Thomas Starzl

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Thomas Starzl
Starzl in 2005
Thomas Earl Starzl

(1926-03-11)March 11, 1926
DiedMarch 4, 2017(2017-03-04) (aged 90)
Alma materBA, Westminster College, 1947
MD, Northwestern University, 1952
PhD, Northwestern University, 1952
Known forPerformed the first human liver transplant in 1963
Developed the clinical applications of cyclosporin
Contributed to the field of immunosuppression
Scientific career
FieldsTransplantation surgery,
InstitutionsUniversity of Pittsburgh

Thomas Earl Starzl (March 11, 1926 – March 4, 2017) was an American physician, researcher, and expert on organ transplants. He performed the first human liver transplants, and has often been referred to as "the father of modern transplantation."[1] A documentary, entitled "Burden of Genius,"[2] covering the medical and scientific advances spearheaded by Starzl himself, was released to the public in 2017 in a series of screenings. Dr. Starzl also penned his autobiography, "The Puzzle People: Memoirs Of A Transplant Surgeon," which was published in 1992.


Early years[edit]

Starzl was born on March 11, 1926, in Le Mars, Iowa, the son of newspaper editor and science fiction writer Roman Frederick Starzl and Anna Laura Fitzgerald who was a teacher and a nurse. He was the second of four siblings.[3] Originally intending to become a priest in his teenage years, Starzl changed his plans drastically when his mother died from breast cancer in 1947.[3]


He attended Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology. Starzl attended Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago, where in 1950 he received a Master of Science degree in anatomy and in 1952 earned both a Ph.D. in neurophysiology and an M.D. with distinction.[4] While attending medical school, he established a long friendship with Professor Loyal Davis, MD, a neurosurgeon (whose wife Edith Luckett Davis' daughter from her first marriage was Nancy Reagan[3]).

Starzl spent an extra year at medical school, using the additional time to complete a doctorate in neurophysiology, in 1952. He wrote a seminal paper describing a technique to record the electrical responses of deep brain structures to sensory stimuli such as a flash of light or a loud sound. The paper is highly cited, having been referenced in 384 articles by January 2019.[5]

In 1959, he gained a Markle scholarship.[6]

After obtaining his medical degree, Starzl trained in surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. At both places, he conducted lab and animal research, showing a keen interest in liver biology.[7]

Thomas Starzl after performing a transplant surgery circa 1990


Starzl was a surgeon and researcher in the then nascent field of organ transplantation at the University of Colorado from 1962 until his move to the University of Pittsburgh in 1981.

The Institute for Scientific Information released information in 1999 that documented that his work had been cited more than any other researcher in the world. Between 1981 and June 1998, he was cited 26,456 times.[3]

His autobiographical memoir, The Puzzle People, was named by The Wall Street Journal as the third best book on doctors' lives[8] and was written in three months.[9]

Starzl's most notable accomplishments include:

Awards and honors[edit]


Thomas E. Starzl Way on the campus of the University of Pittsburgh
Entrance to the Thomas Starzl Biomedical Research Tower at the University of Pittsburgh.

Starzl was named one of the most important people of the Millennium, ranking No. 213, according to the authors of "1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium " (Kodansha America, 332 pp.)[1]

Starzl has also received honorary degrees from 26 universities in the United States and abroad, which include 12 in Science, 11 in Medicine, 2 in Humane Letters, and 1 in Law.[26]

In 2006, at a celebration for his 80th birthday, the University of Pittsburgh renamed one of its newest medical research buildings the Thomas E. Starzl Biomedical Science Tower in recognition of his achievements and contributions to the field.[27] On October 15, 2007, the Western Pennsylvania American Liver Foundation and the City of Pittsburgh honored Starzl by dedicating Lothrop Street, near his office and the biomedical research tower bearing his name, as "Thomas E. Starzl Way".[28]

A statue honoring Starzl was unveiled on June 24, 2018 on the University of Pittsburgh campus near the school's Cathedral of Learning.[29]



