Advanced Micro Devices
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
Enabling today. Inspiring tomorrow.
|Traded as||NYSE: AMD|
|Founded||May 1, 1969|
|Headquarters||One AMD Place,
Sunnyvale, California, United States
|Key people||Lisa Su (CEO)
Bruce Claflin (Executive Chairman)
Graphics processing units
TV tuner cards
|Revenue||$5.30 billion (2013)|
|Operating income||$103 million (2013)|
|Net income||-$83 million (2013)|
|Total equity||$544 million(2013)|
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company became fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications.
AMD is the second-largest global supplier of microprocessors based on the x86 architecture and also one of the largest suppliers of graphics processing units.
AMD is the only significant rival to Intel in the central processor (CPU) market for (x86 based) personal computers. Since acquiring ATI in 2006, AMD and its competitor Nvidia have dominated the discrete graphics processor unit (GPU) market.
- 1 Company history
- 2 Processor market history
- 3 Products and technologies
- 4 Production and fabrication
- 5 Corporate affairs
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Notes
- 9 External links
First twelve years
Advanced Micro Devices was formally incorporated on May 1, 1969, by Jerry Sanders, along with seven of his colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor. Sanders, an electrical engineer who was the director of marketing at Fairchild, had like many Fairchild executives grown frustrated with the increasing lack of support, opportunity, and flexibility within that company, and decided to leave to start his own semiconductor company. The previous year Robert Noyce, who had invented the first practical integrated circuit or microchip in 1959 at Fairchild, had left Fairchild together with Gordon Moore and founded the semiconductor company Intel in July 1968.
In September 1969 AMD moved from its temporary location in Santa Clara to Sunnyvale, California. To immediately secure a customer base, AMD initially became a second source supplier of microchips designed by Fairchild and National Semiconductor. AMD first focused on producing logic chips. The company guaranteed quality control to United States Military Standard, an advantage in the early computer industry since unreliability in microchips was a distinct problem that customers – including computer manufacturers, the telecommunications industry, and instrument manufacturers – wanted to avoid.
In November 1969 the company manufactured its first product, the Am9300, a 4-bit MSI shift register, which began selling in 1970. Also in 1970, AMD produced its first proprietary product, the Am2501 logic counter, which was highly successful. Its best-selling product in 1971 was the Am2505, the fastest multiplier available.
In 1971 AMD entered the RAM chip market, beginning with the Am3101, a 64-bit bipolar RAM. That year AMD also greatly increased the sales volume of its linear integrated circuits, and by year end the company's total annual sales reached $4.6 million.
AMD went public in September 1972. The company was a second source for Intel MOS/LSI circuits by 1973, with products such as Am14/1506 and Am14/1507, dual 100-bit dynamic shift registers. By 1975 AMD was producing 212 products – of which 49 were proprietary, including the Am9102 (a static N-channel 1024-bit RAM) and three low-power Schottky MSI circuits: Am25LS07, Am25LS08, and Am25LS09.
Intel had created the first microprocessor, its 4-bit 4004, in 1971. By 1975, AMD entered the microprocessor market with the Am9080, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080, and the Am2900 bit-slice microprocessor family. When Intel began installing microcode in its microprocessors in 1976, it entered into a cross-licencing agreement with AMD, granting AMD a copyright license to the microcode in its microprocessors and peripherals, effective October 1976.
In 1977 AMD entered into a joint venture with Siemens, a German engineering conglomerate wishing to enhance its technology expertise and enter the U.S. market. Siemens purchased 20% of AMD's stock, giving AMD an infusion of cash to increase its product lines. That year the two companies also jointly established Advanced Micro Computers, located in Silicon Valley and in Germany, giving AMD an opportunity to enter the microcomputer development and manufacturing field, in particular based on AMD's second-source Zilog Z8000 microprocessors. When the two companies' vision for Advanced Micro Computers diverged, AMD bought out Siemens' stake in the U.S. division in 1979. AMD closed its Advanced Micro Computers subsidiary in late 1981, after switching focus to manufacturing second-source Intel x86 microprocessors.
Total sales in fiscal year 1978 topped $100 million, and in 1979 AMD debuted on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1979 production also began in AMD's new semiconductor fab in Austin; the company already had overseas assembly facilities in Penang and Manila, and it began construction on a semiconductor fab in San Antonio in 1981. In 1980, AMD began supplying semiconductor products for telecommunications, an industry undergoing rapid expansion and innovation.
Technology exchange agreement with Intel
Intel had introduced the first x86 microprocessors in 1978. In 1981 IBM created its PC, and wanted Intel's x86 processors, but only under the condition that Intel also provide a second-source manufacturer for its patented x86 microprocessors. Intel and AMD entered into a 10-year technology exchange agreement, first signed in October 1981 and formally executed in February 1982. The terms of the agreement were that each company could acquire the right to become a second-source manufacturer for semiconductor products developed by the other; that is, each party could "earn" the right to manufacture and sell a product developed by the other, if agreed to, by exchanging the manufacturing rights to a product of equivalent technical complexity. The technical information and licenses needed to make and sell a part would be exchanged for a royalty to the developing company. The 1982 agreement also extended the 1976 AMD–Intel cross-licensing agreement through 1995. The agreement included the right to invoke arbitration of disagreements, and after five years the right of either party to end the agreement with one year's notice. The main result of the 1982 agreement was that AMD become a second-source manufacturer of Intel's x86 microprocessors and related chips, and Intel provided AMD with database tapes for its 8086, 80186, and 80286 chips.
Beginning in 1982 AMD began volume-producing second-source Intel-licensed 8086, 8088, 80186, and 80188 processors, and by 1984 its own Am286 clone of Intel's 80286 processor, for the rapidly growing market of IBM PCs and IBM clones. It also continued its successful concentration on proprietary bipolar chips. In 1983 it introduced INT.STD.1000, the highest manufacturing quality standard in the industry.
The company continued to spend greatly on research and development, and in addition to other breakthrough products, created the world's first 512K EPROM in 1984. That year AMD was listed in the book The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America, and based on 1984 income it made the Fortune 500 list for the first time in 1985.
