Maharana Pratap

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Maharana Pratap
Maharana of Mewar
RajaRaviVarma MaharanaPratap.jpg
Maharana Pratap
Maharana of Mewar
Reign 1572–1597 (25 years)
Coronation 1 March 1575
Predecessor Udai Singh II
Successor Amar Singh I
Born (1540-05-09)9 May 1540
Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan
Died 29 January 1597(1597-01-29) (aged 56)
Chavand, Rajasthan
Burial cremated in Vandoli village
Spouse Maharani Ajabde Punwar
Issue Amar Singh I
Bhagwan Das
Full name
Maharana Pratap Singh Sisodia
House Sisodia
Father Udai Singh II
Mother Maharani Jaiwanta Bai
Religion Hinduism
Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II (1326–1884)
Hammir Singh (1326–1364)
Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
Lakha Singh (1382–1421)
Mokal Singh (1421–1433)
Rana Kumbha (1433–1468)
Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
Rana Raimal (1473–1508)
Rana Sanga (1508–1527)
Ratan Singh II (1528–1531)
Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536)
Vanvir Singh (1536–1540)
Udai Singh II (1540–1572)
Maharana Pratap (1572–1597)
Amar Singh I (1597–1620)
Karan Singh II (1620–1628)
Jagat Singh I (1628–1652)
Raj Singh I (1652–1680)
Jai Singh (1680–1698)
Amar Singh II (1698–1710)
Sangram Singh II (1710–1734)
Jagat Singh II (1734–1751)
Pratap Singh II (1751–1754)
Raj Singh II (1754–1762)
Ari Singh II (1762–1772)
Hamir Singh II (1772–1778)
Bhim Singh (1778–1828)
Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
Shambhu Singh (1861–1874)
Sajjan Singh (1874–1884)
Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
Bhupal Singh (1930–1947)
Succeeded by ? (?)

Pratap singh (About this sound pronunciation ) or Pratap Singh (9 May 1540 – 29 January 1597) was the ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. His birth anniversary (Maharana Pratap Jayanti) is celebrated as a full-fledged festival every year on the 3rd day of the Jyestha Shukla phase. He was the eldest son of Maharani Jaiwanta Bai and Udai Singh II, founder of Udaipur.[1] He belonged to the Sisodia clan of Rajputs.[2][3] Maharana Pratap Singh is widely regarded as a fearless warrior and ingenious strategist, who successfully fought the Mughals and safeguarded his people until his death. In popular Indian culture, he is hailed as an inspirational figure for exemplifying gallantry and resourcefulness.[citation needed] He was succeeded by his eldest son Amar Singh I.[4]


In 1568 during the reign of Rana Udai Singh II (Maharana Pratap's father) Chittorgarh Fort was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar after the third Jauhar at Chittor.[citation needed] However, Udai Singh and the royal family of Mewar had left before the fort was captured and moved to the foothills of the Aravalli Range where Singh had already founded the city of Udaipur in 1559.[5] Rani Dheer Bai wanted her son Jagmal to succeed Udai Singh[6] but the seniors in the royal court preferred Pratap, as the eldest son, to be their king. The desire of the nobles prevailed.[citation needed]


Chittorgarh Fort which Rana wanted to reclaim. Also seen is Vijay Stambha along with Gaumukh Reservoir.

Nearly all of Pratap's fellow Rajput chiefs had meanwhile entered into the vassalage of the Mughals. Even Pratap's own brothers, Shakti Singh, Jagmal and Sagar Singh, served the Mughal emperor, Akbar.[citation needed] Indeed, many Rajput chiefs, such as Man Singh I of Amer (later known as Maharaja of Jaipur) served as army commanders in Akbar's armies and as members of his council. Akbar sent a total of six diplomatic missions to Pratap, seeking to negotiate the same sort of peaceful alliance that he had concluded with the other Rajput chiefs.[citation needed] The first three missions were led by Jalal Khan Qurchi, the fourth by Raja Man Singh, the fifth by Raja Bhagwan Das, and the sixth by Todar Mal.[citation needed] The fifth mission of Bhagwan Das was fruitful in that the Rana agreed to put on a robe presented by Akbar and he sent his son Amar Singh I to the mughal capital.[citation needed] The missions failed, however, since the Rana refused to personally present himself in the mughal court. Since no agreement could be reached at, all out war between Mewar and the Mughals became inevitable.[7][page needed]

