United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United Kingdom Common Market referendum
Do you think the UK should stay in the European Community (Common Market)?
Results
Yes or no Votes Percentage
Yes check.svg Yes 17,378,581 67.23%
X mark.svg No 8,470,073 32.77%
Valid votes 25,848,654 100%
Invalid or blank votes 0 0%
Total votes 25,848,654 100.00%
Results by county
United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975 results.png
  Yes
  No
Referendum held: 5 June 1975
Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson was elected in 1974. His party's manifesto promised to renegotiate the terms of Britain's EEC membership, then hold a referendum widely viewed as a mistake by the opposition.

The United Kingdom referendum of 1975 was a post-legislative referendum held on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Economic Community (EEC), often known as the Common Market at the time, which it had entered in 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath. Labour's manifesto for the October 1974 general election promised that the people would decide "through the ballot box"[1] whether to remain in the EEC. The electorate expressed significant support for EEC membership, with 67% in favour on a 65% turnout. This was the first referendum that was held throughout the entire United Kingdom; previously, other referendums had been arranged only in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Greater London and individual towns. It remained the only UK-wide referendum until the United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, 2011.

The February 1974 general election yielded a Labour minority government, which then won a majority in the October 1974 general election. Labour pledged in its February 1974 manifesto to renegotiate the terms of British accession to the EEC, and to then consult the people on whether Britain should stay in the EEC on the new terms if they were acceptable to the government. The Labour Party had traditionally feared the consequences of EEC membership, such as the large differentials between the high price of food under the Common Agricultural Policy and the low prices prevalent in Commonwealth markets, as well as the loss of economic sovereignty and the freedom of governments to engage in socialist industrial policies, and party leaders stated their opinion that the Conservatives had negotiated unfavourable terms for Britain.[2] The EEC heads of government agreed to a deal in Dublin by 11 March 1975; Wilson declared "I believe that our renegotiation objectives have been substantially though not completely achieved", and that the government would recommend a vote in favour of continued membership.[3] On 9 April, the House of Commons voted 396 to 170 to continue within the Common Market on the new terms. In tandem with these developments, the government drafted a Referendum Bill, to be moved in case of a successful renegotiation.

The referendum debate was an unusual time for British politics. During the campaign, the Labour Cabinet was split and its members campaigned on each side of the question, a rare breach of Cabinet collective responsibility. Most votes in the House of Commons in preparation for the referendum were only carried thanks to opposition support, and the government faced several defeats on technical issues such as election counts. Finally, although the government declared in advance that it would adhere to the result, the referendum itself was not binding upon the government in the strict legal sense, due to the principle of parliamentary sovereignty. This principle would itself come into question as a consequence of EEC membership in the Factortame litigation.

Background[edit]

In April 1970, during the 1970 general election, Edward Heath said that further European integration would not happen “except with the full-hearted consent of the Parliaments and peoples of the new member countries.”[4] However, no referendum was held when the UK agreed to an accession treaty on 22 January 1972 with the EEC states, Denmark, Ireland and Norway, or when the European Communities Act 1972 went through the legislative process. The UK joined what would become the European Union with Denmark and Ireland on 1 January 1973.

The support of the Conservative Party, under Leader of the Opposition Margaret Thatcher, was essential to the passage of the Government's European business in the House of Commons.

Throughout this period, the Labour Party was divided, both on the substantive issue of EEC accession and on the question of whether accession ought to be approved by referendum. In 1971, pro-Market figures like Roy Jenkins, the Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, said a Labour government would have agreed to the terms of accession secured by the Conservatives.[2] However, the National Executive Committee and the Labour Party Conference disapproved of the terms. In April 1972, the anti-Market Conservative MP Neil Marten tabled an amendment to the European Communities Bill which called for a consultative referendum on entry. Labour had previously opposed a referendum, but the Shadow Cabinet decided to support Marten's amendment. Jenkins resigned as Deputy Leader in opposition to the decision, and many Labour MPs abstained on the division.

At the February 1974 general election, Labour's manifesto promised renegotiation of the United Kingdom's terms of membership, to be followed by a consultative referendum on continued membership under the new terms if they were acceptable.[5] In the October 1974 manifesto, this was changed to the promise that Labour would "give the British people the final say, which will be binding on the Government – through the ballot box – on whether we accept the terms and stay in or reject the terms and come out."[1] This could be interpreted as including the option of an election in 1975;[2] however, Labour won a working majority, and a third election would be unusual after two in quick succession.