By mid 1985 however, the microchip market experienced a severe downturn, mainly due to longterm aggressive unfair trade practices (dumping) from Japan, but also due to a crowded and non-innovative chip market in the U.S. AMD rode out the mid-1980s crisis by aggressively innovating and modernizing, devising the Liberty Chip program of designing and manufacturing one new chip or chip set per week for 52 weeks in fiscal year 1986, and by heavily lobbying the U.S. government until sanctions and restrictions were put into place to prevent predatory Japanese pricing. During this time period, AMD withdrew from the DRAM market, and at the same time made some headway into the CMOS market, which it had lagged in entering, having focused instead on bipolar chips.
AMD had some success in the mid-1980s with the AMD7910 and AMD7911 "World Chip" FSK modem, one of the first multi-standard devices that covered both Bell and CCITT tones at up to 1200 baud half duplex or 300/300 full duplex. Beginning in 1986, AMD embraced the perceived shift toward RISC with their own AMD Am29000 (29k) processor; the 29k survived as an embedded processor. The company also increased its EPROM memory market share in the late 1980s. Throughout the 1980s, AMD was a second-source supplier of Intel x86 processors. In 1991, it introduced its own 386-compatible Am386, an AMD-designed chip. Creating its own chips, AMD began to compete directly with Intel.
AMD had a large and successful flash memory business, even during the dotcom bust. In 2003, to divest some manufacturing and aid its overall cash flow, which was under duress from aggressive microprocessor competition from Intel, AMD spun-off its flash memory business and manufacturing into Spansion, a joint venture with Fujitsu, which had been co-manufacturing flash memory with AMD since 1993. AMD divested itself of Spansion in December 2005, in order to focus on the microprocessor market, and Spansion went public in an IPO.
AMD announced the acquisition of ATI Technologies on July 24, 2006. AMD paid US$4.3 billion in cash and 58 million shares of its stock, for a total of US$5.4 billion. The transaction completed on October 25, 2006. Since 2010, all of the company's graphics processing products have been marketed under the AMD brand name.
It was reported in December 2006 that AMD, along with its main rival in the graphics industry Nvidia, received subpoenas from the Justice Department regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry, including the act of fixing prices.
In October 2008, AMD announced plans to spin off manufacturing operations in the form of a multibillion-dollar joint venture with Advanced Technology Investment Co., an investment company formed by the government of Abu Dhabi. The new venture is called GlobalFoundries Inc. This partnership will allow AMD to focus solely on chip design. The spin off was accompanied by the loss of approximately 1000 jobs, or about 10% of AMD's global workforce.
AMD announced in November 2011 plans to lay off more than 10% (1400) of its employees from across all divisions worldwide. This action was to have completed by Q1 2012 with most exits before Christmas 2011. AMD announced in October 2012 plans to lay off an additional 15% of its workforce with an unspecified effective date to reduce costs in the face of declining sales revenue.
On October 8, 2014, AMD announced that Rory Read had stepped down after three years as president and chief executive officer. He was succeeded by Lisa Su, a key lieutenant who had been serving as chief operating officer since June.
On October 16, 2014, AMD announced a new restructuring plan along with its Q3 results. Effective July 1, 2014 AMD reorganized into two business groups: Computing and Graphics and Enterprise, Embedded and Semi-Custom. As part of this restructuring 7% of AMD's global workforce will be laid off by the end of Q4 2014.
Processor market history
IBM PC and the x86 architecture
In February 1982, AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a licensed second-source manufacturer of 8086 and 8088 processors. IBM wanted to use the Intel 8088 in its IBM PC, but IBM's policy at the time was to require at least two sources for its chips. AMD later produced the Am286 under the same arrangement. By the end of 1986, IBM PC clones had overtaken the market and Intel decided to no longer abide by IBM's rules, refusing to convey the technical details of the i386 part. AMD challenged Intel's decision to cancel the agreement and won in arbitration, but Intel disputed this decision. A long legal dispute followed, ending in 1994 when the Supreme Court of California sided with AMD. Subsequent legal disputes centered on whether AMD had legal rights to use derivatives of Intel's microcode. In the face of uncertainty, AMD was forced to develop clean room designed versions of Intel code.
In 1991, AMD released the Am386, its clone of the Intel 386 processor. It took less than a year for the company to sell a million units. Later, the Am486 was used by a number of large original equipment manufacturers, including Compaq, and proved popular. Another Am486-based product, the Am5x86, continued AMD's success as a low-price alternative. However, as product cycles shortened in the PC industry, the process of reverse engineering Intel's products became an ever less viable strategy for AMD.
K5, K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron
AMD's first in-house x86 processor was the K5, which was launched in 1996. The "K" was a reference to Kryptonite. (In comic books, the only substance which could harm Superman was Kryptonite, which was formed from radioactive pieces of his home planet, Krypton. This is a reference to Intel's hegemony over the market, i.e., an anthropomorphization of them as Superman.) The numeral "5" refers to the fifth generation of x86 processors; rival Intel had previously introduced its line of fifth-generation x86 processors as Pentium because the U.S. Trademark and Patent Office had ruled that mere numbers could not be trademarked.
In 1996, AMD purchased NexGen, specifically for the rights to their Nx series of x86-compatible processors. AMD gave the NexGen design team their own building, left them alone, and gave them time and money to rework the Nx686. The result was the K6 processor, introduced in 1997. Although the K6 was based on Socket 7, variants such as K6-3/450 were faster than Intel's Pentium II (sixth-generation processor).
The K7 was AMD's seventh-generation x86 processor, making its debut on June 23, 1999, under the brand name Athlon. Unlike previous AMD processors, it could not be used on the same motherboards as Intel's, due to licensing issues surrounding Intel's Slot 1 connector, and instead used a Slot A connector, referenced to the Alpha processor bus. The Duron was a lower-cost and limited version of the Athlon (64KB instead of 256KB L2 cache) in a 462-pin socketed PGA (socket A) or soldered directly onto the motherboard. Sempron was released as a lower-cost Athlon XP, replacing Duron in the socket A PGA era. It has since been migrated upward to all new sockets, up to AM3.
