|Nickname(s): Fort City|
|• Body||Vellore Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||P. Karthiyayini (AIADMK)|
|• Mayor||P. Karthiyayini Ph.D|
|• MLA||V. S. Vijay, ex Minister of Health in Jayalalithaa's cabinet|
|Elevation||216 m (709 ft)|
|• Density||701/km2 (1,820/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||632001 632002 632003 632004 632005 632006 632007 632008 632009 632010 632011 632012 632013 632014 632055 632057 632059|
|Telephone code||91- 416|
|Vehicle registration||TN 23, TN 73|
|Planning agency||Vellore Municipal Corporation|
|Avg. summer temperature||45 °C (113 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||10 °C (50 °F)|
Vellore is the administrative headquarters of Vellore District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is on the banks of Palar River and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Rashtrakutas, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. It is about 145 kilometres (90 mi) west of the state capital Chennai and about 82 kilometres (51 mi) east of Tiruvannamalai. Tanneries and service sector industries contribute to the economy. The people are employed in industries in and outside the city.
Being the district headquarters, Vellore accommodates the district administration offices, government educational institutes, colleges and schools. Vellore is a part of Vellore constituency (Vellore East and Vellore West) and elects its member of legislative assembly every five years, and a part of the Vellore constituency that elects its member of parliament. The city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 2008 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Vellore covers an area of 1,054 ha (10.54 km2) and had a population of 177,413 in 2001. The provisional population totals of the 2011 census indicate the population of the urban agglomeration is 185,895. Roadways are the major mode of transport to the city, while it has rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Chennai International Airport, 135 km away.
In Tamil, the word vel means spear that is seen as the weapon of Hindu god Murugan and oor means place. As per Hindu legend, Murugan is seen as a tribal hunter who appeared in a lotus pond with his weapon to attack the enemies. Thus "Vellore" is seen as the place where Murugan appeared.
As per another legend, the region was surrounded by Velan trees (Babul trees), resulting in the place to be called Vellore.
The recorded history of Vellore dates back to the ninth century, as seen from a Chola inscriptions in the Annamalaiyar Temple in Tiruvannamalai. Further inscriptions made before ninth century indicate the rule of Pallava kings, whose capital was Kanchipuram.
The Chola Kings ruled over the region from 850 to 1280. After the rule of Cholas, it came under the Rashtrakutas, the later Cholas and Vijayanagar kings. The Vellore Fort was built during the time of Chinna Bomma Nayak, a subordinate of Vijayanagar kings Sadasivaraja and Srirangaraja during the third quarter of the 16th century.
During the 17th century, Vellore came under the dominion of the Nawab of the Carnatic. As the Mughal empire came to an end, the Nawab lost control of the town, with confusion and chaos ensuing after 1753. Subsequently, there were periods of Hindu and Muslim stewardship of the region. The poligars were opposing British rule but were subdued. During the first half of the 19th century, the town came under British rule.
As of the provisional population totals of 2011 census, Vellore urban agglomeration had a population of 185,895, with 91,464 males and 94,431 females. The sex ratio was 1032 females per 1,000 males. Vellore had an average literacy rate of 86.67% with a male literacy of 91.68% and a female literacy of 81.84%. A total of 18,363 of the population of the town was under 6 years of age.
As of the census of India 2001, there were 36,728 households. A total of 20,531 people constituting 13.96% of the total population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 340 people constituting 0.22% of the population belong to Scheduled tribes (ST). There were 57,905 main workers: 171 cultivators, 257 agricultural labourers, 6,237 in house hold industries and 51,240 other workers. There were 2,674 marginal workers: 23 marginal cultivators, 60 marginal agricultural labourers, 796 in marginal workers in household industries and 1,795 other marginal workers. The decrease in the population growth during the 1981-2001 period is attributed to the migration to other cities in search of employment and fewer job opportunities at home.
As of 2001, out of the total area, 69.88% of the land is marked developed and 31.12% of the city remains undeveloped. Out of the developed area, 55.76% is used for residential purposes, 8.34% for commercial, 1.58% for industrial, 3.3% for educational, 16.46% for public and semi public and 10.12% for transport and communication. The population density is not uniform: It is high in areas like Arugandhampoondi and lower in the peripheral areas such as Poonthottam. The average density of the city is 241 persons per hectare.