The government introduced a Referendum Bill in 1975. The question asked to the British people would be: "Do you think that the United Kingdom should remain part of the European Community (the Common Market)?" The referendum, the first nationwide plebiscite to be held in the UK during the 20th century, was of constitutional significance. Referendums had been widely opposed in the past on the grounds that they violated the principle of parliamentary sovereignty. The first in the UK was the Northern Ireland sovereignty referendum, 1973.[6] The government favoured a single national count of votes; the Liberal Party favoured individual counts in each constituency; however, the majority in the House of Commons voted for counts by administrative regions.[2] The government did not set down any special threshold of "Yes" votes for approval of the referendum; a simple majority would suffice to win the vote.[7]

Party support[edit]

The referendum was called in April 1975. Since Prime Minister Harold Wilson's cabinet was split between supporters and opponents of the Common Market, and since members of each side held their views strongly, he made the decision, unprecedented outside coalition government, to suspend the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility. Cabinet members would be allowed to publicly campaign against each other. In total, seven of the twenty-three members of the cabinet opposed EEC membership.[8] Wilson's solution was that ministers speaking from the despatch box would reflect government policy, i.e. support for EEC membership, but that they would be allowed to speak freely otherwise. This compromise avoided mass dismissals of Cabinet ministers, with only Eric Heffer among all government ministers being obliged to resign, due to his speaking against EEC membership in the House of Commons.

Yes campaign[edit]

The "Yes" campaign was officially supported by Wilson's Government and the majority of his cabinet, including the holders of three other Great Offices of State: Denis Healey, the Chancellor of the Exchequer; James Callaghan, the Foreign Secretary; and Roy Jenkins, the Home Secretary. It was also supported by the majority of the Conservative Party including its newly elected leader Margaret Thatcher,[9] the Liberal Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland and the Vanguard Unionist Progressive Party.

No campaign[edit]

Tony Benn, Secretary of State for Industry, was the most senior figure in the No campaign.

The "No" campaign included the left wing of the Labour Party, including cabinet ministers such as Tony Benn, Michael Foot, Peter Shore and Barbara Castle. Some Labour "No" supporters were on the right wing of the party, such as cabinet minister Eric Varley. The campaign also included many Labour backbenchers; upon the division on a pro-EEC White Paper about the renegotiation, 148 Labour MPs opposed their own government's measure, whereas only 138 supported it and 32 abstained.[2] Some members of the Conservative Party also supported the "No" campaign, although there were far fewer Eurosceptic figures in the Parliamentary Conservative Party in 1975 than there would be during future debates on Europe, such as the accession to the Maastricht Treaty. Most of the Ulster Unionist Party opposed the question, most prominently the former Conservative minister Enoch Powell, who was the second most prominent anti-Marketeer in the campaign.[10] Other parties supporting the "No" campaign included the Democratic Unionist Party, the Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru and parties outside Parliament including the National Front and the Communist Party of Great Britain.

Official party positions[edit]

Conservative and Liberal Party conferences consistently supported EEC membership for several years up to 1975. At a Labour Party conference on 26 April 1975, the Labour membership rejected continuing EEC membership by almost a 2:1 margin. Tony Benn said "We have had a conference and the decision is clear ... It is very clear that there now must be a move for the Labour Party to campaign." The majority of the Labour Party leadership was strongly for continuing membership, and the margin of the party vote was not a surprise, since only seven of forty-six trade unions present at the conference supported EEC membership. Prior to the conference, the party had decided that if the conference voted by a margin of 2:1 or more in favour of a particular option, it would then support that position in the referendum campaign. Otherwise, the "party machine" would remain neutral. Therefore, the Labour Party itself did not campaign on either side.

The campaign, funding and media support[edit]

The government distributed pamphlets to every household in Britain written by the official Yes and No campaigns, together with its own pamphlet which argued in support of EEC membership.[11] According to this pamphlet, "the most important (issues in the renegotiation) were FOOD and MONEY and JOBS".

During the campaign, almost the entirety of the mainstream national British press supported the "Yes" campaign. The communist Morning Star was the only notable national daily to back the "No" campaign. Television broadcasts was used by both campaigns, like party political broadcasts during general elections. They were broadcast simultaneously on all three terrestrial channels: BBC 1, BBC 2 and ITV. They attracted audiences of up to 20 million viewers. The "Yes" campaign advertisements were thought to be much more effective, showing their speakers listening to and answering people's concerns, while the "No" campaign's broadcasts featured speakers reading from an autocue.

The "Yes" campaign enjoyed much more funding, thanks to the support of many British businesses and the Confederation of British Industry. According to the treasurer of the "Yes" campaign, Alastair McAlpine, "The banks and big industrial companies put in very large sums of money". At the time, business was "overwhelmingly pro-European",[12] and Harold Wilson met several prominent industrialists to elicit support. It was common for pro-Europeans to convene across party and ideological lines with businessmen.[12] John Mills, the national agent of the "No" campaign recalled "We were operating on a shoe-string compared to the Rolls Royce operation on the other side,".[13] However, it was also the case that many civil society groups supported the "Yes" campaign, including the National Farmers Union and some trade unions.

