Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
Ahmed Raza Khan
|Born||14 June 1856|
|Died||1921 (aged 64–65)|
|Main interest(s)||Aqeedah, Fiqh, Tasawwuf|
Ameen Mian Qaudri, India
Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان بریلوی, Hindi: अहमद रज़ा खान, 1856–1921 CE or 10 October 1272__25 February 1340 AH, born & died Bareilly, UP), known as Aala Hazrat, was a Hanafi Sunni who founded the Barelvi movement of South Asia. Raza Khan wrote on numerous topics, including law, religion, philosophy and the sciences. He was a prolific writer, producing nearly 1,000 works in his lifetime.
Ahmad was born on 14 June 1856 in Jasuli, one of the areas of Bareilly Sharif, united India. His birth name is Mohammad however his grandfather called him Ahmad Raza and his mother named him Amman Miyān. He became famous with the name which was kept by his grandfather Khan used the appellation "Abdul Mustafa" (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence. He studied Islamic sciences and completed a traditional Dars-i-Nizami course under the supervision of his father Naqī Áli Khān, who was a legal scholar. He went on the Hajj with his father in 1878.
Ahmed Raza Khan's beliefs regarding Muhammad include:
- Muhammad, although human, possessed a noor (light) that predates creation. This contrasts with the Deobandi view that Muhammad was insan-e-kamil ("the complete man"), a respected but physically typical human.
- He is haazir naazir (can be present in many places at the same time, as opposed to God, who is everywhere by definition).
- God has granted him ilm-e-ghaib (the knowledge of the unseen).
Raza Khan wrote:
We do not hold that anyone can equal the knowledge of Allah Most High, or possess it independently, nor do we assert that Allah’s giving of knowledge to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is anything but a part. But what a patent and tremendous difference between one part [the Prophet’s] and another [anyone else’s]: like the difference between the sky and the earth, or rather even greater and more immense.—Ahmed Raza Khan, al-Dawla al-Makkiyya (c00), 291.
Opposition to other sects
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi (messiah) awaited by the Muslims as well as a new prophet. These claims proved to be extremely controversial among many in the Muslim community, and he was branded a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmed Raza Khan. Ghulam Ahmad's claims are controversial to this day, but his Mahdi status and prophethood is believed in by the Ahmadiyya sect. Though, Pakistan in 1974, have officially declared the Ahmadiyya sect non-Muslims.
When Ahmed Raza visited Mecca and Medina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled Al Motamad Al Mustanad ("The Reliable Proofs") for presentation to the scholars of Mecca and Medina. Ahmed Raza Khan collected opinions of the ulama of the Hejaz and compiled them in an Arabic language compendium with the title, Husam al Harmain ("The Sword of Two Sanctuaries"), a work containing 34 verdicts from 33 ulama (20 Meccan and 13 Medinese). In that work, which was to inspire a reciprocal series of fatwas between Barelvis and Deobandis lasting to the present, Ahmad Raza denounced as kuffar the Deobandi leaders Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi.
Opposition to heterodox practices
Raza Khan condemned many practices he saw as bid'at (forbidden innovations), such as:
- Qawali (religious music) and Sufi whirling, which he opposed as un-Islamic. Khan issued a fatwa in which he quoted the sayings of the Chisti Sufi order demonstrating their view that musical instruments are forbidden in Islam.
- Tawaf (ceremonially walking in circles around a holy site ) of tombs.
- Sajda (prostration) on Shrines and Tombs to those other than God
- Ta'zieh, plays re-enacting religious scenes
- Women going to visit mazar (tombs)
- Raza opposed labeling then-British held India to be Dar al-Harb ("land of war"), thus opposing any justification of jihad (struggle) or hijrat (mass emigration to escape) against the proposed plans of the Deobandiyya Movement who wished to begin jihaad. Raza's stance was opposed by Deobandi scholars such as Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi.
- Raza Khan opposed the belief in a heliocentric system, instead stating that the sun and moon circulate around the Earth.
- Hamid Raza Khan
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
- Akhtar Raza Khan
- Qamaruzzaman Azmi
- Syed Waheed Ashraf
- Muhammad Ilyas Qadri
- Hayat-e-Aala Hadhrat, vol.1 p.1
- Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World (2011), p. 113. Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 9780761479291
- Globalisation, Religion & Development (2011), p. 53. Farhang Morady and İsmail Şiriner (eds.). London: International Journal of Politics and Economics.
- Rowena Robinson (2005) Tremors of Violence: Muslim Survivors of Ethnic Strife in Western India, p. 191. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, ISBN 0761934081
- Roshen Dalal (2010) The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, p. 51. Revised edition. City of Westminster: Penguin Books, ISBN 9780143415176
- Barbara D. Metcalf (2009) Islam in South Asia in Practice, p. 342. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism (2007), p. 92. Oliver Roy and Antoine Sfeir (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press.
- Gregory C. Doxlowski and Usha Sanyal (Oct–Dec 1999). "Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and His Movement, 1870–1920". Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (4): 707–709. doi:10.2307/604866. JSTOR 604866.
- Elizabeth Sirriyeh (1999) Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World, p. 49. London: Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1058-2.
- Usha Sanyal (1998). "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century". Modern Asian Studies 32 (3): 635. doi:10.1017/S0026749X98003059.
- Ali Riaz (2008) Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia, p. 75. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 9780813543451
- Usha Sanyal (1996). Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-563699-4.
- Malfuzaat e A'ala Hadrat. Dawateislami.net (2009-11-08). Retrieved on 2012-06-01.
- Ala Hadhrat by Bastawi, p. 25
- Man huwa Ahmed Rida by Shaja'at Ali al-Qadri, p.15
- Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 1 September 2010. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Pakistan perspectives, Volume 7. Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 2002
- Akbar S. Ahmed (1999) Islam today: a short introduction to the Muslim world. I.B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9
- N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal (2009) Urban Terrorism : Myths And Realities. Publisher Pointer Publishers, ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6, p. 67
- Zahid Aziz, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam (2008) A survey of the Lahore Ahmadiyya movement: history, beliefs, aims and work. A.a.i.i.l. (u.k.), ISBN 978-1-906109-03-5. p. 43
- Ahkame Shariat part 1 pp. 33–34 Fatwa No 18
- Ahkame Shariat part 3 pp. 2–3
- Ahkame Shariat part 1
- Qanoon-e-Shariat Part1
- R. Upadhyay, Barelvis and Deobandhis: "Birds of the Same Feather". Eurasia Review, courtesy of the South Asia Analysis Group. 28 January 2011.
- M. Naeem Qureshi. Pan-Islam in British Indian politics: a study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. BRILL, 1999. ISBN 978-90-04-11371-8. p. 179
- Fauz e Mubeen Dar Radd e Harkat e Zamin. Alahazratnetwork.org (2011-11-27). Retrieved on 2012-06-01.
- Baraka, A – A Saviour in a Dark World (Article) The Islamic Times, March 2003 Stockport, UK
- Haroon, M The World of Ahmed Raza Kazi Publications, Lahore 1974
- Sanyal, Usha, Ahmed Riza Khan Barelwi: In the Path of the Prophet (Makers of the Muslim World), Oneworld, 2005.