Battle Of Haldighati[edit]

Main article: Battle of Haldighati

In 1576, Akbar deputed Man Singh I and Asaf Khan I to lead a force of 60,000 soldiers against Rana Pratap.[citation needed] The Rana advanced with a force of 30,000 soldiers and took a position near Haldighati which was at the entrance of a defile.[citation needed] In Pratap's army the main commanders were Gwalior's Ram Singh Tanvar (with all his sons), Krishandas Chundawat, Ramdas Rathore Jhala, Mansingh Rawat, Purohit Gopinath, Shankardas, Charan Jaisa, Purohit Jagannath and Keshav.[8] His army also included Afghans lead by Hakim Khan Sur and a small contingent of Bhil tribals headed by Rao Poonja fighting alongside him.[8] According to Dr. Sharma, Maharana had 3,000 horseborne soldiers, 2,000 infantry soldiers, 100 elephants and 100 spearmen and some other soldiers.[9]

Anticipating the mughal attack, the Rana had also devastated the entire region up to Chittor to prevent the mughal forces access to food and fodder.[citation needed]

The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 for around four hours.[10] It was primarily fought in the traditional manner between cavalry and elephants since the mughals found it difficult to transport artillery over the rough terrain. In a traditional fight the Rajputs were at an advantage; their impetuous attack led to a crumbling of the mughal left and right wings and put pressure on the center until reserves, and a rumor of Akbar's arrival, turned the tide, and resulted in a Rajput retreat. The heat, and fear of ambush in the hills, resulted in the mughals deciding not to pursue the Rajputs into the hills. Thus this battle failed to break the existing stalemate. Considering that both the armies of Akbar and Rana Pratap included Hindus and Muslims, considering that Akbar's army was led by Raja Man Singh, and Rana Pratap's army included an afghan contingent led by Hakim Sur, it would not be correct to view this battle as a fight between Hindus and Muslims. Nor can it be viewed as a battle for Rajput independence, since influential sections of the Rajputs had already cast their lot with the mughals. At best, this fight can be viewed as an assertion of local independence arising from local and regional patriotism.[7][page needed]

After the Battle of Haldighati[edit]

On the third day after the Battle of Haldighati, i.e. on 23 June 1576, Man Singh I conquered Gogunda[11] which was later recaptured by Pratap in July 1576.[12] Pratap then made Kumbhalgarh his temporary capital.[13] After that, Akbar decided to personally lead the campaign against Pratap.[citation needed] In the process, Gogunda, Udaipur and Kumbhalmir were occupied by the mughals, forcing the Rana deeper into the mountainous tracts of southern Mewar.[citation needed] Mughal pressure was exerted on the Afghan chief of Jalor, and the Rajput chiefs of Idar, Sirohi, Banswara, Dungarpur, and Bundi. These states, situated on the borders of Mewar with Gujarat and Malwa had traditionally acknowledged the supremacy of the dominant power in the region. Consequently, the rulers of these states submitted to the Mughals. A mughal expedition was also sent to Bundi where Duda, the elder son of Rao Surjan Hada, had collaborated with Rana Pratap to take control over Bundi and adjacent areas. Both Surjan Hada and Bhoj, the father and younger brother of Duda, took part in this conflict in support of the mughals. After a mughal victory, Duda escaped to the hills and Bundi was conferred upon Bhoj. At this point Rana Pratap found himself isolated and marginalized in Rajput affairs.[7][page needed]


Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab. In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west. No mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period. Taking advantage of the situation, Rana Pratap recovered many of his lost territories including Kumbhalgarh and the areas around Chittor (but not Chittor itself). During this period, he also built a new capital--Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.[7][page needed] His successful defiance of Mughals using guerrilla strategy also proved inspiration to figures ranging from Shivaji to anti-British revolutionaries in Bengal.[14]

Royal Court[edit]

Maharana Pratap had a cabinet of able ministers / advisors and commanders including Bhamashah (treasurer) and Rao Poonja.