Athlon 64, Opteron and Phenom
The K8 was a major revision of the K7 architecture, with the most notable features being the addition of a 64-bit extension to the x86 instruction set (called x86-64, AMD64, or x64), the incorporation of an on-chip memory controller, and the implementation of an extremely high performance point-to-point interconnect called HyperTransport, as part of the Direct Connect Architecture. The technology was initially launched as the Opteron server-oriented processor on April 22, 2003. Shortly thereafter it was incorporated into a product for desktop PCs, branded Athlon 64.
On April 21, 2005, AMD released the first dual core Opteron, an x86-based server CPU. A month later, AMD released the Athlon 64 X2, the first desktop-based dual core processor family. In May 2007 AMD abandoned the string "64" in its dual-core desktop product branding, becoming Athlon X2, downplaying the significance of 64-bit computing in its processors. Further updates involved improvements to the microarchitecture, and a shift of target market from mainstream desktop systems to value dual-core desktop systems. In 2008, AMD started to release dual-core Sempron processors exclusively in China, branded as the Sempron 2000 series, with lower HyperTransport speed and smaller L2 cache. Thus AMD completed its dual-core product portfolio for each market segment.
After K8 came K10. In September 2007 AMD released the first K10 processors – nine quad-core Third Generation Opteron processors – followed in November by the Phenom processor for desktop. K10 processors came in dual-core, triple-core, and quad-core versions, with all cores on a single die. AMD released a new platform, codenamed "Spider", which utilized the new Phenom processor, as well as an R770 GPU and a 790 GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. However, AMD built the Spider at 65nm, which was uncompetitive with Intel's smaller and more power-efficient 45nm.
In January 2009, AMD released a new processor line dubbed Phenom II, a refresh of the original Phenom built using the 45 nm process. AMD's new platform, codenamed “Dragon”, utilised the new Phenom II processor, and an ATI R770 GPU from the R700 GPU family, as well as a 790 GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. The Phenom II came in dual-core, triple-core and quad-core variants, all using the same die, with cores disabled for the triple-core and dual-core versions. The Phenom II resolved issues that the original Phenom had, including a low clock speed, a small L3 cache and a Cool'n'Quiet bug that decreased performance. The Phenom II cost less but was not performance-competitive with Intel's mid-to-high-range Core 2 Quads. The Phenom II also enhanced the Phenom's memory controller, allowing it to use DDR3 in a new native socket AM3, while maintaining backwards compatibility with AM2+, the socket used for the Phenom, and allowing the use of the DDR2 memory that was used with the platform.
In April 2010, AMD released a new Phenom II hexa-core (6-core) processor codenamed "Thuban". This was a totally new die based on the hexa-core “Istanbul” Opteron processor. It included AMD's “turbo core” technology, which allows the processor to automatically switch from 6 cores to 3 faster cores when more pure speed is needed. AMD's enthusiast platform, codenamed "Leo", utilized the new Phenom II, a new chipset from the AMD 800 chipset series and an ATI “Cypress” GPU from the Evergreen GPU series.
|This section is outdated. (July 2014)|
The Magny Cours and Lisbon server parts were released in 2010. The Magny Cours part came in 8 to 12 cores and the Lisbon part in 4 and 6 core parts. Magny Cours is focused on performance while the Lisbon part is focused on high performance per watt. Magny Cours is an MCM (Multi-Chip Module) with two hexa-core “Istanbul” Opteron parts. This will use a new G34 socket for dual and quad socket processors and thus will be marketed as Opteron 61xx series processors. Lisbon uses C32 socket certified for dual socket use or single socket use only and thus will be marketed as Opteron 41xx processors. Both will be built on a 45 nm SOI process.
Fusion, Bobcat, Bulldozer, Vishera, and Hondo
|This section is outdated. (July 2014)|
Following AMD's 2006 acquisition of Canadian graphics company ATI Technologies, an initiative codenamed Fusion was announced to merge a CPU and GPU on some of their mainstream chips, including a minimum 16 lane PCI Express link to accommodate external PCI Express peripherals, thereby eliminating the requirement of a northbridge chip completely from the motherboard. The initiative intended to see some of the processing originally done on the CPU (e.g. floating-point unit operations) moved to the GPU, which is better optimized for calculations such as floating-point unit calculations. This is referred to by AMD as an accelerated processing unit (APU).
Llano is to be the second APU released, targeted at the mainstream market. This will incorporate a CPU and GPU on the same die, as well as the northbridge functions, and labeled on AMD's new timeline as using "Socket FM1" with DDR3 memory. This will, however, not be based on the new bulldozer core and will in fact be similar to the current Phenom II "Deneb" processor serving as AMD's high-end processor until the release of the new 32 nm parts. On September 28, 2011, AMD said that the third quarter of 2011 won't have a 10% revenue increase as AMD planned before, because of the manufacturing problem with the 32 nm Llano Fusion chips.
Bulldozer is AMD's CPU codename for the second latest server and desktop processors released on October 12, 2011. This family 15h microarchitecture is the successor to the family 10h (K10) microarchitecture M-SPACE design methodology.
Bulldozer is designed from scratch, not a development of earlier processors. The core is specifically aimed at 10-125 W TDP computing products. AMD claims dramatic performance-per-watt efficiency improvements in high-performance computing (HPC) applications with Bulldozer cores. While hopes were very high that Bulldozer would bring AMD to be performance competitive with arch rival Intel once more, most benchmarks were disappointing. In some cases the new Bulldozer products were slower than the K10 model they were built to replace.
Vishera is AMD's current FX series processor lineup targeting the desktop performance market. It uses 2nd generation Bulldozer-derived cores codenamed Piledriver.
Llano was AMD's first APU built for laptops.
Jaguar is the latest x86 processor core from AMD aimed at the low-power/low-cost market.
