List of generic and genericized trademarks
This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The following three lists of generic and genericized trademarks are:
- marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but have been genericized and have lost their legal status due to becoming generic terms,
- marks which have been abandoned and are now generic terms
- marks which are still legally protected as trademarks, at least in some jurisdictions
List of former trademarks that have been genericized
The following partial list contains marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but which have subsequently lost legal protection as trademarks by becoming the common name of the relevant product or service, as used both by the consuming public and commercial competitors. These marks were determined in court to have become generic. Some marks retain trademark protection in certain countries despite being declared generic in others.
- Still a Bayer trademark name for acetylsalicylic acid in about 80 countries, including Canada and many countries in Europe, but declared generic in the U.S.
- Originally a trademark for a specific type of retroreflective road safety installation.
- Still a registered trademark of Innovia Films Ltd in Europe and many other jurisdictions. Genericized in the U.S. Originally a trademark of DuPont. A thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.
- Dry ice
- Trademarked by the Dry Ice Corporation of America in 1925. A solid form of carbon dioxide.
- Originally a trademark of Otis Elevator Company.
- Flip phone
- Originally a trademark of Motorola.
- Flit gun
- Originally trademarked as a dispenser for Flit, a brand of insecticide manufactured by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (later Exxon).
- Trademarked by Friedrich Bayer & Co in 1898. Trademark lost in some nations in the Treaty of Versailles, in 1919.
- Trademarked by Saunders-Roe.
- First used around 1852.
- Trademarked as the term for a preparation of water and the wax from sheep's wool.
- Coin laundry shop. Westinghouse trademark, registered in the U.S. in the 1940s (automatic washing machine) and 1950s (coin laundry) but now expired.
- Floor covering, originally coined by Frederick Walton in 1864, and ruled as generic following a lawsuit for trademark infringement in 1878; probably the first product name to become a generic term.
- Originally trademarked by Albert Dick. A low-cost printing press that works by forcing ink through a stencil onto paper.
- Sellotape is a British brand of transparent, cellulose-based, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape, and is the leading brand in the United Kingdom. Sellotape is generally used for joining, sealing, attaching and mending. The term has become a genericised trademark in the UK, Ireland, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Israel, India, Serbia, Japan, Croatia, Greece, Turkey, Malaysia, Macedonia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, and is used much in the same way that Scotch Tape came to be used in Canada, France, Italy and the United States, in referring to any brand of clear adhesive tape.
- A brand created by the Latvian manufacturer VEF, but widely used in Russian to refer to all transistor radios.
- The word TelePrompTer, with internal capitalization, originated in the 1950s as a trade name used by the TelePrompTer Corporation, for their Television Prompting Apparatus. 
- Originally a Thermos GmbH trademark name for a vacuum flask; declared generic in the U.S. in 1963.
- Originally a trademark of the Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company
- Originally trademarked by Ampex Corporation, an early manufacturer of audio and video tape recorders.
List of former trademarks that have since become generic terms due to reasons other than genericization
The following partial list contains marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but which have subsequently lost legal protection as trademarks due to abandonment, non-renewal or improper issuance (the generic term predated the registration). Some marks retain trademark protection in certain countries despite being generic in others.
- Trademark claimed by Apple, Inc.; cancelled.
- App Store
- Trademark claimed by Apple Inc. for their digital distribution platform. Apple filed a lawsuit against Amazon.com over Appstore for Amazon, but abandoned the trademark and the lawsuit after an early rejection of Apple's false advertising claim in the lawsuit. However, it was reclaimed, and it remains a service mark of Apple Inc.
- Trademark was cancelled in 2015. Trademarked by Dempster Brothers, Inc. in 1963, dumpster is originally a portmanteau of the word dump and the last name Dempster. It originally appeared in the 1951 product name Dempster Dumpster, while related patents date back to 1937.
- Used to refer to a state on a pinball machine where two or more balls are present on the playfield simultaneously and can be accessed by the flippers. Trademarked by WMS Industries in 1981 as "Multi-ball" and by Templar Studios in 2000 as "Multiball." "Multiball" was abandoned as a trademark in 2001, and "Multi-ball" was canceled in 2002.
- Dual tone multi-frequency telephone signaling; AT&T states "formerly a trademark of AT&T".
- Webster's Dictionary
- The publishers with the strongest link to the original are Merriam-Webster, but they have a trademark only on "Merriam-Webster", and other dictionaries are legally published as "Webster's Dictionary".
- Still a Papa's Toy Co. Ltd. trademark name for a spinning toy in Canada, but was determined that the trademark was improperly issued.
- ZIP code
- Originally registered as a service mark but has since expired.
List of protected trademarks frequently used as generic terms
Marks in this partial list are still legally protected as trademarks, at least in some jurisdictions, but are sometimes used by consumers in a generic sense. Unlike the names in the list above, these names are still widely known by the public as brand names, and are not used by competitors. Scholars disagree as to whether the use of a recognized trademark name for similar products can truly be called "generic", or if it is instead a form of synecdoche.
The previous list contains trademarks that have completely lost their legal status in some countries, while the following list contains marks which have been registered as trademarks, continue in use, and are actively enforced by their trademark owners. Writing guides such as the AP Stylebook advise writers to "use a generic equivalent unless the trademark is essential to the story".
