Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian

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Indo-Trinidadian
East Indian Coolies in Trinidad - Project Gutenberg eText 16035.jpg
Ethnic Indians in Trinidad during the late 19th century.
Total population
468,524
35.43% of the Trinidadian and Tobagonian population (2011)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Trinidad and Tobago · United States · United Kingdom · Canada
Languages
Trinidadian English · Trinidadian Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu)
Religion
Om.svg Hinduism · Star and Crescent.svg Islam · AP Icon.svg Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Caribbean · Indo-Caribbean Americans · British Indo-Caribbean people · Indo-Guyanese · Indo-Surinamese · Indo-Jamaican · Indo-Mauritian · Indo-Fijian · Indians in South Africa · Indian people · Indo-Aryan peoples · Dravidian people

Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian (shortened as Indo-Trinidadian) are nationals of Trinidad and Tobago with ancestry from the Indian subcontinent. Linguistically they are collectively known as the speakers of the Indo-Aryan Hindustani languages typically Hindi and ethnically, they are more specifically known as the Hindavi people (People of Hind) an ethno/linguistic group coming primarily from the north-central Indian region of Hind which is located in the Gangetic Plain of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers in North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas. They are usually categorized with multiple identities, with a more localized prioritized ethnic orientation, for example, Bihari people, Haryanvi people, Avadhi people, Malvi people, Himachali people, Bhojpuri people, in addition to further tribal, village, or religious identities.

History[edit]

Early Indian indentured laborers.

In his book Perspectives on the Caribbean: A Reader In Culture, History, and Representation, Philip W. Scher cites figures by Steven Vertovec, Professor of Anthropology; Of 94,135 Indian immigrants to Trinidad, between 1874–1917, 50.7 percent were from the NW/United Provinces (an area, which today, is largely encompassed by Uttar Pradesh), 24.4 percent hailed from the historic region of Oudh (Awadh), 13.5 percent were from Bihar, and lesser numbers from various other states and regions of the Indian Subcontinent, such as Punjab, West Bengal, and South India [primarily Madras (Chennai)] (as cited in Vertovec, 1992). Out of 134,118 indentured labourers from India, 5,000 distinguished themselves as "Madrasi" from the port of Madras and the immigrants from Calcutta as "Kalkatiyas".

Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians has now become interchangeable with Indians or East Indians. These were people who were escaping poverty in India and seeking employment offered by the British for jobs either as indentured labourers, workers or educated servicemen, primarily, between 1845–1917.[2][3]

The demand for Indian indentured labourers increased dramatically after the abolition of slavery in 1834. They were sent, sometimes in large numbers, to plantation colonies producing high-value crops such as sugar in Africa and the Caribbean. In his book Finding a Place, author, journalist, editor, and academic Kris Rampersad challenges and rejects the notion of East Indians to describe people in Indian heritage in the Caribbean and traces their migration and adaptation from hyphenated isolation inherent in the description Indo-Trinidadian or Indo-Caribbean for the unhyphenated integration into their societies as Indotrinidadian and Indocaribbean that embraces both their ancestral and their national identities.

In Trinidad some Chinese men had sexual relations with dark skinned Indian women of Madrasee origin, siring children with them, and it was reported that "A few children are to be met with born of Madras and Creole parents and some also of Madras and Chinese parents - the Madrasee being the mother", by the missionary John Morton in 1876, Morton noted that it seemed strange since there were more Indian coolie men than Indian coolie women that Indian coolie women would marry Chinese men, but claimed it was most likely because the Chinese could provide amenities to the women since the Chinese owned shops and they were enticed by these.[4][5][6] Few Chinese women migrated to Trinidad while the majority of Chinese migrants were men. The migration of Chinese to Trinidad resulted in intermarriage between them and others.[7][8] Chinese in Trinidad became relatively open to having marital relations with other races and Indian women began having families with Chinese in the 1890s.[9] The situation on Trinidad enabled unprecedented autonomy in the sexual activities of Indian women and freedom.[10] Approval of interracial marriage has slowly increased in Trinidad and Tobago and one Chinese man reported that his Indian wife did not encounter any rejection from his parents when asked in a survey. In Trinidad, Europeans and Chinese are seen as acceptable marriage partners by Indians while marrying black men would lead to rejection of their daughters by Indian families.[11][12]

Some Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians can trace their ancestry to indentured labourers who immigrated to Guyana, Jamaica, St. Vincent, Grenada, or other islands in the Caribbean. Many are descendants of later immigrants from India.