Jaguar's predecessor, Bobcat, was revealed during a speech from AMD executive vice-president Henri Richard in Computex 2007 and was put into production Q1 2011. One of the major supporters was executive vice-president Mario A. Rivas who felt it was difficult to compete in the x86 market with a single core optimized for the 10-100 W range and actively promoted the development of the simpler core with a target range of 1-10 watts. In addition, it was believed that the core could migrate into the hand-held space if the power consumption can be reduced to less than 1 W.
ARM architecture-based chip
AMD intends to release 64-bit ARM System on Chips (SoC) that will begin sampling in early 2014 and release later in the year. They will be for use in servers as a low-power alternative to current x86 chips. Their implementation using the ARM architecture is codenamed "Seattle", based on the Cortex A57 core design (ARMv8-A), and will contain 8 and 16 cores each. They will include the proprietary SeaMicro "Freedom Fabric", as well as support for 128 GB RAM, and ten gigabit Ethernet.
Products and technologies
- Radeon – brand for consumer line of graphics cards. Mobility Radeon is power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops.
- AMD FirePro – brand for professional line of graphics cards for workstations. Succeeds the FireGL series of workstation CAD/CAM video cards, the FireMV series and the AMD FireStream series.
AMD's current portfolio of technologies to be found in their products:
- AMD Eyefinity – Facilitates multi-monitor setup of to 6 monitors per graphics card.
- AMD TrueAudio – acceleration of audio calculations.
- Unified Video Decoder (UVD) – acceleration of video decoding.
- Video Codec Engine (VCD) – acceleration of video encoding.
Since 2007, the AMD have decidedly participated in the development of free and open-source graphics device drivers. The programming specifications for a number of chipsets and features were published in several rounds. and code is being contributed to the Direct Rendering Manager in the Linux kernel by employees hired by AMD for this purpose.
Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets. The situation changed in 2003 with the release of Athlon 64 processors, and AMD chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop processors while opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This was the “Open Platform Management Architecture” with ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.
The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-8111 chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.
As the company completed the acquisition of ATI Technologies in 2006, the firm gained the ATI design team for chipsets which previously designed the Radeon Xpress 200 and the Radeon Xpress 3200 chipsets. AMD then renamed the chipsets for AMD processors under AMD branding (for instance, the CrossFire Xpress 3200 chipset was renamed as AMD 580X CrossFire chipset). In February 2007, AMD announced the first AMD-branded chipset since 2004 with the release of the AMD 690G chipset (previously under the development codename RS690), targeted at mainstream IGP computing. It was the industry's first to implement a HDMI 1.2 port on motherboards, shipping for more than a million units. While ATI had aimed at releasing an Intel IGP chipset, the plan was scrapped and the inventories of Radeon Xpress 1250 (codenamed RS600, sold under ATI brand) was sold to two OEMs, Abit and ASRock. Although AMD stated the firm would still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of 1333 MHz FSB to ATI.
On November 15, 2007, AMD announced a new chipset series portfolio, the AMD 7-Series chipsets, covering from enthusiast multi-graphics segment to value IGP segment, to replace the AMD 480/570/580 chipsets and AMD 690 series chipsets, marking AMD's first enthusiast multi-graphics chipset. Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.
AMD returned to the server chipsets market with the AMD 800S series server chipsets. It includes support for up to six SATA 6.0 Gbit/s ports, the C6 power state, which is featured in Fusion processors and AHCI 1.2 with SATA FIS–based switching support. This is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (890FX), IGP(890GX).
As of 2007[update], AMD LIVE! was a platform marketing initiative focusing the consumer electronics segment, with an Active TV initiative for streaming Internet videos from web video services such as YouTube, into AMD Live! PC as well as connected digital TVs, together with a scheme for an ecosystem of certified peripherals for the ease of customers to identify peripherals for AMD LIVE! systems for digital home experience, called "AMD LIVE! Ready".
AMD Quad FX platform
The AMD Quad FX platform, being an extreme enthusiast platform,[clarification needed] allows two processors to connect through HyperTransport, which is a similar setup to dual-processor (2P) servers, excluding the use of buffered memory/registered memory DIMM modules, and a server motherboard, the current setup includes two Athlon 64 FX-70 series processors and a special motherboard. AMD pushed the platform for the surging demands for what AMD calls "megatasking", the ability to do more tasks on a single system. The platform refreshes with the introduction of Phenom FX processors and the next-generation RD790 chipset, codenamed "FASN8".
AMD's first multi-processor server platform, codenamed Fiorano, consists of AMD SR5690 + SP5100 server chipsets, supporting 45 nm, codenamed Shanghai Socket F+ processors and registered DDR2 memory. It was followed by the Maranello platform supporting 45 nm, codenamed Istanbul, Socket G34 processors with DDR3 memory. On single-processor platform, the codenamed Catalunya platform consists of codenamed Suzuka 45 nm quad-core processor with AMD SR5580 + SP5100 chipset and DDR3 support.[dead link]
AMD's x86 virtualization extension to the 64-bit x86 architecture is named AMD Virtualization, also known by the abbreviation AMD-V, and is sometimes referred to by the code name "Pacifica". AMD processors using Socket AM2, Socket S1, and Socket F include AMD Virtualization support. AMD Virtualization is also supported by release two (8200, 2200 and 1200 series) of the Opteron processors. The third generation (8300 and 2300 series) of Opteron processors will see an update in virtualization technology, specifically the Rapid Virtualization Indexing (also known by the development name Nested Page Tables), alongside the tagged TLB and Device Exclusion Vector (DEV).
AMD also promotes the "AMD I/O Virtualization Technology" (also known as IOMMU) for I/O virtualization. The AMD IOMMU specification has been updated to version 1.2. The specification describes the use of a HyperTransport architecture.
AMD's server initiatives include the following:
- AMD Trinity, provides support for virtualization, security and management. Key features include AMD-V technology, codenamed Presidio trusted computing platform technology, I/O Virtualization and Open Management Partition.
- AMD Raiden, future clients similar to the Jack PC to be connected through network to a blade server for central management, to reduce client form factor sizes with AMD Trinity features.
