Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2012)|
35.43% of the Trinidadian and Tobagonian population (2011))
|Regions with significant populations|
|Trinidad and Tobago · United States · United Kingdom · Canada · Venezuela|
|English (Trinidadian) · Hindi · Urdu · Gujarati · Avadhi · Bengali · Kannada · Tamil, Telugu|
|Hinduism • Islam • Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
Indo-Aryan peoples, Dravidian people
Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian (shortened as Indo-Trinidadian) are nationals of Trinidad and Tobago of Indian heritage or descent. Linguistically they are collectively known as the speakers of the Indo-Aryan Hindustani languages typically Hindi and ethnically, they are more specifically known as the Arya Hindavi people (people of Hind) an ethno/linguistic group coming primarily from the north-central Indian region of Hind which is located in the Gangetic Plain of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers in North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas. They are usually categorized with multiple identities, with a more localized prioritized ethnic orientation, for example, Bihari people, Haryanvi people, Avadhi people, Malvi people, Himachali people, Bhojpuri people, in addition to further tribal, village, or religious identities.
In his book Perspectives on the Caribbean: A Reader In Culture, History, and Representation, Philip W. Scher cites figures by Steven Vertovec, Professor of Anthropology: of 94,135 Indian immigrants to Trinidad, between 1874 and 1917, 50.7 percent were from the NW/United Provinces (an area, which today, is largely encompassed by Uttar Pradesh), 24.4 percent hailed from the historic region of Oudh (Awadh), 13.5 percent were from Bihar, and lesser numbers from various other states and regions of the Indian Subcontinent, such as Punjab, West Bengal, and South India [primarily Madras (Chennai)] (as cited in Vertovec, 1992). Out of 134,118 indentured laborers from India, 5,000 distinguished themselves as "Madrasi" from the port of Madras and the immigrants from Calcutta as "Kalkatiyas".
Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians has now become interchangeable with Indians or East Indians. These were people who were escaping poverty in India and seeking employment offered by the British for jobs either as indentured labourers, workers or educated servicemen, primarily, between 1845 and 1917.
The demand for Indian indentured labourers increased dramatically after the abolition of slavery in 1834. They were sent, sometimes in large numbers, to plantation colonies producing high value crops such as sugar in Africa and the Caribbean.In his book Finding a Place, author, journalist, editor, and academic Kris Rampersad challenges and rejects the notion of East Indians to describe people in Indian heritage in the Caribbean and traces their migration and adaptation from hyphenated isolation inherent in the description Indo-Trinidadian or Indo-Caribbean for the unhyphehnated integration into their societies as Indo-Trinidadian and Indo-Caribbean that embraces both their ancestral and their national identities.
In Trinidad some Chinese men had sexual relations with dark-skinned Indian coolie women of Madrasee origin, siring children with them, and it was reported that "A few children are to be met with born of Madras and Creole parents and some also of Madras and Chinese parents — the Madrasee being the mother", by the missionary John Morton in 1876, Morton noted that it seemed strange since there were more Indian coolie men than Indian coolie women that Indian coolie women would marry Chinese men, but claimed it was most likely because the Chinese could provide amenities to the women since the Chinese owned shops and they were enticed by these. Few Chinese women migrated to Trinidad while the majority of Chinese migrants were men. The migration of Chinese to Trinidad resulted in intermarriage between them and others. Chinese in Trinidad became relatively open to having martial relations with other races and Indian women began having families with Chinese in the 1890s. The situation on Trinidad enabled unprecedented autonomy in the sexual activities of Indian women and freedom. Approval of interracial marriage has slowly increased in Trinidad and Tobago and one Chinese man reported that his Indian wife did not encounter any rejection from his parents when asked in a survey. In Trinidad, Europeans and Chinese are seen as acceptable marriage partners by Indians, while marrying black men would lead to rejection of their daughters by Indian families. It should be noted that according to the Douglas' consciousness, there were twice as many Indian men with black women than black men with Indian women, the statistics for Chinese men are not clear since the majority of Indians were from honour killing masculine states whereas the Tamil labourer families had more feminine mentalities.
Some Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians can trace their ancestry to indentured labourers who immigrated to Guyana, Jamaica, St. Vincent, Grenada, or other islands in the Caribbean. Many are descendants of later immigrants from India.
According to the most recent census (2011) conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, Hinduism is the religion followed by a plurality of Indo Trinidadians, however this plurality is not a majority. The breakdown of religious affiliation for Indo Trinidadians is as follows -
- Hinduism - 49.54%
- Islam - 11.64%
- Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel - 9.67%
- Roman Catholic - 6.48%
- Other - 5.87%
- Presbyterians - 5.68%
- None and Not Stated - 7.34%
The remaining 3.78% is made up of adherents of Anglican, Jehovah Witness, Methodist, Moravian, Orisha, Rastarafianism, Seventh Day Adventist and Baptist faiths.