Please note that other generic terms may be equally appropriate.
|Trademarked name||Generic name||Trademark owner||Notes|
|Adrenalin||Epinephrine||Parke-Davis||Widely referred to as "adrenaline" outside of the U.S., and in the BAN and EP systems.|
|Airfix||Plastic injection-moulded scale model kits||Hornby Railways||Still used widely in the UK to describe a scale model[according to whom?] as it was the dominant brand at that time. This news article is one example of the brand being treated as a generic term.|
|Airshow||In-flight entertainment moving map||Collins Aerospace, formerly Rockwell Collins||Not commonly used worldwide.|
|Aqua||Mineral water||Danone||Common in Indonesia as a genericized mark for any mineral water.|
|Aqua-lung||Open-circuit underwater breathing set with demand valve||See Aqua-lung#Trademark issues||Or nowadays often merely "scuba", or "air scuba", when there is a need to distinguish from rebreathers|
|AstroTurf||Artificial turf||Monsanto Company (formerly)
|Also gave use to the term astroturfing.|
|Armco||Crash barrier||AK Steel Holding||Armco barriers made from corrugated steel have long been the standard for crash barrier protection in the UK|
|Band-Aid||Adhesive bandage||Johnson & Johnson||Often used as though generic by consumers in Canada, the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand, though still legally trademarked.|
|Biro||Ballpoint pen||Société Bic||Used generically in colloquial British and Australian English, particularly for cheaper disposable pens, but remains a registered trademark. Derived from the name of the inventor, László Bíró.|
|Bobcat||Skid-steer loader||Bobcat Company||This usage is especially common in Australia. The Clark Equipment Company has successfully defended the trademark against dilution and genericization at least in two cases relating to domain names with the World Intellectual Property Organization.|
|Bubble Wrap||Inflated cushioning||Sealed Air|||
|Bubbler||Drinking fountain||Kohler Company||Sometimes used as a generic, particularly in Wisconsin, New England and Australia.|
|Burqini||Swimsuit compatible with Islamic modesty requirements||Aheda Zanetti||Alternatively spelled "burkini", which is also trademarked.|
|Bush Hog||Rotary cutter||Bush Hog, Inc.|
|Canon||Photocopier or to make a photocopy||Canon Inc.||Like Xerox became a generic name for a photocopier in some countries, Canon became a generic name for it in Mongolia. As Japanese company was the main exporter of photocopiers to this country, they are widely known as Mongolian: канон|
|Cashpoint||Automated teller machine, cash machine||Lloyds Bank||Commonly used in the UK to refer to any ATM or cash dispensing machine, regardless of which bank or company it is operated by.[better source needed]|
|Chain gun||Motor operated machine gun||Northrop Grumman|| Also appears as a definition in the Oxford English Dictionary, describing it as "a machine gun that uses a motor-driven chain to power all moving parts"|
|Christmas Seals||Christmas Seals||American Lung Association|| A Charity label or fundraising seal issued at Christmas time to fight tuberculosis or other lung disease. Trademark was taken in 1987 by ALA, who has issued National Christmas Seals in the US continuously since 1907, to prevent other US National charities from competing.|
|Chyron||On-Screen Graphics or Character Generator(CG)||ChyronHego Corporation||Hardware and software used in broadcasting for making lower thirds and other on screen graphics. Often used to refer to any kind of on screen graphics regardless of playout equipment.|
|Cigarette boat||Go-fast boat||Cigarette Racing||The nickname derived from fast powerboats that were designed to smuggle cigarettes fast and outrun law enforcement personnel. Trademark was taken following a founding of a company named after the nickname.|
|Cloudhopper||Hopper balloon||Lindstrand Balloons|||
|Coke||Cola, soft drink, pop, soda||Coca-Cola Company||Predominantly used in some parts of the US to refer to any cola (even that of another trademark). Still a trademark.|
|Colt||Revolver||Colt's Manufacturing Company||A common choice of gun during the Wild West, it was used to describe any revolvers during the 19th century, regardless of brand.|
|Comic con||Comic book convention||San Diego Comic-con International||In 2014, San Diego Comic-con sued the producers of a similarly named convention, contending infringement of its trademark. The case was decided by jury in December 2017, upholding "comic con" as a trademark of SDCC.|
|Connollising||As a verb, to restore automobile leather interior||Connolly Leather||Often used by automobile enthusiasts and medias, when to describe restoring leather interiors, thanks to the high international reputation of the company.|
|Crock-Pot||Slow cooker||Sunbeam Products||"Crock pot" and "crockpot" are common synonyms used by cooks to describe any slow cooker.|
|Cuisinart||Food processor||Conair||Sometimes used in the U.S. to refer to any food processor, but still a trademark.|
|Cutex||Nail polish||Cutex Brands, Inc.||Mostly used in the Philippines to refer to nail polish, regardless of brand. Often spelled as "Kyutix", "Kutex", or "Kutix." The Shanghainese term of nail polish, "蔻丹", is derived from "Cutex", because Cutex is a well-known brand of nail polish in pre-1949 China,  although it's not commonly seen in post-1980s China.|
|Decora||Rocker light switch||Leviton||Frequently used in the United States to refer to any rocker light switch regardless of manufacturer, but still trademarked.|
|Dictaphone||Dictation machine||Nuance Communications||To date, one of the five oldest surviving U.S. brands.|