- Torrenza, coprocessors support through interconnects such as HyperTransport, and PCI Express (though more focus was at HyperTransport enabled coprocessors), also opening processor socket architecture to other manufacturers, Sun and IBM are among the supporting consortium, with rumoured POWER7 processors would be socket-compatible to future Opteron processors. The move made rival Intel respond with the opening of Front Side Bus (FSB) architecture as well as Geneseo, a collaboration project with IBM for coprocessors connected through PCI Express.
- Various certified systems programs and platforms: AMD Commercial Stable Image Platform (CSIP), together with AMD Validated Server program, AMD True Server Solutions, AMD Thermally Tested Barebones Platforms and AMD Validated Server Program, providing certified systems for business from AMD.
Starting in 2007, AMD, following Intel, began using codenames for its desktop platforms such as Spider or Dragon. The platforms, unlike Intel's approach, will refresh every year, putting focus on platform specialization. The platform includes components such as AMD processors, chipsets, ATI graphics and other features, but continued to the open platform approach, and welcome components from other vendors such as VIA, SiS, and Nvidia, as well as wireless product vendors.
In February 2002, AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor for its Alchemy line of MIPS processors for the hand-held and portable media player markets. On June 13, 2006, AMD officially announced that the line was to be transferred to Raza Microelectronics, Inc., a designer of MIPS processors for embedded applications.
In August 2003, AMD also purchased the Geode business which was originally the Cyrix MediaGX from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86 processor products. During the second quarter of 2004, it launched new low-power Geode NX processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of fanless processors 667 MHz and 1 GHz, and 1.4 GHz processor with fan, of TDP 25 W. This technology is used in a variety of embedded systems (Casino slot machines and customer kiosks for instance), several UMPC designs in Asia markets, as well as the OLPC XO-1 computer, an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world. The Geode LX processor was announced in 2005 and is said will continue to be available through 2015.
For the past couple of years AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. Leveraging the high throughput enabled through HyperTransport and the Direct Connect Architecture these server class processors have been targeted at high end telecom and storage applications. In 2007 AMD added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion and Mobile AMD Sempron processors to its embedded product line. Leveraging the same 64-bit instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as the AMD Opteron but at lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of traditional embedded applications. Throughout 2007 and into 2008 AMD has continued to add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors and dual-core AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its embedded product line and now offers embedded 64-bit solutions starting with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors for fan-less designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD Opteron processors all supporting longer than standard availability.
The ATI acquisition included the Imageon and Xilleon product lines. In late 2008, the entire handheld division was sold off to Qualcomm, who have since produced the Adreno series. The Xilleon division was sold to Broadcom.
In April 2007, AMD announced the release of the M690T integrated graphics chipset for embedded designs. This enabled AMD to offer complete processor and chipset solutions targeted at embedded applications requiring high performance 3D and video such as emerging digital signage, kiosk and Point of Sale applications. The M690T was followed by the M690E specifically for embedded applications which removed the TV output, which required Macrovision licensing for OEMs, and enabled native support for dual TMDS outputs, enabling dual independent DVI interfaces.
In 2008, AMD announced the Radeon E2400, the first discrete GPU in their embedded product line offering the same long term availability as their other embedded products. That was followed in 2009 with the higher performance Radeon E4690 discrete GPU.
In 2009, AMD announced their first BGA packaged e64 architecture processors, known as the ASB1 family.
In 2010, AMD announced a second generation BGA platform referred to as ASB2. They also announced several new AM3 based processors with support for DDR3 memory.
In January 2011, AMD Announced the AMD Embedded G-Series Accelerated Processing Unit. The first Fusion family APU for embedded applications. This announcement was followed by announcements for the high performance AMD Radeon E6760 and the value-conscious Radeon E6460 discrete GPUs. These solutions all added support for DirectX 11, OpenGL 4.1 and OpenCL 1.1.
In May 2012, AMD Announced the AMD Embedded R-Series Accelerated Processing Unit. This family of products incorporates the Bulldozer CPU architecture, and Discrete-class AMD Radeon™ HD 7000G Series graphics.
AMD Embedded solutions offer 5+ year product life.
- 50x15, digital inclusion, with targeted 50% of world population to be connected through Internet via affordable computers by the year of 2015.
- The Green Grid, founded by AMD together with other founders, such as IBM, Sun and Microsoft, to seek lower power consumption for grids.
- Codenamed SIMFIRE – interoperability testing tool for the Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware (DASH) open architecture.
- AMD develops the AMD CodeXL tool suite which includes a GPU debugger, a GPU profiler, a CPU profiler and an OpenCL static kernel analyzer. CodeXL is freely available at AMD developer tools website.
- AMD Stream SDK and AMD APP SDK (Accelerated Parallel Processing) SDK to enable AMD graphics processing cores (GPU), working in concert with the system’s x86 cores (CPU), to execute heterogeneously to accelerate many applications beyond just graphics
- AMD has also taken an active part in developing coreboot, and open source projects aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware.
- Other AMD software includes the AMD Core Math Library, and open-source software including the AMD Performance Library, and the CodeAnalyst performance profiler.
- AMD contributes to open source projects, including working with Sun Microsystems to enhance OpenSolaris and Sun xVM on the AMD platform. AMD also maintains its own Open64 compiler distribution and contributes its changes back to the community.
- In 2008, AMD released the low-level programming specifications for its GPUs, and works with the X.Org Foundation to develop drivers for AMD graphics cards.
- Extensions for software parallelism (xSP), aimed at speeding up programs to enable multi-threaded and multi-core processing, announced in Technology Analyst Day 2007. One of the initiatives being discussed since August 2007 is the Light Weight Profiling (LWP), providing internal hardware monitor with runtimes, to observe information about executing process and help the re-design of software to be optimized with multi-core and even multi-threaded programs. Another one is the extension of Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) instruction set, the SSE5.
Production and fabrication
Ever since the spin-off of AMD's fabrication plants in early 2009, GlobalFoundries has been responsible for producing AMD's processors.