Much of the "Yes" campaign focussed on the credentials of its opponents. According to Alastair McAlpine, "The whole thrust of our campaign was to depict the anti-Marketeers as unreliable people – dangerous people who would lead you down the wrong path ... It wasn't so much that it was sensible to stay in, but that anybody who proposed that we came out was off their rocker or virtually Marxist.".[13] Tony Benn controversially claimed "Half a million jobs lost in Britain and a huge increase in food prices as a direct result of our entry into the Common market",[12] using his position as Industry Minister as an authority. His claims were ridiculed by the "Yes" campaign and ministers; the Daily Mirror labelled Benn the "Minister of Fear" and other newspapers were similarly derisive. Ultimately, the "No" campaign lacked a popular, moderate figure to play the public leadership role for their campaign that Jenkins and Wilson fulfilled in the "Yes" campaign.

National & regional results[edit]

The referendum asked voters:

  • Do you think the UK should stay in the European Community (Common Market)?
Yes:
17,378,581 (67.2%)
No:
8,470,073 (32.8%)

Every administrative county in the UK voted "Yes", except the Scottish regions of the Shetland Islands and the Western Isles.

In total, over two-thirds of voters supported continued EEC membership. 67.2 percent voted Yes and 32.8 percent voted No. At council level, support for EEC membership was positively correlated with support for the Conservative Party and with average income. In contrast, poorer areas that supported Labour gave less support to the question. Approval was well above 60% in almost every council area in England and Wales, with the strongly Labour-supporting Mid Glamorgan being the exception. Scotland and Northern Ireland gave less support to the question than the UK average.

The results are summarised in the table hereafter.[2][14][15]

County Yes No Yes % No % Turnout %
Avon 310,145 147,024 67.8 32.2 68.7
Bedfordshire 154,338 67,969 69.4 30.6 67.9
Berkshire 215,184 81,221 72.6 27.4 66.4
Buckinghamshire 180,512 62,578 74.3 25.7 69.5
Cambridgeshire 177,789 62,143 74.1 25.9 62.9
Cheshire 290,714 123,839 70.1 29.9 65.5
Cleveland 158,982 77,079 67.3 32.7 60.2
Cornwall 137,828 63,478 68.5 31.5 66.8
Cumbria 162,545 63,564 71.9 28.1 64.8
Derbyshire 286,614 131,457 68.6 31.4 64.1
Devon 334,244 129,179 72.1 27.9 68.0
Dorset 217,432 78,239 73.5 26.4 68.3
Durham 175,284 97,724 64.2 35.8 61.5
Essex 463,505 222,085 67.7 32.4 67.7
Gloucestershire 170,931 67,465 71.7 28.3 68.4
Greater London 2,201,031 1,100,185 66.7 33.3 60.8
Greater Manchester 797,316 439,191 64.5 35.5 64.1
Hampshire 484,302 197,761 71.0 29.0 68.0
Hereford and Worcester 203,128 75,779 72.8 27.2 66.4
Hertfordshire 326,943 137,226 70.4 29.6 70.2
Humberside 257,826 122,199 67.8 32.2 62.4
Isle of Wight 40,837 17,375 71.2 29.8 67.5
Isles of Scilly 802 275 74.5 25.5 75.0
Kent 493,407 207,358 70.4 29.6 67.4
Lancashire 455,170 208,821 68.6 31.4 67.2
Leicestershire 291,500 106,004 73.3 26.7 66.4
Lincolnshire 180,603 61,011 74.7 25.3 63.7
Merseyside 465,625 252,712 64.8 35.2 62.7
Norfolk 218,883 93,198 70.1 29.9 63.8
Northamptonshire 162,803 71,322 69.5 30.5 65.0
Northumberland 95,980 42,645 69.2 30.8 65.0
Nottinghamshire 297,191 147,461 66.8 33.2 67.7
Oxfordshire 179,938 64,643 73.6 26.4 67.7
Salop 113,044 43,329 72.3 27.7 62.0
Somerset 138,830 60,631 69.6 30.4 67.7
Staffordshire 306,518 148,252 67.4 32.6 64.3
Suffolk 187,484 72,251 72.2 27.8 64.9
Surrey 386,369 120,576 76.2 23.8 70.1
East Sussex 249,780 86,198 74.3 25.7 68.6
West Sussex 242,890 73,928 76.2 23.8 68.6
Tyne and Wear 344,069 202,511 62.9 37.1 62.7
Warwickshire 156,303 67,221 69.9 30.1 68.0
West Midlands 801,913 429,207 65.1 34.9 62.5
Wiltshire 172,791 68,113 71.7 28.3 67.8
North Yorkshire 234,040 72,805 76.3 23.7 64.3
South Yorkshire 377,916 217,792 63.4 36.6 62.4
West Yorkshire 616,730 326,993 65.4 34.6 63.6
England total 14,918,009 6,812,052 68.7 31.3 '
Clwyd 123,980 55,424 69.1 30.9 65.8
Dyfed 109,184 52,264 67.6 32.4 67.5
Mid Glamorgan 147,348 111,672 56.9 43.1 66.6
South Glamorgan 127,932 56,224 69.5 30.5 66.7
West Glamorgan 112,989 70,316 61.6 38.4 67.4
Gwent 132,557 80,992 62.1 37.9 68.2
Gwynedd 76,421 31,807 70.6 29.4 64.3
Powys 38,724 13,372 74.3 25.7 67.9
Wales total 869,135 472,071 64.8 35.1
Borders 34,092 13,053 72.3 27.7 63.2
Central 71,986 48,568 59.7 40.3 64.1
Dumfries and Galloway 42,608 19,856 68.2 31.8 61.5
Fife 84,239 65,260 56.3 43.7 63.3
Grampian 108,520 78,071 58.2 41.8 57.4
Highland 40,802 33,979 54.6 45.4 58.7
Lothian 208,133 141,456 59.5 40.5 63.6
Orkney 3,911 2,419 61.8 38.2 48.2
Shetland 2,815 3,631 43.7 56.3 47.1
Strathclyde 625,939 459,073 57.7 42.3 61.7
Tayside 105,728 74,567 58.6 41.4 63.8
Western Isles 3,393 8,106 29.5 70.5 50.1
Scotland total 1,332,186 948,039 58.4 41.6
Northern Ireland 259,251 237,911 52.1 47.9 47.4
United Kingdom total 17,378,581 8,470,073 67.2 32.8 64.5