|Dobro||Resonator guitar||Gibson Guitar Corporation||Used to describe any Resonator Guitar, especially the single cone "spider-bridge" design originally by the Dobro company.|
|Doll Instant Noodle||Instant noodles||Winner Food Products||"Doll Instant Noodle" (公仔麵) is commonly referred in Hong Kong for instant noodles. Winner Food Products (永南食品) has been acquired by its former arch-competitor Nissin Foods in 1989.|
then Dormobile (Folkestone) Ltd
|Widely used in the United Kingdom to describe any motorhomes. This article by the BBC is an example of the term being used generically.|
|Dremel||Rotary Tool||Robert Bosch GmbH||Small handheld rotary tools are often called dremels or dremel clones.|
|Durex||Adhesive tape (Australia, Brazil)||3M||Used in Brazil ("fita durex") and some areas of Australia as a generic name for adhesive tape.|
|Elastoplast||Adhesive bandage||Beiersdorf||Much like "Band-Aid" in North America, the name has become a genericized trademark in some Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom and Australia.|
|Filofax||Personal organizer||FLB Group Ltd, formerly Letts Filofax Group|||
|Fix-A-Flat||Canned tire inflator||Illinois Tool Works|||
|Formica||Wood or plastic laminate||Formica Corporation, part of Fletcher Building||Widely used for the generic product. An attempt to have the trademark quashed failed in 1977.|
|Freon||Refrigerant||DuPont||Frequently used to refer to any type of refrigerant, though Freon is specifically Dichlorodifluoromethane, or R-12.|
|Gib board||Drywall||Winstone Wallboards||Widely used term within New Zealand to refer to plasterboard, after the name of the country's market-leading product of its type (still trademarked).|
|Gillette||Safety razor||Procter & Gamble||Used in Portugal as a generic for any safety razor.|
|Glad Wrap||Cling-film||Glad (company)|| Used in Australia, New Zealand.|
|Internet search engine||Google Inc.|| See Google (verb)|
|Hills Hoist||Rotary clothes line||Hills Industries||Australian usage|
|Hoover||Vacuum cleaner||Hoover Company||Widely used as a noun and verb. De facto loss of trademark in the UK.|
|Indomie||Instant noodle||Indofood||Common in Indonesia and Nigeria as a genericized mark for any instant noodle.|
|Hula hoop||Toy hoop||Wham-O|||
|Jacuzzi||Hot tub or whirlpool bath||Jacuzzi|||
|Javex||Bleach||Clorox Company||Used primarily in Canada, where bleach is "eau de javel" as a French-language generic. Acquired from Colgate-Palmolive in late 2006.|
|JCB||Backhoe loader||J. C. Bamford||Has become a generic term for an excavator mounted with both a front loader and a backhoe in British English, as recognized by the Oxford English Dictionary. Invented by J C Bamford Excavators Ltd., which is still the largest supplier of backhoe loaders.|
|Jeep||Compact sport utility vehicle||Chrysler||Chrysler recently used "trademark awareness" advertisements to prevent the brand from becoming a generic noun or verb, including such statements as They invented ‘SUV’ because they can’t call them Jeep In Ireland all SUVs are colloquially called jeeps, whereas in the UK they are 'four-wheel drives'.|
|Jell-O||Gelatin dessert or Jelly||Kraft Foods||The name is commonly used to refer to any gelatin-like dessert.|
|Jetway||Passenger boarding bridge||JBT AeroTech||The name commonly used to describe any brand of enclosed, movable connector which most commonly extends from an airport terminal gate to an airplane, and in some instances from a port to a boat or ship, allowing passengers to board and disembark without going outside or being exposed to the elements.|
|Jet Ski||Stand-up personal watercraft||Kawasaki||Used universally to refer to any type of personal watercraft. This news article is one example of usage.|
|Jiffy bag||padded mailing envelopes||Sealed Air|||
|JumboTron||Large-screen television||Sony||Still used, although Sony exited the market for this product in 2001.|
|Kleenex||Facial tissue||Kimberly-Clark||Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S., France and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|Kool-Aid||Drink mix||Kraft Foods||Often used in the phrase "Drinking the Kool-Aid," referring to the adoption of a dangerous idea because of peer pressure.|
|Lava lamp||Liquid motion lamp||Mathmos|||
|Learjet||business jet||Bombardier Aerospace||Have been used to describe any business jets regardless of competitors due to Bill Lear's skill in public relations.|
|Lexan||Polycarbonate resin thermoplastic glass||SABIC|||
|Mace||Pepper spray||Mace Security International|||
|Maclean||Toothpaste||GlaxoSmithKline||Common in Nigeria as a genericized term for toothpaste.|
|Nestlé||A widely recognized genericized term for Bouillon cube and other food seasoning in Nigeria. It is synonymous with instant noodle in Malaysia.|
|Matchbox||Die cast toy||Mattel||Used at its height of popularity to describe die cast cars.|
|Memory Stick||Flash memory storage device||Sony||Typically used to refer to USB flash drives, as opposed to other brands of memory cards akin to Sony's products.|
|Muzak||Elevator music, background music||Muzak Holdings||An often derogatory term frequently used to describe any form of Easy Listening, smooth jazz, or Middle of the road music, or to the type of recordings once commonly heard on "beautiful music" radio stations.|
|NOS (Nitrous Oxide Systems)||Nitrous||Holley Performance Products||Widely used generically to describe nitrous systems used in motor vehicles. One example of this was when it was used prominently in the 2001 film The Fast and the Furious|
|Onesies||Infant/Adult bodysuit (babygro)||Gerber Products Company||Often used by consumers in the U.S. as if it were generic; "Onesies" still a legally trademarked brand name of Gerber, which objects to its usage in the singular form as "Onesie" or as a generic product name. Recently used to describe an adult bodysuit.|
|Pampers||Diapers||Procter & Gamble||Pampers are frequently used as a synonym for diapers in Russia and other CIS countries irrespective of actual brand.|
|Photoshop||Photo manipulation||Adobe Systems||Commonly used as a verb to generically describe digital manipulation or compositing of photographs.|
|Ping Pong||Table tennis||Parker Brothers||Originally trademarked by Jaques and Son, was later passed to Parker Bros. A number of U.S. organizations nowadays are required to refer its sport as table tennis as means of trademark protection.|
|Plasticine||Modelling clay||Flair Leisure Products plc||Often applied as a name for a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. It is often used as modelling medium for art such as claymation.|
|Play-Doh||Modelling material||Kutol Products Company - Hasbro||Play-Doh is a modeling compound used by young children for art and craft projects at home and in school. Composed of flour, water, salt, boric acid, and mineral oil, the product was first manufactured in Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S., as a wallpaper cleaner in the 1930s.|
|Plexiglas, Plexiglass||Acrylic glass||Altuglas International,
Rohm & Haas (formerly)
|Often misspelled with a double "s", which appears to have become generic, possibly providing partial protection for the tradename "Plexiglas"|
|Pogo||Corn dog||ConAgra Foods||The generic, but still trademarked, term for corn dogs in Canada, derived from the popular brand.|
|Popsicle||Ice Pop; ice lolly (UK); icy pole (Australia)||Good Humor-Breyers||[failed verification]|
|Portakabin||Portable building||Portakabin Ltd.||Widely used term for a portable modular building in the UK.|
|Post-it||Sticky note||3M||Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the UK, U.S. and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|Pot Noodle||Instant noodles||Unilever||Used widely in the United Kingdom as it is the dominant brand.|
|PowerPoint||Slide show presentation program||Microsoft|||
|Pritt Stick||Glue stick||Henkel||A newspaper article by the Daily Mirror (on 27 March 2010) treated the brand as a generic name, another example of use is by The Guardian on its 16 June 2007 article.|
|Putt-Putt golf||Miniature golf||Putt-Putt Fun Center|||
|Q-tips||Cotton swabs; cotton buds (UK); cotton tip (Australia)||Unilever||Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S. and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|Realtor||Real estate agent||National Association of Realtors||Often used by the public, the media, and even real estate agents to refer generally to any real estate agent, but the term is a legally recognized trademark of the National Association of Realtors. The terms "Realtor" and "Realtors" refer to members of this association, and not to real estate agents generally. The National Association of Realtors is engaged in ongoing efforts to prevent the mark from becoming generic. These efforts include, among other things, writing to members of the media to complain of improper usage, distribution of information and guidelines on correct usage, and the development of an educational video on the subject.|
|Rizla||Rolling paper||Imperial Tobacco||Often used to describe rolling papers which are used to contain rolled tobacco or cannabis.|
|Rollerblade||Inline skates||Nordica||Commonly used name by consumers in the U.S. and Canada, but the name is still a trademark.|
|Romex||Non-metallic sheathed cable, Thermoplastic-sheathed cable||Southwire (company). www.southwire.com/romex.htm||Commonly used name by consumers in the U.S., but the name is still a trademark.|
|Rugby||Rubber cement||Bostik Philippines, Inc.||Being the first rubber cement brand in the Philippines, eventually used to refer to any brand of rubber contact cement. See also Rugby boy, a collective term for destitute youths known for their use of rubber cement as an inhalant.|
|Scalextric||Slot car||Hornby Railways||Used commonly in the United Kingdom to describe slot cars and the hobbies itself.|
|Scotch tape||Clear adhesive tape (US)||3M||Appears in dictionaries as both generic and trademarked. "Trademark Law" advises that proper usage is "Scotch brand cellophane tape" to combat "generic tendencies".|
|Ski-Doo||Snowmobile||Bombardier Recreational Products||Usage in Canada, especially Quebec and British Columbia.|
|Sea-Doo||Sit-down personal watercraft||Bombardier Recreational Products||Used regionally in the U.S. (where the company holds 50.3% of the market share) to refer to any type of sit-down PWC. Usage is strongest in Canada, especially in Quebec, where the manufacturer is based.|
|Sellotape||Clear adhesive tape (UK)||Sellotape Company, owned by Henkel Consumer Adhesives||Often used generically as a verb and noun. Appears in dictionaries as both generic and trademarked.|
|Sharpie||Permanent marker||Sanford L.P., owned by Newell Rubbermaid||James Faulkner, Sanford's marketing manager, has said "In America the Sharpie name is used as the generic for a permanent marker".|
|Softail||Motorcycle suspension||Harley-Davidson||Registered trademark for a line of Harley-Davidson motorcycles with a suspension that mimics the appearance of a rigid frame, and has since been used to refer to motorcycles of other makes with hidden rear suspensions as well as bicycles incorporating a rear suspension.|