GlobalFoundries' main microprocessor manufacturing facilities are located in Dresden, Germany. Additionally, highly integrated microprocessors are manufactured in Taiwan made by third-party manufacturers under strict license from AMD. Between 2003 and 2005, they constructed a second manufacturing plant (300 mm 90 nm process SOI) in the same complex in order to increase the number of chips they could produce, thus becoming more competitive with Intel. The new plant was named "Fab 36", in recognition of AMD's 36 years of operation, and reached full production in mid-2007. Fab 36 was renamed to "Fab 1" during the spin-off of AMD's manufacturing business during the creation of GlobalFoundries. In July 2007, AMD announced that they completed the conversion of Fab 1 Module 1 from 90 nm to 65 nm. They then shifted their focus to the 45 nm conversion.
AMD utilizes strategic industry partnerships to further its business interests as well as to rival Intel's dominance and resources.
A partnership between AMD and Alpha Processor Inc. developed HyperTransport, a point-to-point interconnect standard which was turned over to an industry standards body for finalization. It is now used in modern motherboards that are compatible with AMD processors.
AMD also formed a strategic partnership with IBM, under which AMD gained silicon on insulator (SOI) manufacturing technology, and detailed advice on 90 nm implementation. AMD announced that the partnership would extend to 2011 for 32 nm and 22 nm fabrication-related technologies.
In 1993, AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in 2003. The joint venture went public under the name Spansion and ticker symbol SPSN in December 2005, with AMD shares drop to 37%. AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market now as AMD entered into a non-competition agreement, as of December 21, 2005, with Fujitsu and Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly or indirectly engage in a business that manufactures or supplies standalone semiconductor devices (including single chip, multiple chip or system devices) containing only Flash memory.
On May 18, 2006, Dell announced that it would roll out new servers based on AMD's Opteron chips by year's end, thus ending an exclusive relationship with Intel. In September 2006, Dell began offering AMD Athlon X2 chips in their desktop line-up.
Since 2002, AMD has been a sponsor of the Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro F1 Team. Since 2004, AMD has been a sponsor of the Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team. In 2009, AMD became the jersey sponsor of the USL expansion team Austin Aztex FC.
In June 2011, HP announced new business and consumer notebooks equipped with the latest versions of AMD APUs – accelerated processing units. AMD will power HP's Intel-based business notebooks as well.
In the spring of 2013, AMD announced that it would be powering all three major next-generation consoles. The Xbox One and Sony PlayStation 4 are both powered by a custom-built AMD APU, and the Nintendo Wii U is powered by an AMD GPU. According to AMD, having their processors in all three of these consoles will greatly assist developers with cross-platform development to competing consoles and PCs as well as increased support for their products across the board.
Litigation with Intel
- In 1986 Intel broke an agreement it had with AMD to allow them to produce Intel's micro-chips for IBM; AMD filed for arbitration in 1987 and the arbitrator decided in AMD's favor in 1992. Intel disputed this, and the case ended up in the Supreme Court of California. In 1994, that court upheld the arbitrator's decision and awarded damages for breach of contract.
- In 1990, Intel brought a copyright infringement action alleging illegal use of its 287 microcode. The case ended in 1994 with a jury finding for AMD and its right to use Intel's microcode in its microprocessors through the 486 generation.
- In 1997, Intel filed suit against AMD and Cyrix Corp. for misuse of the term MMX. AMD and Intel settled, with AMD acknowledging MMX as a trademark owned by Intel, and with Intel granting AMD rights to market the AMD K6 MMX processor.
- In 2005, following an investigation, the Japan Federal Trade Commission found Intel guilty on a number of violations. On June 27, 2005, AMD won an antitrust suit against Intel in Japan, and on the same day, AMD filed a broad antitrust complaint against Intel in the U.S. Federal District Court in Delaware. The complaint alleges systematic use of secret rebates, special discounts, threats, and other means used by Intel to lock AMD processors out of the global market. Since the start of this action, the court has issued subpoenas to major computer manufacturers including Acer, Dell, Lenovo, HP and Toshiba.
- In November 2009, Intel agreed to pay AMD $1.25bn and renew a five-year patent cross-licensing agreement as part of a deal to settle all outstanding legal disputes between them.
Events and publications
Although AMD frequently refuses to provide information about upcoming products and plans, it does hold annual Analyst Days to reveal and explain key future technologies, and to present official technology roadmaps. The event held in mid-year is referred to as "Technology Analyst Day", with its main focus on upcoming technologies and trends. The end-of-year event is referred to as "Financial Analyst Day" and focuses on the financial performance of the company through the previous year.
In addition to these events, AMD also publishes printed media. Publications include the AMD Accelerate and the discontinued AMDEdge. The AMD Accelerate magazine, originally published through Ziff Davis Media, focuses on SME and business applications, while AMD Edge focused on overall technologies from AMD. Since Ziff Davis Media filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, the AMD Accelerate magazine has been published through IDG. AMD also has electronic newsletters to promote its server-oriented Opteron processors and related business solutions.
Guinness World Record Achievement
On August 31, 2011, in Austin, Texas, AMD achieved a Guinness World Record for the "Highest frequency of a computer processor": 8.429 GHz. The company ran an 8-core FX-8150 processor with only one active module (two cores), and cooled with liquid helium. The previous record was 8.308 GHz, with an Intel Celeron 352 (one core).
- Rodengen, Jeffrey L. The Spirit of AMD: Advanced Micro Devices. Write Stuff, 1998.
- Ruiz, Hector. Slingshot: AMD's Fight to Free an Industry from the Ruthless Grip of Intel. Greenleaf Book Group, 2013.
- AMD Headquarters. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- "Advanced Micro Devices CEO Rory Read Steps Down". wsj.com. October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "AMD Memory at". Tigerdirect.com. January 3, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "AMD Support Search". Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "AMD Reports 2013 Fourth Quarter and Annual Results". AMD. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- "ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES INC 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 18, 2014.
- Lilly, Paul (May 6, 2011). "Nvidia Leads in Discrete Desktop GPU Market Share, AMD in Notebook Graphics". Maximum PC. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- The other founding members were Ed Turney, John Carey, Sven Simonsen, Jack Gifford and three members from Gifford's team: Frank Botte, Jim Giles, and Larry Stenger.
- Rodengen, p. 30.