Vellore is at Chennai. Vellore lies in the Eastern Ghats region and Palar river basin. The topography is almost plain with slopes from west to east. There are no notable mineral resources. Black loam soil is found in parts of Vellore Taluk. The other type of soil in the city is chiefly gravelly, stony and sandy of the red variety., 220m above the mean sea level. The city has a semi-arid climate with high temperatures throughout the year and relatively low rainfall. It is in Vellore district of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu, 135 km (84 mi) west if the state capital
Vellore experiences hot and dry weather throughout the year. The temperature ranges from a maximum of 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) to a minimum of 18.4 °C (65.1 °F). Like the rest of the state, April to June are the hottest months and December to January are the coldest. Vellore receives 996.7 mm (39.24 in) of rainfall every year. The southwest monsoon, with an onset in June and lasting up to August, brings scanty rainfall. The bulk of the rainfall is received during the northeast monsoon in October, November and December. The humidity ranges from 40%–63% during summer and 67%–86% during winter.
|Climate data for Vellore (2000–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.3
|Average high °C (°F)||29.2
|Average low °C (°F)||18.2
|Record low °C (°F)||10.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||9.0
|Avg. precipitation days||0.8||0.5||0.4||1.3||4.7||5.3||6.6||7.8||7.6||9.4||7.7||3.9||56|
|Source: India Meteorological Department,|
According to Indian Census of 2001, the urban workforce participation rate of Vellore is 43.64%. Vellore, being the headquarters of the district, has registered growth in the tertiary sector activities, with a corresponding decrease in the primary sector. Major employment is provided by the leather industry, agricultural trading and industries in and around the city. Approximately 83.35% of the workforce is employed in tertiary sector comprising transport, services and commerce. The secondary sector activities like manufacturing and household industries employs 13.52% of the workforce. Male workers participation (43.64%) is high compared to the female work participation (24.39%). The city and its nearby industrial towns have registered steady industrial growth following the development of South Asia's second railway line between Chennai, Royapuram and Walajapet. The Golden Quadrilateral road has significantly increased the region's industrial activity.
Hundreds of leather and tannery facilities are around Vellore and nearby towns, such as Ranipet, Ambur and Vaniyambadi. The Vellore district is the top exporter of finished leather goods in the country. Vellore leather accounts for more than 37% of the country's export of leather and leather-related products (such as finished leathers, shoes, garments and gloves). Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is one of the nine major government owned enterprises in the nation. The Boiler Auxiliaries Plant of BHEL in Ranipet is the industrial hub of Vellore. Chemical plants in the Ranipet-SIPCOT economic zone are a major source of income to the residents of Vellore. EID Parry is a sanitary-ware manufacturing company with 38% of the world's market share in bathroom accessories. Tirumalai Chemicals and Greaves are among the international brands that have their manufacturing units in the city. Automobile and mechanical companies of global Brands, including SAME Deutz-Fahr, TVS–Brakes India, Mitsubishi, Greaves Cotton and MRF have their manufacturing units in the area. Brakes India Sholingur's foundry division is located at Vellore-Sholingur and is a major employer in the area.
Asia's biggest explosives manufacturing company, Tamil Nadu Explosives Limited (TEL), is in Vellore at Katpadi. This is India's only government explosives company with more than a thousand employees.[clarification needed] The company is headed by a senior Indian Administrative Service officer. Kramski Stamping and Molding India Pvt Ltd, a German precision metal and plastic integrated-component manufacturing company with automotive, telecommunications, electronics and medical applications is in Erayankadu, near Vellore. Major businesses in the city center are on Officer's Line, Town Hall Road, Long Bazaar and Bangalore, Scudder, Arni, Gandhi and Katpadi Roads. Many boarding and lodging houses are in and around Scudder and Gandhi Roads. Microsoft Corporation (India) Pvt. Ltd. announced the launch of 14 Microsoft Innovation Centers (MICs) in India. Trichy, Vellore, Coimbatore, Madurai and Salem in Tamil Nadu.