|Stetson||Cowboy hat||John B. Stetson Company||Although John B. Stetson Company manufacturers other types of brimmed hats, the word Stetson has been long used for a generic cowboy hat which features a high crown and wide brim.|
|Stanley knife||Utility knife||Stanley Works||In Great Britain, the press and law enforcement officers have had referred to it as Stanley knife during incidents, regardless if said weapon is actually a utility knife. The trademark has since become a dictionary term.|
|Stelvin closure||Screw cap||Rio Tinto Alcan||Often used generically.|
|Styrofoam||extruded polystyrene foam||Dow Chemical Company||In the United States and Canada, "styrofoam" is often used as a generic term for disposable foam cups, plates, coolers and packing material, although these are made from a different polystyrene product than true Styrofoam Brand Foam, which is made for thermal insulation and craft applications.|
|Super Glue||Cyanoacrylate adhesive||Super Glue Corporation||The term "superglue" is often used informally as a verb or noun, but is still a trademark (US)|
|Super Heroes||Superhero||DC Comics, Marvel Comics||The two-word version of the term is a joint trademark co-owned by DC Comics and Marvel Comics.|
|Tannoy||Public address system||Tannoy Ltd.||UK usage|
|Targa top||Semi-convertible hard roof panel||Porsche||Although first used in the 1960s, trademark was not claimed until the 1970s, when its popularity grew; hence, the name is treated as a generic trademark by the general public and the motoring press to describe a detachable hard roof panel.|
|Tarmac||Asphalt road surface||Tarmac||Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the UK and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|Taser||Electroshock weapon, stun gun||Taser Systems
|Acronym for a fictional weapon: Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle. Taser is a registered tradename, prompting a backformed verb "to tase" which means "to use a Taser on", although "to taser" is also commonly used.|
|Tylenol||Paracetamol (acetaminophen)||Johnson & Johnson||Used as generic, but still trademarked.|
|Tipp-Ex||Correction fluid||Tipp-Ex GmbH & Co. KG||Common throughout the UK|
|Tivoli||Amusement park||Tivoli A/S||The Danish Tivoli Gardens amusement park has registered its colloquial name "Tivoli" as company name and trademark. In Danish language, the word "tivoli" has however been a generic term for "amusement park" from before the Tivoli Gardens opened in 1843 and is still used as such, for instance in the name of many other amusement parks all over Denmark and other Scandinavian countries. This is currently the focal point of several legal disagreements, with the first (Tivoli A/S vs Innocent Pictures ApS) leading to a win for Tivoli A/S in Denmark's Supreme Court in September 2010.|
|Tupperware||Plastic storage containers||Earl Tupper||Preparation, storage, containment, and serving products for the kitchen and home, which were first introduced to the public in 1946.|
|Uber||Peer-to-peer ridesharing||Uber||Frequently used as a verb.|
|Vaseline||Petroleum jelly, petrolatum||Unilever||Often used by consumers as if it were generic, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|Velcro||Hook-and-loop fastener||Velcro Companies||Used as generic, but still trademarked. Often used as a verb.|
|Vetsin||Monosodium glutamate||Tien Chun Ve-Tsin||Philippine term for monosodium glutamate, from the formerly most popular brand. Ajinomoto leads the monosodium glutamate market presently, but people still refer to it as Vetsin/Bitsin. In China, the term "Vetsin" (味精,Weijing) has never been a trade mark.|
|Walkman||Personal stereo||Sony Corporation||Was often used generically for any portable stereo player (usually cassette players), and in 2002 an Austrian court ruled that it had passed into common usage, but still a legally recognized trademark.|
|WaveRunner||Personal water craft||Yamaha Motor Company||Often used, along with Jet Ski, to refer to any type of personal watercraft.|
|Winnebago||recreational vehicle||Winnebago Industries||Used in the United Kingdom to describe a coach sized American motorhome. The term is also used generically in the United States describe pretty much any motorhome, but not to the same extent.|
|Wite-Out||Correction fluid||Société Bic||A white liquid applied with a brush used to hide mistakes, written or typed, with ink so they can be overwritten. (US, see also Tipp-Ex in the UK)|
|Xerox||Photocopier or to make a photocopy||Xerox||Xerox has used "trademark awareness" advertisements to prevent the brand from becoming a generic noun or verb, including such statements as "You can't make a Xerox." However, it is used in India and Russia as a generic word for 'photocopy'. In Brazilian Portuguese, xerocar, or less frequently xerocopiar, is a common verb for "to make a photocopy".|
|Zeppelin||Rigid airship||Luftschiffbau Zeppelin|
|Zamboni||Ice resurfacer||Zamboni Company||Frank J. Zamboni & Co., Inc. has taken a strong stance against its trademark dilution, the Zamboni name being used as a genericized trademark for ice resurfacers; the company holds a registered trademark on the design and configuration of the Zamboni Ice Resurfacer by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.|
|Zimmer frame||Walking frame||Zimmer Holdings|
|Zodiac||Inflatable Boat||Zodiac Milpro|
- Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921), Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, accessed March 25th, 2011
- The History of British Roadsigns, Dept. for Transport, 2nd Edition, 1999
- "Trademarks". Mills, Turansky, & Griffith. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14.
- "Cellophane | Define Cellophane at Dictionary.com". dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "The History and Discovery of Dry Ice". inventors.about.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-15. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "61/51/D0405100 dry ice. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000". bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 2009-01-31. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Heroin | Define Heroin at Dictionary.com". dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "'Genericide': Brands destroyed by their own success - BBC News". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Kerosene | Define Kerosene at Dictionary.com". dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Jaffe v. Evans & Sons, Ltd., U.S. (New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, First Department March 21, 1902).
- Livermore, Beth (1999). "The Way We Are - time capsules - Brief Article". Natural History. Archived from the original on 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
- "61/88/L0188800 linoleum. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000". bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 2005-04-15. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Powell, Jane; Linda Svendsen (2003). Linoleum. Gibbs Smith. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-58685-303-7.
- mimeograph. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000 Archived September 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- ""Спидолу" писали с маленькой буквы…//Телеграф, № 56 (294) от 22 марта 2004". radiopagajiba.lv. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- cite web|url=http://americanradiohistory.com/Archive-Sponsor-Magazine/1952/Sponsor-1952-09-2.pdf |date=April 27, 2017
- "Thermos® -- Hot Matters. Cold Matters. It Matters". thermos.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- King-Seeley Thermos Co. v. Aladdin Indus., Inc., 321 F.2d 577 (2d Cir. 1963); see also this PDF Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Eskenazi, G. (2003). A Sportswriter's Life: From the Desk of a New York Times Reporter. University of Missouri Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780826262608. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Ampex Corporation - GHN: IEEE Global History Network". Ieeeghn.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Mullin, Joe (July 7, 2013). "Apple gives up on failing App Store v. Appstore trademark lawsuit". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Publications.
- "USPTO Trademark #72137327". USPTO. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "USPTO Trademark #72196260". USPTO. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "USPTO Trademark #71662015". USPTO. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Dempster, George R. "US Patent #2150821". Google Patents. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Beginnings: The Dempster Dumpster". Classic Refuse Trucks Dempster. 6 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-11-20. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval - Multiball". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval - Multi-ball". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Centrex Service". Archived from the original on 2006-04-22. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "Merriam-Webster FAQ". Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "343 F.2d 655: Donald F. Duncan, Inc., Plaintiff-appellee, v. Royal Tops Manufacturing Company, Inc., and Randy Brown, Defendants-appellants". Justia US Law. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
- "Latest Status Info". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Zipper | Define Zipper at Dictionary.com". dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Butters, Ronald R. and Jennifer Westerhaus. "Linguistic change in words one owns: How trademarks become 'generic'" in Studies in the History of the English Language II, Anne Curzan and Kimberly Emmons, eds. Walter de Gruyter, 2004 Retrieved 2008-08-21.
- Aronson, J. K. (2000). ""Where name and image meet"--the argument for "adrenaline"". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 320 (7233): 506–509. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7233.506. PMC 1127537. PMID 10678871.
- "Medic Guide: What's the difference between adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)?". Medicguide.blogspot.com. 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Caddick-Adams, Peter (2006-09-01). "Airfix made me the man I am". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "Cathay disables Airshow (moving map) - PPRuNe Forums". Pprune.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Gethin's Inflight News – IFEC and travel trends". gethins-ifec.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "AIrshow Map Delta - FlyerTalk Forums". Flyertalk.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Copyrights & Campaigns: 'AstroTurf' vs. 'astroturf': can a trademark owner control uses of its mark in a news article?". Copyrightsandcampaigns.blogspot.com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Armco Barriers Designed & Manufactured in the UK - CT Safety Barriers". Edge45.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Room, Adrian (1983). Dictionary of Trade Name Origins. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7102-0174-4.
- "Administrative Panel Decision: Clark Equipment Company v. AllJap Machinery Pty Ltd Case No. DAU2011-0042". World Intellectual Property Organization. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Administrative Panel Decision: Clark Equipment Company v. R & R Equipment Pty Ltd Case No. DAU2012-0011". World Intellectual Property Organization. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Xerox Team India" (PDF). span.state.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-25. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Home Decor and Improvement Online Store | Buy Lighting | Homeclick". homeclickblog.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Bubbler Reviews Sydney". Retrieved 2014-04-11.
- "Вещь с именем" (in Russian). Men's Health Россия. 7 March 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "Lloyds Bank - branch locator - search". lloydsbank.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "USPTO Assignments on the Web | "Chain Gun" USPTO Registered Trademark". assignments.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Definition of chain gun - Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "American Lung Association® Christmas Seals® - Over 100 Years". Christmasseals.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "LI company goes private; delisted in $120M deal". Newsday. Retrieved 2017-09-25.
- "About Cigarette Boats - Boat Safe Kids!". Boatsafe.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography". Tarpley.net. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Absorbing Clorox?". Businessweek. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "In the South, a 'coke' could be a Pepsi" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- A New Dictionary of Eponyms - Morton S. Freeman - Google Books. 1997-12-18. ISBN 9780195093544. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Weisberg, Lori. "Comic-Con wins legal fight over rights to its name". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
- "Connollising". Leatherbys. Archived from the original on 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "technical/seats". porsche964.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Is Slow Cooker Synonymous with Crock-Pot?". Food News Service. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "Intro to Trademarks Kelly". Canosoarus.com. 1989-11-16. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "This is where my wallet comes to cry: OPI Glitzerland + China Glaze Crushed Candy". Blogspot. Retrieved 2015-02-06.
- "金拱门再尬 也比不上可口可乐当年"蝌蚪啃蜡"这个名字". Sina Blog. Retrieved 2019-03-05.
- "White Decora Rocker Switch Plates". Kyle Switch Plates. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
- "Did you do decora or regular light switches?". GardenWeb Forums. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
- "Introducing the Mobile Device Station". Leviton. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
- Forquer, Ty (11 October 2017). "What do Dobro and Kleenex have in common?". All Strings Considered. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "Page not found". Retrieved 2009-11-16.[permanent dead link]
- "DOLL". DOLL. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Used car search". Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "3M Brasil: Informações Corporativas". 3m.com. Archived from the original on 2006-03-14. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Riezebos, Rik; H. J. Riezebos; Bas Kist; Gert Kootstra (2003). Brand management: a theoretical and practical approach. Pearson Education. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-273-65505-3.
- Hicks, Wynford (2004). Quite Literally: Problem Words and How to Use Them. Routledge. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-415-32019-1.
- Entry at Miriam-Webster.com
- "Page not found – D*Hub". Retrieved 2009-04-24.[permanent dead link]
- "h2g2 - History of the Personal Data Assistant (PDA) - Edited Entry". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Learning the Filofax of life - The Scotsman". business.scotsman.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Fix-A-Flat: The Debate Over Its Use". thecarconnection.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Lowa, John; Keith Bloisb (2002). "The evolution of generic brands in industrial markets: the challenges to owners of brand equity". Industrial Marketing Management. 31 (5): 385–392. doi:10.1016/S0019-8501(00)00131-0.
- Maeve Maddox. "Are You Guilty of Genericide?". DailyWritingTips. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
- "History of Wham-O, Inc. – FundingUniverse". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Decision of the Advertising Standards Complaints Board, Complainant: Winstone Wallboards Limited; Advertisement: James Hardie Archived October 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine", retrieved 4 April 2013. A section of the statement by the Television Commercial Approvals Bureau states: "Winstone's may be correct in claiming most people think of plaster board as gib board. But it is standard plaster board they think of as gib -- not Gibraltar Specialty Boards or the entire Gibraltar Board range. Even a handyman recognizes the difference between gib board (the generic standard plaster board term) and Gibraltar Board specialty products."
- "doc/1G1-110462360 Glad Wrap[R] trade mark advice. - NZ Business | HighBeam Research". highbeam.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Google calls in the 'language police'", BBC, June 20, 2003
- "Google". Merriam-Webster.
- "Footbag FAQ: Footbag In General". footbag.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Kick in the Rear: Whatever happened to Hacky Sack around here? - Washington City Paper". washingtoncitypaper.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Hill's Hoist". kidcyber.com.au. Archived from the original on 2014-03-11. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Duffy, Jonathan (20 June 2003). "Google calls in the 'language police'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
- Caliendo, Heather (2008). "Hula Hoop adaptation proves to be a ringer for a Tulsa exercise". The Journal Record. Archived from the original on 2009-10-10.
- "Jacuzzi Bath Decor Ideas". swimming-pool-store.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Clorox press release Archived 2007-12-05 at the Wayback Machine, December 20, 2006
- "JCB's History". CAMEC JCB. Corp. (Philippines). Archived from the original on 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
- "JCB: World Class Products". JCB. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
- "Chrysler's Ad Tells Consumers Its JEEP SUVs Are Special, Not Generic". uslaw.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Kane, Colleen (2011-02-18). "Surprising Generic Terms That Were Once Trademarks". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
- Perlman, Merrill (June 14, 2010). "On Your Mark". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- "Packaging, Jiffy Bags, Bubble Wrap, Envelopes, Smart Packaging Store, Supplier". smartpackagingstore.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Jumbotron FAQ - Big Beef and Beer". bigbeefandbeer.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "How Jim Jones led massacre victims to 'drink the Kool-Aid'". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- "How Liquid Motion Lamps Work | HowStuffWorks". howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Lava Lamp Lava Lite". jetcityorange.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-03. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Flying Magazine. March 1979. p. 49. ISSN 0015-4806. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Butcher, R. (2013). Not Brave Enough: My Leap into the Stratosphere. AuthorHouse. p. 81. ISBN 9781491821800. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Targa Miata". targamiata.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Are You Guilty of Genericide?". dailywritingtips.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "articles/m/a/Matchbox". bambooweb.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "USB Flash Drives". Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Our Company". Muzak Limited Liability Company (wfrecruiter.com). Archived from the original on 2012-02-09. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Annals of Culture: The Soundtrack of Your Life", The New Yorker by David Owen (04/10/2006).
- Hartman, Jeff (2004). How to Tune and Modify Engine Management Systems. Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760315828.