- "Fairchild's Offspring". Business Week. August 25, 1997. p. 84.
- Mueller, Scott. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. Que Publishing, 2013. p. 6.
- Malone, Michael S. "Silicon Insider: AMD-Intel Feud Continues". ABC News. April 24, 2003.
- Rodengen, p. 36.
- Pederson, Jay P. International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 30. St. James Press, 2000.
- Rodengen, p. 35.
- Rodengen, pp. 37–38.
- Singer, Graham. "The Rise and Fall of AMD". TechSpot. November 21, 2012.
- Rodengen, pp. 35, 38, 41, 42.
- AMD Corporation. Silicon Valley Historical Association. 2008.
- Rodengen, pp. 36, 38.
- Lojek, Bo. History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media, 2007. p. 220.
- Our History. AMD.com.
- Rodengen, p. 41.
- Electronic Design, Volume 19, Part 3. Hayden Publishing Company, 1971. p. 227.
- Rodengen, pp. 42, 43.
- Rodengen, p. 45.
- Walker, Rob. "Interview with W. Jerry Sanders". Silicon Genesis. Stanford University. October 18, 2002.
- Rodengen, p. 46.
- MOS/LSI Data Book. Advanced Micro Devices, 1980. pp. 5-1, 5-2, B-8.
- Electrical Design News, Volume 19, Issues 13-24. Rogers Publishing Company, 1974. p. 86.
- Rodengen, p. 55.
- Venkata Ram, S.K. Advanced Microprocessor & Microcontrollers. Firewall Media, 2004. p. 3.
- Transcript: Silicon Valley (documentary). American Experience. PBS. 2013.
- "Interview with Shawn and Kim Hailey". Stanford University Libraries. December 29, 1997. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- Rodengen, p. 50.
- Hitt, Michael; Ireland, R. Duane; Hoskisson, Robert. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization, Cases, Volume 2. Cengage Learning, 2008. p. 41.
- Lennon, Michael J. Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements. Aspen Publishers Online, 2007. p. 4-36.
- Pane, Patricia J. and Barbara Darrow. "AMD Asserts Right to Distribute Intel Code". InfoWorld. October 1, 1990. p. 5.
- Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. v. Intel Corp. (1994). No. S033874. December 30, 1994. Justia.com. Accessed October 25, 2014.
- SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934: RELEASE No. 37730. Securities and Exchange Commission. Sec.gov. September 26, 1996. (Accessed October 25, 2014.)
- Malerba, Franco. The Semiconductor Business: The Economics of Rapid Growth and Decline. University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. p. 166.
- Rodengen, pp. 59–60.
- Reindustrialization Or New Industrialization: Minutes of a Symposium, January 13, 1981, Part 3. National Academies, 1981. p. 53.
- Rodengen, p. 60.
- ADVANCED MICRO COMPUTERS, INC.. CaliforniaFirm.us.
- ADVANCED MICRO COMPUTERS, INC.. CaliforniaCompaniesList.com.
- Freiberger, Paul. "AMD sued for alleged misuse of subsidiary's secrets". InfoWorld. June 20, 1983. p. 28.
- Mini-micro Systems, Volume 15. Cahners Publishing Company, 1982. p. 286.
- Rodengen, p. 62.
- "Siemens and Advanced Micro Devices Agree to Split Joint Venture". Wall Street Journal. February 14, 1979. p. 38.
- Rodengen, p. 73.
- Swaine, Michael. "Eight Companies to produce the 8086 chip". InfoWorld. November 30, 1981. p. 78.
- Rodengen, p. 59.
- Hitt, Michael; Ireland, R. Duane; Hoskisson, Robert. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. Cengage Learning, 2006. p. C-26.
- Rodengen, pp. 65, 71–72, 79–80.
- Sanchez, Julio and Maria P. Canton. Software Solutions for Engineers and Scientists. CRC Press, 2007. p. 95.
- AMD 8086 microprocessor family, CPU World. (Accessed November 3, 2014.)
- Ziberg, Christian. "Timeline: How AMD changed over the past 39 years". TGDaily. October 7, 2008.
- International Directory of Company Histories. 1992.
- Rodengen, pp. 73, 78–80.
- Rodengen, p. 80.
- Levering, Robert; Moskowitz, Milton; Katz, Michael. The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America. Addison-Wesley, 1984.
- 1985 Full list. Fortune 500. Fortune archive.
- Rodengen, p. 85.
- Rodengen, pp. 85–87.
- Rodengen, pp. 86, 90, 95, 99.
- Rodengen, pp. 90–91.
- Rodengen, pp. 87–88, 97–99.
- Rodengen, p. 97.
- Rodengen, p. 91.
- Computer Design, Volume 25, Issues 13-22. Computer Design Publishing Corporation, 1986. p. 14.
- Rodengen, p. 100.
- Mann, Daniel (1995), Evaluating and Programming the 29K RISC Family, Advanced Micro Devices, archived from the original on September 27, 2007
- Pflanz, Matthias. On-line Error Detection and Fast Recover Techniques for Dependable Embedded Processors. Springer Science & Business Media, 2002. p. 23.
- Rodengen, pp. 121–122.
- AMD. PC Encyclopedia. PC Magazine.
- Ruiz. p. 20.
- Ruiz, pp. 54–55.
- Spooner, John G. "AMD, Fujitsu merge on flash memory". CNET. July 14, 2003.
- Yi, Matthew. "Spansion spun off by AMD". San Francisco Chronicle. December 17, 2005.
- "AMD Completes ATI Acquisition and Creates Processing Powerhouse". NewsWire. October 25, 2006.[dead link]
- "ATI to be re-branded as AMD – branding, ATI Radeon, ati, amd – ARN". Arnnet.com.au. August 30, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- "Justice Dept. subpoenas AMD, NVIDIA". CNET. December 1, 2006.
- Vance, Ashlee (October 7, 2008). "A.M.D. to Split Into Two Operations". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- "AMD To Fire 1,400". November 4, 2011.