Hindus in Trinidad and Tobago are represented by several organizations and entities the largest of which is the Sanatan Dharma Maha Sabha led by Satnarayan Maharaj. Other Hindu organizations include SWAHA, Chinmaya Mission, Dattatreya Yoga Centre and ISKCON.
The major Muslim organisation representing Muslims in Trinidad and Tobago is the Anjuman Sunnat-ul-Jamaat Association (ASJA) led by Yacoob Ali. Other Islamic organizations include Darul Uloom and Tackveeyatul Islamic Association of Trinidad and Tobago Inc. (T.I.A.) Although the Maha Sabha and ASJA were once seen to speak for the vast majority of Hindus and Muslims in Trinidad, their membership has gradually eroded but they still remain the largest organized voice for the respective Indian communities.
Indo-Trinidadians have traditionally given their political support to parties opposed to the Peoples National Movement (PNM) which has historically been perceived as an Afro Trinidadian party. Voting patterns amongst Indo Trinidadians have also been dictated by Religion where, for periods of time Muslim Indo-Trinidadians and Presbyterian Indo-Trinidadians supported the PNM, as the prevailing parties for Indo Trinidadians — the DLP and ULF were felt to be Hindu dominated parties. With the advent of the UNC this polarization by religion has been on the decline however its existence is still felt with the UNC fielding a Muslim candidate in every election for the San Juan/Barataria seat since 1995 owing to the presence of a large Muslim population within this district. Notable Indo-Trinidadian politicians include -
- Basdeo Panday - 1st Prime Minister of Indo-Trinidadian Descent
- Kamla Persad-Bissesar - 1st Female Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
- Rudranath Capildeo - Leader of the Opposition at the time of Independence
Trinidadian and Tobagonians that consider themselves Indo-Trinidadians have retained their distinctive culture, unlike the original South Asian people that arrived earlier as indentured servants, but also function in a multi-racial milieu. The Hindi, Urdu, and Bhojpuri languages of their ancestors have largely been lost, although a number of these words have entered the Trinidadian vernacular. Indian movies, Indian music and Indian cooking have entered the mainstream culture of Trinidad and Tobago. Chutney music rivals calypso and soca music during the Carnival season. Divali and Eid ul-Fitr are national holidays, and Hosay (Ashura) and Phagwah are widely celebrated.
Politics and Government
- Basdeo Panday
- Kamla Persad-Bissesar
- Noor Hassanali
- Kamaluddin Mohammed
- Rudranath Capildeo
- Bhadase Maraj
- Adrian Cola Rienzi
Arts and entertainment
- Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian
- Chinese Trinidadian and Tobagonian
- Indo-Caribbean music
- Indian Arrival Day
- History of Trinidad and Tobago
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indian diaspora in Trinidad and Tobago.|
- Indian Diaspora in Trinidad and Tobago, Chapter 16.
- Under colonial rule, India's population provided the British Empire with a ready source of cheap and mobile labourers. Many Indians agreed to become indentured labourers to escape the widespread poverty and famine in the 19th century. Some travelled alone; others brought their families to settle in the colonies they worked in.
- Indian indentured labourers, National Archives-UK.
- Julitta Rydlewska, Barbara Braid, eds. (2014). Unity in Diversity, Volume 1: Cultural Paradigm and Personal Identity, Volume 1. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1443867292. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Dennison Moore (1995). Origins and Development of Racial Ideology in Trinidad. Nycan. p. 238. ISBN 0968006000. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, eds. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0814770479. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, eds. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. p. 54. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Adrian Curtis Bird (1992). Trinidad sweet: the people, their culture, their island (2 ed.). Inprint Caribbean. p. 26. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Teresita Ang See, ed. (2000). Intercultural Relations, Cultural Transformation, and Identity: The Ethnic Chinese : Selected Papers Presented at the 1998 ISSCO Conference. International Society for the Studies of Chinese Overseas, Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran (2 ed.). Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Incorporated. p. 95. ISBN 9718857214. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Reddock, Rhoda (26 October 1985). "Freedom Denied: Indian Women and Indentureship in Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1917". Economic and Political Weekly 20 (43): WS-84. JSTOR 4374974. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Raeann R Hamon; Bron B Ingoldsby, eds. (2003). Mate Selection Across Cultures. David Dabydeen (illustrated ed.). SAGE Publications. p. 65. ISBN 1452237697. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Colin Clarke; Gillian Clarke (2010). Post-Colonial Trinidad: An Ethnographic Journal. Studies of the Americas (illustrated ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN 0230106854. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 2011 Demographic Report.
- "Mosques (Masjid) and Muslim Organizations", Discover TT.
- Kris Rampersad: Naipaul was no fluke:
- Kris Rampersad on Caribbean Muslims: