China National Highways
|China National Highways|
CNH (Guodao) trunk road marker
CNH Trunk roads in China
China National Highways|
The China National Highways (CNH/Guodao) (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国国道; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國國道; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guódào) is a network of trunk roads across mainland China. Although they are called "highways" (e.g., the Jingbao Highway), they are not necessarily freeways. However, like expressways, a toll is sometimes charged.
The first state highway recorded in China dates back more than two thousand years ago to the Qin Dynasty when the first emperor Qin Shihuang built a 750 kilometres (470 mi) highway, linking its capital Xianyang to the northerly border of Erdos as a defensive maneuver.
The building of highways is seen as key to accelerating infrastructure construction. In 2003, completed investment in highway construction was 350 billion yuan and 219 key highway projects progressed, focusing mainly on the five north-south and seven east-west national arterial highways as well as highways in western China and in rural areas. By the end of 2004, the total length of highways open to traffic reached 1.871 million km, including 34,300 km (21,300 mi) of expressways up to advanced modern transportation standard, ranking second in the world. The nation's highway density has now reached 19.5 km per 100 km2.
With the completion in 2008 of the five north-south and the seven east-west national arterial highways, totaling 35,000 km (22,000 mi), Beijing and Shanghai were linked by major highways, chiefly expressways, to the capitals of all provinces and autonomous regions of China, creating highway connections between over 200 cities.
The aim of the National Expressway Network Plan approved in early 2005 is an expressway system connecting all capitals of provinces and autonomous regions with Beijing and with each other, linking major cities and important counties. The network will have a total length of about 85,000 km (53,000 mi), including seven originating in Beijing; the Beijing-Shanghai, Beijing-Taipei, Beijing-Hong Kong-Macau, Beijing-Kunming, Beijing-Lhasa, Beijing-Ürümqi, and Beijing-Harbin expressways. Half of the projects are already completed.
In 2013 the Ministry of Transport announced the "National Highway Network Planning (2013 - 2030)", which will bring the total number of highways to 119, with 81 connecting highways between them. The total mileage will be increased to 265,000 km (165,000 mi), with increased focus on the western and less developed regions.
Although an accepted speed limit on China National Highways is 100 km/h, it is common to see cars pass other by in well in excess of 100 km/h. The lack of speed detection cameras on some routes, lack of a posted speed limit outside of localities and tremendous distances of road mileage, means that enforcing this speed limit is rather herculean. In addition there is a notable shortage of traffic police in mainland China.
Nationwide highways often begin with the letter G, followed by three numerals, e.g.: G107. It is said that the G stands for 国家 (guójiā), or national.
The numbering of the highways is as follows:
- Five vertical and seven horizontal main routes were labelled in the former 000 series (the so-called "five downs and seven acrosses"), although these have been deprecated in favour of the "NTHS" (7918) system.
- Highways in the 100 series (e.g. 102, 106) begin from Beijing - the capital city of the People's Republic of China - and spread out in all compass directions, except for China National Highway 112, which originates in Xuanhua as it is a ring around Beijing.
- Highways in the 200 series stretch from north to south (e.g., from Hohhot in Inner Mongolia through to Beihai in Guangxi province);
- Highways in the 300 series stretch from east to west (e.g., from Shanghai through to Ruili in Yunnan province);
- Highways in the 500 series are connecting roads between other national highways.
In major cities, there is usually a gap in the road within the city.
List of all China National Highways
Highways listed in red were planned but never built, or have been abandoned or redesignated. Those listed in yellow are currently partially finished. Those listed in grey are under construction or still in planning.
Former 000 Series
Note: 000 Series China National Highways pointed to five specific vertical routes, as well as seven specific horizontal routes. Routes ending in "0" were north-south (vertical) routes; routes ending in "5" were east-west (horizontal) routes. The new system with two to four numbers that indicate the "NTHS" (7918) system is now in use instead of the 000 Series. For the expressways' new numbering system, see Expressways of China.
It seems that the old 0xx numbers are still signposted using the format GZxx, e.g. in the Qinghai province, there are signs at the G109 (old G025) showing the number GZ25.
|G010||010国道||China National Highway 010||Tongjiang||Sanya||5,700 km (3,500 mi)||Was the longest China National Highway overall. Now G1011 and part of G1, G15, G1503 and G98.|
|G015||015国道||China National Highway 015||Suifenhe||Manzhouli||2,540 km (1,580 mi)||Now G10.|
|G020||020国道||China National Highway 020||Beijing||Fuzhou||2,540 km (1,580 mi)||Now part of G3.|
|G025||025国道||China National Highway 025||Dandong||Lhasa||4,590 km (2,850 mi)||Now part of G1113, G1 and G6.|
|G030||030国道||China National Highway 030||Beijing||Zhuhai||2,310 km (1,440 mi)||Now part of G4 and G4W.|
|G035||035国道||China National Highway 035||Qingdao||Yinchuan||1,610 km (1,000 mi)||Now G20.|
|G040||040国道||China National Highway 040||Erenhot||Hekou||3,610 km (2,240 mi)||Now part of G55, G5 and G80, and all of G8011.|
|G045||045国道||China National Highway 045||Lianyungang||Khorgas||3,980 km (2,470 mi)||Now G30.|
|G050||050国道||China National Highway 050||Chongqing||Zhanjiang||1,430 km (890 mi)||Now part of G15 and G75.|
|G055||055国道||China National Highway 055||Shanghai||Chengdu||2,970 km (1,850 mi)||Now G42.|
|G065||065国道||China National Highway 065||Shanghai||Ruili||4,090 km (2,540 mi)||Now G60 and part of G56.|
|G075||075国道||China National Highway 075||Hengyang||Kunming||1,980 km (1,230 mi)||Now part of G72, G80 and G78.|
|Number||Name||English Name||Startpoint||Endpoint||Final Endpoint||Current Length||Notes|
|101国道||China National Highway 101||Beijing||Shenyang||909 km (565 mi)|
|102国道||China National Highway 102||Beijing||Harbin||Fuyuan||1,297 km (806 mi)|
|103国道||China National Highway 103||Beijing||Tianjin||162 km (101 mi)||The shortest China National Highway overall.|
|104国道||China National Highway 104||Beijing||Fuzhou||Pingtan||2,420 km (1,500 mi)|
|105国道||China National Highway 105||Beijing||Zhuhai||Macau||2,717 km (1,688 mi)|
|106国道||China National Highway 106||Beijing||Guangzhou||2,466 km (1,532 mi)|
|107国道||China National Highway 107||Beijing||Shenzhen||Hong Kong||2,662 km (1,654 mi)|
|108国道||China National Highway 108||Beijing||Kunming||3,356 km (2,085 mi)|
|109国道||China National Highway 109||Beijing||Lhasa||3,901 km (2,424 mi)||The longest China National Highway from Beijing. Includes the Qinghai-Tibet Highway.|
|110国道||China National Highway 110||Beijing||Yinchuan||Qingtongxia||1,357 km (843 mi)|
|111国道||China National Highway 111||Beijing||Jiagedaqi||Mohe||2,123 km (1,319 mi)|
|112国道||China National Highway 112||Xuanhua||N/A||1,228 km (763 mi)||Ring road around Beijing.|
- "Exhibition unveils China's ancient "state highway" in Qin Dynasty". Xinhua. 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- China's Highroad to Highway Success
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