Christian Medical College & Hospital (CMCH), on Ida Scudder Road in the heart of the city, is Vellore's largest private employer and has a large floating population from other parts of India and abroad. Lodging, hospitals and allied businesses are among the major sources of income generated in the central part of the city. The Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital (VMCH) is located at Adukamparai in Vellore. With the advent of hospitals such as Apollo KH Hospitals in Melvisharam and Sri Narayani Medical Research Center in Sripuram, coupled with colleges such as CMC & VIT and other engineering and science colleges, the health care industry is growing rapidly.
The mainstay for people in the rural areas, more than agriculture, is industries such as weaving, beedi and matchstick rolling. The Indian Army has a number of recruits from the Vellore district (especially from Kammavanpet, which is known as "the military village") and military spending is a major sources of income.
Vellore is considered a prominent destination for medical and technological education in India. It has a state-government university, a private technological university, one government and one private medical school and several engineering and arts and science colleges.
The country's first stem-cell translational research centre was established in Vellore in December 2005. The central government's biotechnology department selected the Christian Medical College (CMC) as the first in a series of centers, since it already had world-class clinical hematology and biochemistry departments. The college has made a breakthrough which attracted the attention of the country's medical and scientific community: the Centre for Stem Cell Research at the Christian Medical College succeeded in reprogramming cells from adult mice to make them function like stem cells found in the human embryo. The agricultural research station at Virinjipuram is in the Northeastern Zone of Tamil Nadu. It is one of 32 research stations of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU). The Government of India-sponsored National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) scheme has been in operation since October 1997, with the main objective being trials of conservation measures conducted in water and soil of 18 watersheds in the Vellore and Tiruvannamalai districts.
Thiruvalluvar University was split off from the University of Madras, previously in the Vellore Fort campus. Nearly all the government-run arts and science colleges in Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Villupuram and Cuddalore districts are affiliated with Thiruvalluvar University. Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology is the only government engineering college in Vellore. The Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) has been ranked best private engineering university in India by the magazine India Today.
Auxilium Women's College (founded in 1954) is the first women's college in Vellore district; Other arts and sciences colleges in the city are the Dhanabakyam Krishnaswamy Mudhaliar Women's College (DKM) near Sainathapuram and the Muthurangam Government Arts College (MGAC) in Otteri, near Bagayam. Voorhees College (founded 1898) is the oldest college in the district and known as the institution where S. Radhakrishnan (former president of India) studied; a commemorative stamp for the centenary of the college was issued by the government of India. C. Abdul Hakeem College is in Melvisharam. Arignar Anna Arts College for Women(AAA) is located in Walajapet.
The Government Law College in Vellore was established in 2008. It offers a three-year Bachelor of Laws (BL) degree with an annual intake of 80 students. The college is in Katpadi, Vellore. There are several Arabic colleges in Vellore such as the Madrasa Al-Baqiyathus Salihath (Arabic: مدرسة الباقيات الصالحات ), popularly known as Baaqiyaath, founded by A'la Hadrat Maulana Shah Abdul Wahab, which is the second oldest Arabic college in India after Darul Uloom Deoband in Uttar Pradesh.
Vellore Fort is the most prominent landmark in the city. During British rule, Tipu Sultan's family and the last king of Sri Lanka, Vikrama Rajasinha, were held as royal prisoners in the fort. The fort houses a church, a mosque and a Hindu temple, the latter known for its carvings. The first rebellion against British rule erupted at this fort in 1806, and it witnessed the massacre of the Vijayanagara royal family of Emperor Sriranga Raya. The fortifications consist of a main rampart, broken at irregular intervals by round towers and rectangular projections. The main walls are built of massive granite stones, surrounded by a broad moat fed with water by subterranean pipes from the Suryagunta reservoir.
Within the fort is the similarly aged Jalakanteswara Temple. It is a noteworthy example of military architecture in South India. The fort houses the Tipu Mahal where Tipu Sultan is believed to have stayed with his family during the war with the British; the graves of Tipu's sons are found at Vellore. It is administered by the Archeological Survey of India. Vellore Fort has been declared a Monument of National Importance and is a noted tourist attraction.
