding areas. The Pacific Motorway (M1) is the main motorway in the area. Beginning at the Logan Motorway (M6) in Brisbane, it travels through the inland Gold Coast region and links with the Pacific Highway at the New South Wales/Queensland border near Tweed Heads. Before the Tugun Bypass was completed in 2008, the motorway ended at Tugun. The Gold Coast Highway services the coastal suburbs of the Gold Coast, including Surfers Paradise, Southport, and Burleigh Heads. Starting at the Pacific Motorway at Tweed Heads, it runs parallel to the coast until it reaches Labrador, where it turns inland to meet the Pacific Motorway again at Helensvale. Other arterial roads include the Smith Street Motorway which connects Southport, Gold Coast’s CBD with the M1 in Parkwood. Other major roads include Reedy Creek Road, Nerang–Broadbeach Road, Robina Parkway and Southport–Burleigh Road.
The Gold Coast's light rail service is called G:link, a 20 km (12 mi) line between Helensvale and Broadbeach that also connects the key activity centres of Southport and Surfers Paradise. The G:link was opened in 2014 between Broadbeach and Southport, with an extension to Helensvale completed in 2017 in preparation for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
Queensland Rail operates rail services from Brisbane to the Gold Coast along the Gold Coast railway line. The line follows the same route as Brisbane's Beenleigh railway line, continuing on after reaching Beenleigh. It then follows a route similar to that of the Pacific Motorway, passing stations at Ormeau, Coomera, Helensvale, Nerang and Robina before terminating at Varsity Lakes. An extension of the Gold Coast line to the Gold Coast Airport is proposed.
The Gold Coast's main provider of public bus services is Surfside Buslines. It is a part of the TransLink network that coordinates the public transport in South East Queensland. Services are frequent during the day, with intervals being as little as 5 minutes between Southport and Burleigh Heads.
Gold Coast Airport is located at Coolangatta, approximately 22 kilometres (14 mi) south of Surfers Paradise. Services are provided to interstate capitals and major cities as well as to major New Zealand cities, Malaysia, Japan and Singapore. It is the sixth busiest airport in Australia.
- The Gold Coast has been debating a controversial cruise ship terminal
- A third extension of the G:link to Burleigh Heads is planned with fesability studies and community consultation currently underway.
- The existing heavy rail Gold Coast line will be extended to Coolangatta
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The City of Gold Coast has relationships with the following cities:
- Beihai, China
- Zhuhai, China
- Tainan, Taiwan
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates
- Fort Lauderdale, United States of America
- Takasu, Japan
- Nouméa, New Caledonia
- Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Agreement of friendship and cooperation
- Jining, China
Gold Coast City has previously had a relationship with:
- Mick Doohan, five time 500 cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing World Champion was born on the Gold Coast.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Gold Coast (Statistical Area Level 4)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- "Great Circle Distance between Gold Coast and Brisbane". Geoscience Australia. March 2004. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Details – Main Features". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Future" (PDF). Future Gold Coast. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Real Estate". Daily Mail (7091). Brisbane. 18 November 1924. p. 16. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Another Pioneer Passes". South Coast Bulletin. , (1248). Queensland, Australia. 12 March 1952. p. 8. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- "Greater Brisbane Area". State Library of Queensland. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Government Notifications". The Queenslander. V (225). 28 May 1870. p. 9. Retrieved 9 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Country News, by Mail". The Queenslander. VIII (398). 20 September 1873. p. 10. Retrieved 9 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Sixty Years Ago". The Queenslander. 2 May 1935. p. 51. Retrieved 9 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Beaches Now Not so Golden – Boom for Land Is Ebbing". Sunday Mail. Brisbane. 29 October 1950. p. 4. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Talk of the Town". Sunday Mail. Brisbane. 24 December 1950. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "DAY by DAY". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 28 August 1951. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "DAY by DAY". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 22 November 1951. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "'Can get it-at a price'". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 26 December 1951. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Don'ts for South Coast 1951-52". Sunday Mail. Brisbane. 18 November 1951. p. 7. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "DAY by DAY". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 14 November 1951. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- ""Gold Coast" jinks". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 29 December 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "NSW will have own Riviera". Sunday Mail. Brisbane. 17 February 1952. p. 5. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Day by Day". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 18 February 1952. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Talk of the Town". Sunday Mail. Brisbane. 24 February 1952. p. 1. Retrieved 21 January 2015 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Agency ID2476, South Coast Town Council". Queensland State Archives. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Agency ID10379, Gold Coast Town Council". Queensland State Archives. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- McCarthy, John; Stolz, Greg (11 November 2007). "Gold Coast sixth largest city". The Courier-Mail. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012.
- "Gold Coast chosen to host 2018 Commonwealth Games". BBC Sport. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Hundloe, Tor; McDougall, Bridgette; Page, Craig, eds. (2015). The Gold Coast Transformed. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 9781486303298. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Boating". Gold Coast City Council. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves". Archived from the original on 10 May 2015.