Having retired from clinical and surgical service since 1991, Starzl devoted his time to research endeavors and remained active as professor of surgery at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's (UPMC) program named in his honor: the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute. Since his “retirement,” he earned the additional distinctions of being one of the most prolific scientists in the world as well as the most cited scientist in the field of clinical medicine.[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Cronin, Mike (2010-01-29). "Starzl, Tribune-Review reporters claim Carnegie Science Awards". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  2. ^ "Burden of Genius". Burden of Genius. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  3. ^ a b c d Srikameswaran, Anita (June 11, 2000). "Pioneer without peer: The Starzl Story". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Pittsburgh. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  4. ^ Starzl, Thomas (1992). The Puzzle People: Memoirs of a Transplant Surgeon. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-3714-2.
  5. ^ Starzl TE, Taylor CW, Magoun HW. Collateral Afferent Excitation of Reticular Formation of Brain Stem. Journal of Neurophysiology, Nov 1951
  6. ^ Fung, J. J. (2017). "Obituary of Thomas E. Starzl, MD, PhD". American Journal of Transplantation. 17 (5): 1153–1155. doi:10.1111/ajt.14267. ISSN 1600-6143. PMID 28296155.
  7. ^ Starzl, Thomas E. (2003). The puzzle people : memoirs of a transplant surgeon. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-8229-5836-8. OCLC 54022664.
  8. ^ Verghese, Abraham (2010-07-10). "Five Best". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
  9. ^ Werth, Barry (2014). The billion-dollar molecule : the quest for the perfect drug. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-2681-3. OCLC 892937368.
  10. ^ Milestones in Organ Transplantation National Kidney Foundation
  11. ^ Starzl TE, Klintmalm GB, Porter KA, Iwatsuki S, Schröter GP (1981). "Liver transplantation with use of cyclosporin a and prednisone". N. Engl. J. Med. 305 (5): 266–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM198107303050507. PMC 2772056. PMID 7017414.
  12. ^ New York Times. February 20, 1990. New Liver for Stormie Jones. Retrieved on July 2, 2007.
  13. ^ Starzl, T. E.; Demetris, A. J.; Murase, N.; Ildstad, S.; Ricordi, C.; Trucco, M. (1992-06-27). "Cell migration, chimerism, and graft acceptance". Lancet. 339 (8809): 1579–1582. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(92)91840-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 2950640. PMID 1351558.
  14. ^ "Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences — American Philosophical Society". Archived from the original on 2016-05-13.
  15. ^ "University of Pittsburgh surgeon receives Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine". 26 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Home » Hepatitis B Foundation". Archived from the original on 2014-03-30.
  17. ^ Roth, Mark (2012-09-10). "Pioneering Pitt transplant surgeon Starzl receives Lasker Award". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
  18. ^ Roth, Mark (2009-10-12). "Starzl receives national award". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  19. ^ Associated Press, Transplant pioneer Starzl to receive award, 2009-03-18, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, accessdate=2009-03-18[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ Reston, Maeve (February 14, 2006). "President gives Starl highest prize". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  21. ^ Anderson, Maria W. (2004-11-25). "2004 John Scott Awards — Thomas Starzl and Barry Trost recognized in awards that aim to reward contributions to mankind". The Scientist. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
  22. ^ "Professor Thomas Starzl — King Faisal International Prize".
  23. ^ "TTS — TTS".
  24. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement.
  25. ^ "David M. Hume Memorial Award". National Kidney Foundation Web site. National Kidney Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  26. ^ "Thomas e. Starzl, M.D., Ph.D., 'Father of Transplantation,' Dies at 90".
  27. ^ Srikameswaran, Anita (March 11, 2006). "Pitt names tower after transplant pioneer". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  28. ^ "Lothrop Street dedicated to Dr. Starzl — The Pitt News". 16 October 2007.
  29. ^ "Health Dr. Thomas Starzl memorial statute unveiled outside Cathedral of Learning". Pittsburgh Tribute-Review. June 24, 2018. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  30. ^ "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas". Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  31. ^ University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Archived 2002-09-05 at the Library of Congress Web Archives

External links[edit]