Religion[edit]

According to the most recent census (2011) conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, Hinduism is the religion followed by the majority of Indo Trinidadians, however this majority is not a plurality. The breakdown of religious affiliation for Indo Trinidadians is as follows[13] -

  1. Om.svg Hinduism - 49.54%
  2. Star and Crescent.svg Islam - 11.64%
  3. AP Icon.svg Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel - 9.67%
  4. AP Icon.svg Roman Catholic - 6.48%
  5. Other - 5.87%
  6. AP Icon.svg Presbyterians - 5.68%
  7. None and Not Stated - 7.34%

The remaining 3.78% is made up of adherents of Jain Prateek Chihna.svg Jainism, Khanda.svg Sikhism, Bahai star.svg Bahá'í, and the AP Icon.svg Anglican, AP Icon.svg Lutheranism, AP Icon.svg Jehovah's Witnesses, AP Icon.svg Methodist, AP Icon.svg Moravian, AP Icon.svg Seventh-day Adventist, AP Icon.svg Episcopal, AP Icon.svg Methodist, and AP Icon.svg Baptist denominations of Protestant Christianity.

Hindus in Trinidad and Tobago are represented by several organizations and entities the largest of which is the Sanatan Dharma Maha Sabha led by Satnarayan Maharaj. Other Hindu organizations include SWAHA, Chinmaya Mission, Dattatreya Yoga Centre and ISKCON.

The major Muslim organisation representing Muslims in Trinidad and Tobago is the Anjuman Sunnat-ul-Jamaat Association (ASJA) led by Yacoob Ali. Other Islamic organizations include Darul Uloom and Tackveeyatul Islamic Association of Trinidad and Tobago Inc. (T.I.A.[14]) Although the Maha Sabha and ASJA were once seen to speak for the vast majority of Hindus and Muslims in Trinidad, their membership has gradually eroded but they still remain the largest organized voice for the respective Indian communities.

Politics[edit]

Indo-Trinidadians have traditionally given their political support to parties opposed to the People's National Movement (PNM) which has historically been perceived as an Afro Trinidadian party. Voting patterns amongst Indo Trinidadians have also been dictated by Religion where, for periods of time Muslim Indo-Trinidadians and Presbyterian Indo-Trinidadians supported the PNM, as the prevailing parties for Indo Trinidadians - the DLP and ULF were felt to be Hindu dominated parties. With the advent of the UNC this polarization by Religion has been on the decline however its existence is still felt with the UNC fielding a Muslim candidate in every election for the San Juan/Barataria seat since 1995 owing to the presence of a large Muslim population within this district. Notable Indo-Trinidadian politicians include -

Culture[edit]

Trinidadian and Tobagonians that consider themselves Indo-Trinidadians have retained their distinctive culture, unlike the original South Asian people that arrived earlier as indentured servants, but also function in a multi-racial milieu. The Hindi, Urdu, and Bhojpuri languages of their ancestors have largely been lost, although a number of these words have entered the Trinidadian vernacular. Indian movies, Indian music, and Indian cooking have entered the mainstream culture of Trinidad and Tobago. Chutney music rivals calypso and soca music during the Carnival season. Divali and Eid ul-Fitr are national holidays, and Hosay (Ashura) and Phagwah are widely celebrated.

