|Maharana of Mewar|
|Maharana of Mewar|
|Reign||1572–1597 (25 years)|
|Coronation||1 March 1575|
|Predecessor||Udai Singh II|
|Successor||Amar Singh I|
9 May 1540|
Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan
|Died||29 January 1597
|Burial||cremated in Vandoli village|
|Spouse||Maharani Ajabde Punwar|
|Issue||Amar Singh I
|Father||Udai Singh II|
|Mother||Maharani Jaiwanta Bai|
|Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II (1326–1884)|
|Udai Singh I||(1468–1473)|
|Ratan Singh II||(1528–1531)|
|Udai Singh II||(1540–1572)|
|Amar Singh I||(1597–1620)|
|Karan Singh II||(1620–1628)|
|Jagat Singh I||(1628–1652)|
|Raj Singh I||(1652–1680)|
|Amar Singh II||(1698–1710)|
|Sangram Singh II||(1710–1734)|
|Jagat Singh II||(1734–1751)|
|Pratap Singh II||(1751–1754)|
|Raj Singh II||(1754–1762)|
|Ari Singh II||(1762–1772)|
|Hamir Singh II||(1772–1778)|
|Succeeded by ?||(?)|
Pratap singh ( pronunciation (help·info)) or Pratap Singh (9 May 1540 – 29 January 1597) was the ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. His birth anniversary (Maharana Pratap Jayanti) is celebrated as a full-fledged festival every year on the 3rd day of the Jyestha Shukla phase. He was the eldest son of Maharani Jaiwanta Bai and Udai Singh II, founder of Udaipur. He belonged to the Sisodia clan of Rajputs. Maharana Pratap Singh is widely regarded as a fearless warrior and ingenious strategist, who successfully fought the Mughals and safeguarded his people until his death. In popular Indian culture, he is hailed as an inspirational figure for exemplifying gallantry and resourcefulness. He was succeeded by his eldest son Amar Singh I.
In 1568 during the reign of Rana Udai Singh II (Maharana Pratap's father) Chittorgarh Fort was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar after the third Jauhar at Chittor. However, Udai Singh and the royal family of Mewar had left before the fort was captured and moved to the foothills of the Aravalli Range where Singh had already founded the city of Udaipur in 1559. Rani Dheer Bai wanted her son Jagmal to succeed Udai Singh but the seniors in the royal court preferred Pratap, as the eldest son, to be their king. The desire of the nobles prevailed.
Nearly all of Pratap's fellow Rajput chiefs had meanwhile entered into the vassalage of the Mughals. Even Pratap's own brothers, Shakti Singh, Jagmal and Sagar Singh, served the Mughal emperor, Akbar. Indeed, many Rajput chiefs, such as Man Singh I of Amer (later known as Maharaja of Jaipur) served as army commanders in Akbar's armies and as members of his council. Akbar sent a total of six diplomatic missions to Pratap, seeking to negotiate the same sort of peaceful alliance that he had concluded with the other Rajput chiefs. The first three missions were led by Jalal Khan Qurchi, the fourth by Raja Man Singh, the fifth by Raja Bhagwan Das, and the sixth by Todar Mal. The fifth mission of Bhagwan Das was fruitful in that the Rana agreed to put on a robe presented by Akbar and he sent his son Amar Singh I to the mughal capital. The missions failed, however, since the Rana refused to personally present himself in the mughal court. Since no agreement could be reached at, all out war between Mewar and the Mughals became inevitable.[page needed]
Battle Of Haldighati
In 1576, Akbar deputed Man Singh I and Asaf Khan I to lead a force of 60,000 soldiers against Rana Pratap. The Rana advanced with a force of 30,000 soldiers and took a position near Haldighati which was at the entrance of a defile. In Pratap's army the main commanders were Gwalior's Ram Singh Tanvar (with all his sons), Krishandas Chundawat, Ramdas Rathore Jhala, Mansingh Rawat, Purohit Gopinath, Shankardas, Charan Jaisa, Purohit Jagannath and Keshav. His army also included Afghans lead by Hakim Khan Sur and a small contingent of Bhil tribals headed by Rao Poonja fighting alongside him. According to Dr. Sharma, Maharana had 3,000 horseborne soldiers, 2,000 infantry soldiers, 100 elephants and 100 spearmen and some other soldiers.