Reactions and consequences[edit]

Prime Minister Harold Wilson called the vote a "historic decision". Roy Jenkins said "It puts the uncertainty behind us. It commits Britain to Europe; it commits us to playing an active, constructive and enthusiastic role in it." Tony Benn said "When the British people speak everyone, including members of Parliament, should tremble before their decision and that's certainly the spirit with which I accept the result of the referendum."[16]

The result strengthened Harold Wilson's tactical position, by securing a further post-election public expression of support for his policies. According to Cook and Francis (1979), "The left of his party had been appeased by the holding of a referendum, the right by its result".[2] Following the result, the Labour Party and British trade unions themselves joined European institutions, such as the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, to which they had been reluctant to commit before public approval of EEC membership.

In the House of Commons, the issue of Europe had been effectively settled for two years, until the debate about direct elections to the European Parliament began in 1977.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Labour Party (1974). Britain will win with Labour: Labour Party manifesto, October 1974. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Cook, Chris; Francis, Mary (1979). The first European elections: A handbook and guide. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-26575-0. 
  3. ^ "18 March 1975". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (House of Commons). col. 1456–1480. .
  4. ^ Teodorczuk, Thomas. "Ultimate Vindication: The Spectator and Europe 1966–79". Bruges Group Papers (The Bruges Group) (43). Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  5. ^ The Labour Party (1974). Let us work together: Labour's way out of the crisis: Labour Party manifesto, February 1974. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  6. ^ Bogdanor, Vernon (2009). The New British Constitution. Oxford: Hart Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84113-671-4. 
  7. ^ Gay, Oonagh; Foster, David (25 November 2009). "Thresholds in Referendums". London: House of Commons Library. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  8. ^ The seven Common Market opponents in the Cabinet were Michael Foot (Employment), Tony Benn (Industry), Peter Shore (Trade), Barbara Castle (Social Services), Eric Varley (Energy), William Ross (Scotland) and John Silkin (Planning and Local Government).
  9. ^ "Conservatives favor remaining in market". Wilmington Morning Star. UPI. 4 June 1975. p. 5. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  10. ^ David Butler and Uwe Kitzinger, The 1975 Referendum (Macmillan, 1976), p. 178, p. 194.
  11. ^ HM Government (1975). Britain's new deal in Europe. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  12. ^ a b c Cockerell, Michael (4 June 2005). "How we were talked into joining Europe". The Independent (London). Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  13. ^ a b Cockerell, Michael (4 June 2005). "How Britain first fell for Europe". BBC News (London). Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  14. ^ "1975 referendum on EEC membership". History Learning Site. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  15. ^ The discrepancy between council-level totals and the figures for the Home Countries exists in the source.
  16. ^ "1975: UK embraces Europe in referendum". BBC on This Day. London. 6 June 1975. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 

External links[edit]