The State Government Museum is inside the fort. It was opened to the public in 1985. It consists of objects of art, archaeology, prehistory, weapons, sculptures, bronzes, wood carvings, handicrafts, numismatics, philately, botany, geology and zoology. Historical monuments of the erstwhile composite North Arcot District are contained in the gallery. Special exhibits include a bronze double sword from Vellore Taluk dating to 400 BC, stone sculptures from the late Pallava to Vijayanagar periods, ivory chess boards and coins used by the last Kandian King of Sri Lanka, Vikrama Raja Singha. Educational activities at the museum include an art camp for school students and the study of inscriptions and iconography for college students.
Jalakandeswarar Temple, Srilakshmi Golden Temple, and the Wallajapet Dhanvantri Temple and Ponnai Navagraha Kottai Temple are among the temples in Vellore. Sri Lakshmi Temple, popularly known as Golden Temple, is a newly built temple and spiritual park in Thirumalaikodi, Vellore. It is approximately 8 km from the Vellore bus terminus. The temple covers an area of 100 acres and has been constructed by Vellore-based Sri Narayani Peedam headed by Sakthi Amma. It has intricate carvings, hand-made by hundreds of gold artisans specializing in temple architecture. The exterior is laid with gold sheets and plates, with construction reported to have cost Rs.300 crores (US$65 million). About 1,500 kg of gold was used, the largest amount in the world.
Ratnagiri Murugan Temple is another prominent Hindu temple in the city. Assumption Cathedral and the 150-year-old St. John's Church inside the fort are among the churches in Vellore. The Big Mosque, in the heart of the city, houses the largest Arabic college in India.
The Vellore municipality maintains 104.332 km (64.829 mi) of roads. It has 50.259 km (31.229 mi) concrete roads, 6.243 km (3.879 mi) kutcha roads and 47.88 km (29.75 mi) bituminous road. The National Highways passing through Vellore are NH 46 (Bangalore - Chennai road) and NH 4 from Ranipet to Chennai and the Cuddalore-Chittoor.
Vellore is connected with major cities in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Bus service is available to Chennai, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Tirupathi, Salem, Chittoor, Hosur, Nagercoil, Cuddalore, Kurnool, Trichy, Thiruvannamalai, Villupuram, Kanyakumari, Arani, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Kanchipuram, Kalpakkam, Gudiyatham, Dharmapuri, Erode, Tirupur, Palakkad, Krishnagiri, Gingee and other major towns and cities in South India. Vellore is served by a city bus service, which connects the city, suburbs and other places of interest. The bus service extends about 30 km from the city center. There are two bus terminals: the Town Bus Terminus (opposite the fort and near CMC Hospital) and the Central Bus Terminus (Near Green Circle). Other bus terminals are located at Chittor Bus Stand (near VIT Road), Bagayam and Katpadi(Junction bus stop). The bus stands are maintained by the Vellore Municipal Corporation.
Vellore city has three main railway stations: Katpadi junction, Vellore Cantonment and Vellore Town. The largest is Vellore-Katpadi Junction, 5 km north of CMC hospital. This is a major railway junction on the Chennai-Bangalore broad-gauge line running to Chennai, Bangalore, Tirupati and Trichy. There are direct rail links to Vijayawada Junction, Tirupati, Bhubaneswar, Nagpur, Bangalore, Bhopal Junction, Mumbai, Mangalore, Tiruchchirapalli, Bilaspur, Korba, Patna, Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Kanniyakumari, Shirdi, Kanpur, Gaya, Dhanbad, Jammu Tawi, Madurai, Bhilai, Gwalior, Chennai Central, Howrah Station, New Delhi Railway Station, Coimbatore, Guwahati, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode, Jaipur and other major cities. More than 150 trains cross the Vellore-Katpadi Junction daily.
Vellore Cantonment is in Suriyakulam on the Villupuram-Tirupati broad gauge line, 8 km from Katpadi Junction. EMU and passenger trains to Tirupati, Chennai and Arakonnam depart from here. The 150-km broad gauge line was extended to Villupuram in January 2010 and connects Vellore and South Tamil Nadu; however, as of October 2010[update] it was not serviced by passenger trains. The line was opened for goods trains in June 2010. An EMU from Vellore Cantonment to Chennai Central was introduced on December 22, 2008. Vellore Town Station is in Konavattam on the line connecting Katpadi Junction with Villipuram Junction via Tiruvannamalaijunction.