Personal life[edit]

Maharana Pratap's first and favourite wife was Maharani Ajabde Punwar. She supported him through everything. They both loved each other unconditionally. Sadly, she died in her thirties. He only loved Maharani Ajabde, the other marriages were political alliances. [1] Maharana Pratap had 11 wives.[15][16] He had 17 sons[17] and five daughters. Of his children, Amar Singh, who was born to Maharani Ajabde, was the eldest and who later succeeded him .[18] The list of Queens and Sons is as follows:[19]

S. No. Queen Son
1 Ajabde Punwar Amar Singh I
Bhagwan Das
2 Solankhinipur Bai Sasha
3 Champabai Jhali Kachra
Durjan Singh
4 Jasobai Chauhan Kalyandas
5 Phoolbai Rathore Chanda
6 Shahmatibai Hada Pura
7 Khichar Ashabai Hathi
Ram Singh
8 Alamdebai Chauhan Jaswant Singh
9 Ratanawati Bai Parmar Maal
10 Amarbai Rathore Natha
11 Lakhabai Rathore Raibhana


Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident[20] at Chavand, which served as his capital,[21][22] on 29[23][24] January 1597, aged fifty-seven.[25] A chhatri, commemorating Pratap's funeral, exists at Chavand and is an important tourist attraction.[26]

TV Serial Depictions[edit]

Year TV Series Channel Country Played by
2013 Bharat Ka Veer Putra – Maharana Pratap Sony Entertainment Television India India Faisal Khan (TV actor)/Sharad Malhotra


  1. ^ a b Rana 2004, pp. 28, 105.
  2. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1994). A History of Jaipur. p. 48. ISBN 9788125003335. 
  3. ^ Daryanani, Mohan B. (1999). Who's who on Indian Stamps. p. 302. ISBN 9788493110109. 
  4. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1994). A History of Jaipur : c. 1503 - 1938. Orient Longman. p. 83. ISBN 9788125003335. 
  5. ^ Mathur, Pushparani (1994). Costumes of the Rulers of Mewar. p. 22. ISBN 9788170172932. 
  6. ^ Lal, Muni (1980). Akbar. p. 135. ISBN 9780706910766. 
  7. ^ a b c d Chandra, Satish (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526) 2. Har-Anand Publications. 
  8. ^ a b Rana 2004, p. 54.
  9. ^ Rana 2004, p. 55.
  10. ^ Chundawat (9 December 2014), Haldi Ghati War 
  11. ^ Rana 2004, p. 69.
  12. ^ Rana 2004, p. 72.
  13. ^ Rana 2004, p. 76.
  14. ^ Bandyopadhyay, Brishti (2007). Maharana Pratap : Mewar's Rebel King. Rupa Co.
  15. ^ "Maharana Pratap : His Wives, His Sons & His Daughters". India Opines. 23 May 2014. 
  16. ^ Sharma, Dashrath (1990). Rajasthan Through the Ages: From 1300 to 1761 A.D 2. p. 274. 
  17. ^ Meininger, Irmgard (2000). Chittaurgarh. p. 38. ISBN 9788124601501. 
  18. ^ Shashi, S.S (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Volume 100. p. 185. ISBN 9788170418597. 
  19. ^ Rana 2004.
  20. ^ Sharma, Sri Ram (2005). Maharana Pratap. p. 91. ISBN 978-8178710037. 
  21. ^ Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II. p. 122. ISBN 8124110662. 
  22. ^ Niraj, Jaysimha (1991). Splendour Of Rajasthani Painting. p. 15. ISBN 8170172675. 
  23. ^ plaque at Maharana Pratap Smarak Samiti, Udaipur
  24. ^ "Maharana Pratap - History of Chittorgarh". 
  25. ^ Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R. (2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages The Heritage Of Rajputs (Set Of 5 Vols.). p. 46. ISBN 9788176258418. 
  26. ^ "Maharana Pratap Ki Chhatri". Indira Gandhi National Centre for the arts. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 


External links[edit]

Maharana Pratap
Born: 9 May 1540 Died: 29 January 1597
Preceded by
Udai Singh II
Sisodia Rajput Ruler
Succeeded by
Amar Singh I