- "Gerber Childrenswear Brand Usage". Gerber Childrenswear official website. Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- "Is it ever OK to wear a onesie? | Fashion | The Guardian". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Genericized trademarks | Trademarks| Bonamark". bonamark.com. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
- "The Photoshopping Of The President". archive.salon.com. Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "USA Table Tennis - Features, Events, Results & Team USA | Introduction: Table Tennis Or Ping-Pong?". usatt.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Are There Any Trademark Rights Left In The Term Ping-Pong? - Fredrikson & Byron P.A." archive.is. Archived from the original on 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "ColourClay StaySoft Modelling Clay - Modroc". modroc.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Hasbro. "Play-Doh | Play-Doh Sets | Hasbro". hasbro.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Merriam-Webster. "Plexiglas - Definition". Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- Merriam-Webster. "plexiglass - Definition". Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- "Pogo or Corn Dog? - Off-Topic - Giant Bomb". giantbomb.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "What's Different in Canada | Pogo Sticks". whatsdifferentincanada.tumblr.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Patent US1505592 - Frozen confectionery - Google Patents". Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- itma.org.uk[permanent dead link]
- "Case details for Trade Mark 851268". UK Intellectual Property Office. 18 July 2008.
- www.imagemakergraphics.com. "3 x 4 Custom Post it Note Pads - Desktop Post It Note Pad Printing". imagemakergraphics.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "41 Brand Names People Use as Generic Terms | Mental Floss". mentalfloss.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Teacher to go on trial for hitting pupil's thumb with Pritt Stick - Mirror Online". mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Pemberton, Daniel (2007-06-16). "Tuning in". The Guardian. London.
- Baird, Steve (15 April 2013). "Putt-Putt Has No Miniature Trademark Rights". DuetsBlog.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- List of Unilever products, accessed 2008-08-26.
- "National Association of Realtors' trademark protection video". realtor.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Wright, R. (1999). Marketing: Origins, Concepts, Environment. Business Press. p. 153. ISBN 9781861525260. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Trademark Applications and Registrations Retrieval". U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. n.d. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- "Bostik Philippines Inc". bostik.com.ph. Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "PR Newswire UK: Scalextric Celebrates 50 Years of Slot Car Racing Action - LONDON, January 24". prnewswire.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Barnhart, Clarence Lewis (1974). The World Book Dictionary. Field Enterprises Educational Corp. p. 1850. ISBN 978-0-7166-0275-0. Scotch tape: 1. a transparent, cellophane, adhesive tape for mending, patching, sealing, etc.
- Kane, Siegrun D. (2002). Trademark law: a practitioner's guide. Practising Law Institute. pp. 5–15. ISBN 978-1-4024-0227-2.
- "Losing distinctiveness a big deal in trade-mark law ... and in the market". lawyersweekly.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Boating Industry Canada". boatingindustrycanada.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.[permanent dead link]
- "Sellotape looks to television to strengthen diluted brand name". Campaign. 25 April 2003. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- Dick, Matthew (2004). "Why you must never Sellotape a Xerox into your Filofax". The Journal of Brand Management. 11 (6): 509–513. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540195.
- "A brief history of sticky tape". BBC News. BBC. 7 July 2003. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- managing editor Catherine Schwarz. (1993). The Chambers dictionary. London: Chambers. ISBN 978-0-550-10255-3.
- Smith, Jane. "Mark Our Words!" (PDF). USP Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-05.
- "Harley-Davidson Motorcycle Softail Trademark".
- Darlow, Jamie. "Are softail mountain bikes making a comeback?". Mountain Bike Rider. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Reynolds, William; Rand, Ritch (2003). "Stetson Hats". The Cowboy Hat Book. Layton, Utah, USA: Gibbs Smith. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-87905-656-8. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "Stanley knife Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Closures". fosters.com.au. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Dow Craft Site, "Professional Craft Designers Design Purchase Programs/FAQs", accessed Nov. 24, 2008. http://craft.dow.com/profcr/faq.htm
- Dow Craft Site, "Responsible Living and Styrofoam Brand Foam", accessed Nov. 24, 2008. http://craft.dow.com/about/environ.htm
- Merriam-Webster. "superglue - Definition". Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- "United States Patent and Trademark Office latest status info for trademark serial #78356610". tarr.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Tannoy - About Us". tannoy.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Team – Channel 4 News 4Insider". channel4.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Welcome to the new". Mad.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "Company Trivia". TASER International, Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- "Ordbog over det danske sprog". ordnet.dk. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Danmarks Tivoli Forening members list". danmarks-tivoliforening.dk. Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- pvanke.dk Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine; Tivoli A/S versus Thomas Tivoli
- "domstol.dk - "Tivoli Night"". domstol.dk. Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Tupperware". Tupperware Brands Corporation. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Uber Is A Verb". Fast Company.
- Freeman, Allyn; Bob Golden (September 1997). Why Didn't I Think of That: Bizarre Origins of Ingenious Inventions We Couldn't Live Without. Wiley. pp. 99–104. ISBN 978-0-471-16511-8. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "Velcro." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
- Marvz (17 June 2013). "Why Do We Call it Betsin/Vetsin?". FoodRecap.com. Retrieved 2015-02-04.
- Danit, Lidor (7 June 2002). "Sony Trademark Takes a Walk, Man". Wired.com.
- "Walkman Central FAQ". walkmancentral.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Personal Watercraft Laws". ohiodnr.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Deciding Whether To Hire A Winnebago In England". streetdirectory.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- "Genericized Trademark". nowsell.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
- Ginsburg 2001, pp. 317–318, 322
- Branch, John (May 23, 2009). "As Economy Stumbles, the Zamboni Glides On". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- United States Trademark Registration No. 2,376,266
- Ginsburg, Jane C.; Litman, Jessica; Kevlin, Mary L. (2001). "Trademark and Unfair Competition Law" (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Foundation Press.