The city has an airport near Abdullapuram; as of 2010[update] it was not open to the public and was used for aeronautical training programmes. The nearest international airports are Chennai International Airport (130 km) and Bengaluru International Airport (200 km); the nearest domestic airport is Tirupati Airport (100 km).
Electricity supply to Vellore is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city and its suburbs forms the Vellore Electricity Distribution Circle. A chief distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters. Water supply is provided by the Vellore municipal corporation from the Palar river through Palar headworks and Karungamputhur headworks and distributed through ten overhead tanks. As of 2005, there were 16,371 connections against 33,772 households. In 2000–2001, a total of 7.4 million litres of water was supplied daily for households in the city. The other sources of water are Otteri Lake, Sathuvancheri town panchayat, Ponnai and stree bore wells.
As per the municipal data for 2011, about 83 metric tonnes of solid waste were collected from Vellore every day by door-to-door collection. The source segregation and dumping was carried out by the sanitary department of the Vellore municipal corporation. The municipal corporation covered 16 wards for waste collection as of 2001. There is no underground drainage system and the sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences. The municipal corporation maintained 145 km (90 mi) of storm water drains in 2011. As of 2011, 24 government and private hospitals and one veterinary hospital take care of the health care needs of the citizens. As of 2011, the municipal corporation maintained 5,241 street lamps: 735 sodium lamps, 73 mercury vapour lamps, 4,432 tube lights and one high mast beam lamp. The municipal corporation operates the Nethaji Daily Market that caters to the needs of the city and the rural areas around it.
Municipal administration and politics
|municipal corporation officials|
|Commissioner||P. Janaki Raveendran|
|Deputy Mayor||Dharmalingam |
|Member of Legislative Assembly||V. S. Vijay|
|Member of Parliament||Abdul Rahman|
Vellore is the headquarters of the Vellore District. The town was constituted as a third-grade municipality in 1866, promoted to first-grade during 1947, selection-grade from 1970 and a municipal corporation from 1 August 2008. The Vellore municipal corporation has 60 wards and there is an elected councillor for each of those wards.  The functions of the municipal corporation are devolved into six departments: general administration/personnel, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, city planning and Information Technology (IT). All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the executive head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 60 members, one each from the 60 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.
Vellore is a part of the Vellore and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years.  From the 1977 elections, All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) won the assembly seat once (in 1977 elections), four times by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (in 1980, 1984 and 1989), twice by Indian National Congress (INC) (in 1991 and 2001 elections) and twice by Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC) (in 1996 and 2001 elections). The current MLA of Vellore constituency is V.S.Vijay from the ADMK party.
Vellore is a part of the Vellore (Lok Sabha constituency). It had the following six assembly constituencies before 2009 delimitation: Katpadi, Gudiyatham, Pernambut (SC), Anaicut, Vellore and Arni. After delimitation, it is currently composed of Vellore, Anaicut, Kilvazhithunaiankuppam (SC), Gudiyatham, Vaniyambadi and Ambur
The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is Abdul Rahman from the DMK party. From 1951, the Vellore parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress for four times (during 1957, 1962, 1989 and 1991 elections), ADMK once (during 1984 elections), CWL once (during 1951 elections), and independent once (during 1980 elections), Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam five times (during the 1967, 1971, 1996, 2004 and 2009 elections), once each by NCO (during 1977 elections) and twice by Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) (during 1998 and 1999 elections). The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is P. Kumar from the ADMK party.
Law and order is maintained by the Vellore subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police headed by a deputy superintendent. There are four police stations in the town, with one of them being an all-women station. There are special units like prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division headed by a superintendent of police.
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- Official Government Site
- When the Vellore sepoys rebelled
- HISTORIC MONUMENTS IN VELLORE DISTRICT
- Sambuvarayar period stone inscription found
- Neolithic tools discovered
- Tamil Nadu Prison Department