Influence on Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

The Indian-South Asian influence is very much noticeable in Trinidad and Tobago as they are the largest ethnic group in the country. Mandirs, masijids, jhandis (Hindu prayer flags), Hindu schools, Muslim schools, roti shops and stalls, Indian clothing and grocery stores, puja stores, and Indian expos dot the landscape of the country. Many businesses also bare names of Indian-South Asian origin. Many towns, settlements, villages, avenues, traces, and streets in Trinidad and Tobago are named after Indian cities and people, such as Calcutta Settlement, Madras Settlement, Delhi Settlement, Hindustan Village, Patna Village, Gandhi Village, Kandahar Village, Cawnpore (Kanpur) Village, Nepal Village, Abdul Village, Samaroo Village, Basta Hall, Malabar, Matura (Mathura), Bangladesh, Chandanagore (Chandinagar), Divali Nagar, Golconda, Barrackpore, and Fyzabad.[15] The holidays of Diwali, Eid al-Fitr, and Indian Arrival Day are national holidays in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidadian Hindustani, Tamil, and other South Asian languages has had a great influence on the Trinidadian Creole-Trinidadian English lingua franca. Most people of South Asian descent in Trinidad and Tobago also speak a unique Hinglish macaronic dialect of Trinidadian Creole-Trinidadian English and Trinidadian Hindustani and they incorporate more Hindustani vocabulary into their Trinidadian English dialect.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://indiandiaspora.nic.in/diasporapdf/chapter16.pdf
  2. ^ Under colonial rule, India's population provided the British Empire with a ready source of cheap and mobile labourers. Many Indians agreed to become indentured labourers to escape the widespread poverty and famine in the 19th century. Some travelled alone; others brought their families to settle in the colonies they worked in.
  3. ^ National Archives-UK http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/records/research-guides/indian-indentured-labour.htm
  4. ^ Julitta Rydlewska, Barbara Braid, eds. (2014). Unity in Diversity, Volume 1: Cultural Paradigm and Personal Identity, Volume 1. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1443867292. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  5. ^ Dennison Moore (1995). Origins and Development of Racial Ideology in Trinidad. Nycan. p. 238. ISBN 0968006000. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  6. ^ Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, eds. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0814770479. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  7. ^ Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, eds. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. p. 54. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  8. ^ Adrian Curtis Bird (1992). Trinidad sweet: the people, their culture, their island (2 ed.). Inprint Caribbean. p. 26. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  9. ^ Teresita Ang See, ed. (2000). Intercultural Relations, Cultural Transformation, and Identity: The Ethnic Chinese : Selected Papers Presented at the 1998 ISSCO Conference. International Society for the Studies of Chinese Overseas, Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran (2 ed.). Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Incorporated. p. 95. ISBN 9718857214. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  10. ^ Reddock, Rhoda (Oct 26, 1985). "Freedom Denied: Indian Women and Indentureship in Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1917". Economic and Political Weekly. 20 (43): WS-84. JSTOR 4374974. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Raeann R Hamon; Bron B Ingoldsby, eds. (2003). Mate Selection Across Cultures. David Dabydeen (illustrated ed.). SAGE Publications. p. 65. ISBN 1452237697. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  12. ^ Colin Clarke; Gillian Clarke (2010). Post-Colonial Trinidad: An Ethnographic Journal. Studies of the Americas (illustrated ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN 0230106854. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  13. ^ http://cso.planning.gov.tt/sites/default/files/content/images/census/TRINIDAD%20AND%20TOBAGO%202011%20Demographic%20Report.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.discover-tt.net/arts_and_culture/mosques_masjid_and_muslim_organizations.html
  15. ^ "Legacy of our East Indian Ancestors, Names of Places in Trinidad of East Indian Origin - The Indian Caribbean Museum of Trinidad and Tobago". Icmtt.org. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  • Kris Rampersad: Naipaul was no fluke:

[1]

  • Kris Rampersad on Caribbean Muslims:

http://www.caribbeanmuslims.com/articles/1034/1/HAJI-RUKNUDEEN-SAHIB-Qadi-and-Sheik-ul-Islam-/Page1.html