- https://www.abc.net.au/news/emergency/2014-02-18/unnamed-great-gold-coast-cyclone-february-1954/5266720. Retrieved 14 September 2019. Missing or empty
- "Gold Coast Lifeguard Services". Gold Coast City Council. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Queensland Shark Control Program". Archived from the original on 4 May 2012.
- "Delft Report". Queensland Government. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Gold Coast Seaway" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2006.
- "Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy". International Coastal Management. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Tweed River Entrance Sand Bypassing Project". Tweed Sand Bypassing. New South Wales Government. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Palm Beach Protection Strategy Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "No Reef Campaign". SargesDailySurf.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Gold Coast Shoreline Management Plan Griffith University
- "Climate statistics for Australian locations: Gold Coast Seaway". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Gold Coast Sea Temperature". World Sea Temperatures. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Climate statistics for Gold Coast Seaway". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Queensland election 2015: LNP retains hold on Gold Coast". ABC News. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Stevenson, Ashleigh (5 May 2015). "Restaurant patrons started screaming, running away when brawl started, court told". ABC News. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014–15: Population Estimates by Significant Urban Area, 2005 to 2015". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help) Estimated resident population, 30 June 2015.
- National Institute of Economic and Industry Research (NIEIR) November 2007
- Tourism Research Australia Domestic and International Visitor Surveys
- ABS Regional Labour Force Survey February 2009
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|dead-url=(help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Gold Coast, Famous for Fun – Official Gold Coast Holidays Guide in Queensland, Australia". VisitGoldCoast.com. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Salt Water Estate[permanent dead link]
- "Key Gold Coast Industries Report". Queensland Government. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "International Market Tourism Facts" (PDF). Tourism Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Gold Coast Chinatown". Gold Coast City Council. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Film Industry on the Gold Coast". Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Condren, Bernadette (18 March 2018). "We did it! Dora the explorer puts Queensland on her map". Brisbane Times. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- "Gold Coast lures Godzilla and King Kong". NewsComAu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Pacific Film and Television Commission". Pacific Film and Television Commission. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Carson, Susan Jane. "Inside the pleasure dome : cultural tourism on Australia's Gold Coast". Queensland University of Technology. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Baker, S.; Bennett, A.; Wise, P. (2012). "'Living 'the Strip': negotiating neighbourhood, community and identities on Australia's Gold Coast'". Habitus of the Hood.: 96.
- City of Gold Coast | Gold Coast Cultural Precinct Gold Coast City Council Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- The Event Crew – Home Archived 5 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Gold Coast City Council – Pimpama Coomera Master Plan Frequently Asked Questions". Gold Coast City Council. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Water safety plans: Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer". World Health Organization. 21 February 2009. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Kaine, Charmaine (27 February 2009). "Smooth start for Tugun Desalination Plant". ABC News. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
- "WaterSecure – a new source of pure water". WaterSecure. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Method of Travel to Work by Sex – Gold Coast (Local Government Area)" (Excel Spreadsheet). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
Consists of people who solely either drove or travelled as a passenger in a car to work.
- Carter, Mark (25 December 2017). "Gold Coast light rail Stage 2 opens early". International Railway Journal. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Surfside Bus Services Archived 28 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Willoughby, Shannon (4 April 2012). "Plans for Coast cruise-ship terminal". Gold Coast Bulletin. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Gold Coast Light Rail Stage 3A". www.tmr.qld.gov.au. corporateName=Department of Transport and Main Roads; jurisdiction=Queensland; sector=government. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|dead-url=(help)CS1 maint: others (link)
- Chamberlin, Thomas (14 December 2009). "Long wait for Gold Coast airport train". Gold Coast Bulletin. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Sister Cities and International Partnerships Section Archived 13 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine old Coast City Council
- Twin Cities Netanya Municipality
- "Map of the Gold Coast". Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Directory of Australian Sister City Affiliations 2016" (PDF). p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gold Coast, Queensland.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Gold Coast.|
- "Australia's Gold Coast". Business Gold Coast. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Boating". Gold Coast City Council. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "ASCA Documents and Application Forms". Register of Sister Cities Affiliations. Australian Sisters City Association. Archived from the original on 4 April 2005. Retrieved 30 March 2005. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Gold Coast history and heritage". Gold Coast City Council. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Local Studies Library". Library Services. Gold Coast City Council. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "Gold Coast City advantage". State Development Centre, Gold Coast. The State of Queensland (Department of State Development, Trade and Innovation). Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Council history". Gold Coast City Council. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
- Explore Gold Coast Everything About Gold Coast
- Destination Gold Coast – Official Tourism website
- Gold Coast City Council
- Libraries Gold Coast City Council
- TransLink – Public transport – bus train ferry
- Gold Coast and Surrounds Tourism Australia