- Dylan McGrath, EE Times. "Former IBM, Lenovo exec takes the helm at AMD". August 25, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Ian King (October 18, 2012), Tom Giles, ed., AMD Forecast Misses Estimates; to Cut 15 Percent of Staff, Bloomberg, retrieved October 31, 2012
- Ashlee Vance (October 30, 2012), "AMD Finds the Courage for Another Server Chip Gambit", Bloomberg Businessweek, businessweek.com, retrieved October 31, 2012
- "SeaMicro". SeaMicro. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
- A.M.D names Lisa Su as chief executive, Bits-Blogs, NYTimes October 8, 2014
- , Newsroom, AMD October 16th, 2014
- Greg Tang (13 February 2011). "Intel and the x86 Architecture: A Legal Perspective". JOLT Digest.
- "AMD K5". CPU-INFO.COM. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
- Hesseldahl, Arik (July 6, 2000). "Why Cool Chip Code Names Die". Forbes Inc. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
- Colapinto, John (3 Oct 2011). "Famous names". The New Yorker. pp. 38–43. Retrieved 12 Oct 2011.
- Huynh, Jack (February 10, 2003). "The AMD Athlon XP Processor with 512KB L2 Cache" (PDF). amd.com (AMD). Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
- Scott Wasson. "Workstation platforms compared", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., September 15, 2003, Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
- Scott Wasson. "AMD's Athlon 64 processor", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., September 23, 2003. Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
- Scott Wasson. "AMD's dual-core Opteron processors", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., April 21, 2005. Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
- Scott Wasson. "AMD's Athlon 64 X2 processors", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., May 9, 2005. Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
- AMD announcement. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
- Stokes, Jon (February 8, 2010). "AMD reveals Fusion CPU+GPU, to challege Intel in laptops". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Hruska, Joel (July 16, 2010). "AMD Flip-Flops: Llano Later, Bobcat Bounding Forward". HotHardware.
- Jeffrey Burt, eWeek. "AMD Cuts Q3 Forecast Due to Chip Manufacturing Problems". September 28, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Bulldozer 50% Faster than Core i7 and Phenom II, techPowerUp, retrieved January 23, 2012
- Analyzing Bulldozer: Why AMD’s chip is so disappointing, www.extremetech.com, retrieved November 30, 2013
- Lab Tested: AMD's Bulldozer Packs Plenty Of Cores, But Not Enough Power, Pc world, October 12, 2011, retrieved November 30, 2013
- "Can AMD survive Bulldozer’s disappointing debut?". ars technica. October 20, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Rose, Brent (February 3, 2012). "AMD Mobile Processors Coming This Year". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Andrew Cunningham (June 18, 2013), "AMD announces its first 64-bit, 8- and 16-core, ARM-based server SoCs", Bloomberg Businessweek, arstechnica.com, retrieved June 18, 2013
- Official Press Release (AMD Live! Ready and Active TV initiative)
- Official Press Release (AMD Quad FX Platform with Dual Socket Direct Connect Architecture Redefines High-End Computing for Megatasking Enthusiasts)
- AMD Server/Workstation platform roadmap, Retrieved October 4, 2008
- "AMD press release".
- "AMD IOMMU specification 1.2" (PDF).
- AMD Analyst Day presentation[dead link], page 24. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
- "Jack PC page".
- "Intel Geneseo press release".[dead link]
- AMD Financial Analyst Day 2007 presentation[dead link], presented by Mario Rivas, page 24 of 28. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- "AMD Alchemy processor product line acquired by Raza Microelectronics". TechNews (technologynewsdaily.com). June 14, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2007.[dead link]
- AMD Embedded Solutions that are scalable, x86- based, low-power and feature-rich products. Amd.com (November 5, 2010). Retrieved on November 9, 2010.
- "AMD Embedded R-Series Platform". AMD (amd.com). July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "The Green Grid website".
- "AMD Expands Charter for the OpenSolaris OS and Sun xVM at the AMD Operating System Research Center" (Press release). AMD. May 5, 2008.
- "x86 Open64 Compiler Suite". AMD. April 20, 2009.
- "AMD Details Strategic Open Source Graphics Driver Development Initiative" (Press release). AMD. September 7, 2007.
- "Index of /docs/AMD". x.org.
- Rick C. Hodgin. While AMD was in the progression to 45 nm, its rival Intel Corp was one year ahead in manufacturing technology and releasing its 32 nm technology (Intel "tick-tock" advancement roadmap) "Wrap-up: AMD outlines a bright future at Technology Analyst Day", tgdaily.com, Tigervision Media, July 26, 2007, pp.4. Retrieved on July 29, 2007.
- AMD Analyst Day June 2006 Presentation, slide 10[dead link]
- "Press release".[dead link]
- Rik Myslewski, ChannelRegister. "Intel, AMD in HP notebook smackdown Which is faster? 'You tell me' says AMD". June 17, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- Poeter, Damon (May 21, 2013). "AMD Hits Game Console Trifecta With Xbox One | News & Opinion". PCMag.com. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "AMD Game Console Triple Crown: Will There Be Profits?". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "AMD say "PC ports of next-generation console titles are likely to struggle" on Intel tech | News, Tech, Tech News". PC Gamer. June 7, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "AMD-INTEL LITIGATION HISTORY" (PDF). AMD. Archived from the original on January 8, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
- "Summary U.S. antitrust complaint against Intel" (PDF).
- "Full text of U.S. antitrust complaint against Intel" (PDF).
- "Intel, AMD Settle Legal Disputes[dead link]"
- AMD Financial Analyst Day 2007 page. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- Peter Clarke, EE Times. "AMD 'clocks' FX processor at 8.429-GHz". September 13, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- Maximum Speed AMD FX Processor Takes Guinness World Record (video), youtube, September 12, 2011, retrieved November 7, 2012
During the video, cooling transitions from air to water to liquid nitrogen and finally to liquid helium.
- Matthew Humprhires, Geek.com. "AMD clocks FX-8150 at 8.461-GHz". November 1, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Lezhnev, Sasha; Alex Hellmuth (August 2012). "Taking Conflict Out of Consumer Gadgets: Company Rankings on Conflict Minerals 2012" (PDF). Enough Project. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to AMD.|