The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 for around four hours. It was primarily fought in the traditional manner between cavalry and elephants since the mughals found it difficult to transport artillery over the rough terrain. In a traditional fight the Rajputs were at an advantage; their impetuous attack led to a crumbling of the mughal left and right wings and put pressure on the center until reserves, and a rumor of Akbar's arrival, turned the tide, and resulted in a Rajput retreat. The heat, and fear of ambush in the hills, resulted in the mughals deciding not to pursue the Rajputs into the hills. Thus this battle failed to break the existing stalemate. Considering that both the armies of Akbar and Rana Pratap included Hindus and Muslims, considering that Akbar's army was led by Raja Man Singh, and Rana Pratap's army included an afghan contingent led by Hakim Sur, it would not be correct to view this battle as a fight between Hindus and Muslims. Nor can it be viewed as a battle for Rajput independence, since influential sections of the Rajputs had already cast their lot with the mughals. At best, this fight can be viewed as an assertion of local independence arising from local and regional patriotism.[page needed]
After the Battle of Haldighati
On the third day after the Battle of Haldighati, i.e. on 23 June 1576, Man Singh I conquered Gogunda which was later recaptured by Pratap in July 1576. Pratap then made Kumbhalgarh his temporary capital. After that, Akbar decided to personally lead the campaign against Pratap. In the process, Gogunda, Udaipur and Kumbhalmir were occupied by the mughals, forcing the Rana deeper into the mountainous tracts of southern Mewar. Mughal pressure was exerted on the Afghan chief of Jalor, and the Rajput chiefs of Idar, Sirohi, Banswara, Dungarpur, and Bundi. These states, situated on the borders of Mewar with Gujarat and Malwa had traditionally acknowledged the supremacy of the dominant power in the region. Consequently, the rulers of these states submitted to the Mughals. A mughal expedition was also sent to Bundi where Duda, the elder son of Rao Surjan Hada, had collaborated with Rana Pratap to take control over Bundi and adjacent areas. Both Surjan Hada and Bhoj, the father and younger brother of Duda, took part in this conflict in support of the mughals. After a mughal victory, Duda escaped to the hills and Bundi was conferred upon Bhoj. At this point Rana Pratap found himself isolated and marginalized in Rajput affairs.[page needed]
Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab. In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west. No mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period. Taking advantage of the situation, Rana Pratap recovered many of his lost territories including Kumbhalgarh and the areas around Chittor (but not Chittor itself). During this period, he also built a new capital--Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.[page needed] His successful defiance of Mughals using guerrilla strategy also proved inspiration to figures ranging from Shivaji to anti-British revolutionaries in Bengal.
Maharana Pratap's first and favourite wife was Maharani Ajabde Punwar. She supported him through everything. They both loved each other unconditionally. Sadly, she died in her thirties. He only loved Maharani Ajabde, the other marriages were political alliances.  Maharana Pratap had 11 wives. He had 17 sons and five daughters. Of his children, Amar Singh, who was born to Maharani Ajabde, was the eldest and who later succeeded him . The list of Queens and Sons is as follows:
|1||Ajabde Punwar||Amar Singh I
|8||Alamdebai Chauhan||Jaswant Singh|
|9||Ratanawati Bai Parmar||Maal|
Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident at Chavand, which served as his capital, on 29 January 1597, aged fifty-seven. A chhatri, commemorating Pratap's funeral, exists at Chavand and is an important tourist attraction.
TV Serial Depictions
|Year||TV Series||Channel||Country||Played by|
|2013||Bharat Ka Veer Putra – Maharana Pratap||Sony Entertainment Television India||India||Faisal Khan (TV actor)/Sharad Malhotra|
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar.|
Maharana PratapBorn: 9 May 1540 Died: 29 January 1597
Udai Singh II
|Sisodia Rajput Ruler
Amar Singh I