Gorakhpur

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For district, see Gorakhpur district.
Gorakhpur
गोरखपुर
Metropolitan City
Gorakpage.jpg
Nickname(s): Nath Nagar Raptinagar Gorakhdham
Gorakhpur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Coordinates: 26°45′32″N 83°22′11″E / 26.7588°N 83.3697°E / 26.7588; 83.3697Coordinates: 26°45′32″N 83°22′11″E / 26.7588°N 83.3697°E / 26.7588; 83.3697
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Gorakhpur
Government
 • Gorakhpur (Lok Sabha Constituency) Yogi Adityanath (BJP)
Area
 • Metropolitan 5,484 km2 (2,117 sq mi)
Elevation 84 m (276 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,440,895
 • Rank 16th
 • Density 1,337/km2 (3,460/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 2730xx
Telephone code +91-551
Vehicle registration UP 53
Sex ratio 1000/944 /
Avg. annual temperature 26 °C (79 °F)
Avg. summer temperature 40 °C (104 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 18 °C (64 °F)
Website gorakhpur.nic.in

Gorakhpur also known as Gorakhshpur is a city along the banks of Rapti river in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the Nepal border 273 east of the state capital Lucknow. It is the administrative headquarter of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division.The city is home to the Gorakshanath Temple (Gorakhnath Math), many historic Buddhist sites which are nearby and the Gita Press, world's largest publisher of Hindu religious texts. Gorakhpur is a religious center containing many historic temples and sites for both Hinduism and Buddhism. It is named after the ascetic Guru Gorakshanath, a saint that popularized "Hath Yoga" a form of yoga which concentrates on mastering natural powers. The Gorakhnath Temple is the place where he gained knowledge is a major tourist attraction in the city.Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana and was cremated in Kushinagar, located near Gorakhpur.

The Gorakhshapitheshwara (Head Priest of Gorakhnath Math) is the cultural Patron of the city. The current M.P from Gorakhpur Shri Yogi Adityanath is the head priest Gorakhnath Math and successor of Late Shri Avaiydyanath. Many prominent poets and politicians are from Gorakhpur. The city is often said to be the centre of Nath Sampradaya of Hinduism. Gorakhpur is famous for its Terracotta works. The city has been culture capital of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh since hundreds of years. Gorakhpur is known as the headquater of nath sampradaya.

Gorakhpur is also the headquarters of the North Eastern Railways Zone of the Indian Railways and serves as an important center for education and trade. The road route to Nepal from India passes through the city. The city has two Residential Universities and Medical College.Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University is one of the oldest universities in Uttar Pradesh. The city serves as an education, health and trade hub.

Location[edit]

The district of Gorakhpur lies between Lat. 26°13′N and 27°29′N and Long. 83°05′E and 83°56′E. The district occupies the north-eastern corner of the state along with the district of Deoria, and comprises a large stretch of land lying to the north of the river Rapti, which forms the southern boundary with the Azamgarh.Ambedkar Nagar district On the west Basti and east adjoins Deoria and the Chhoti Gandak Nadi and further south the Jharna Nala forms the dividing line. To the north it meets with Maharajganj, Kushinagar and Nepal. The city is 270 km distant from state capital Lucknow. Gorakhpur is surrounded by dams on three sides.

Geography[edit]

The district is located in the Terai region, in the foothills of the Shivalik Himalayas. It is located on the bank of river Rapti and Rohin rivers originating in Nepal that often causes severe floods. The Rapti is interconnected through many other small rivers following meandering courses across the Gangetic Plain. Situated on the basin of rivers Rapti and Rohin, the geographical shape of the Gorakhpur City is of bowl, surrounded by the river and other small streams from three sides. The west of the city is guarded by Rapti River while the east is associated with Sal Forests, which is a major tourist attraction, the Vinod Van. The south is showered with the large stretch of a lake, the Ramgarh Tal and north is the plinth of city's advancement. The peak of Dhaulagiri, some 8,230 meters above sea-level, is visible under favourable climatic conditions as far south as Gorakhpur itself.

Gorakhpur is one of the most flood-prone districts in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Data over the past 100 years show a considerable increase in the intensity and frequency of floods, with extreme events occurring every three to four years. Roughly 20% of the population is affected by floods, which are an annual occurrence in some areas, causing huge loss of life, health and livelihoods for the poor inhabitants, as well as damage to public and private property.[1]

Research from the Climate and Development Knowledge shows that measures are in place to mitigate disaster risk in the form of the Gorakhpur District Disaster Management Plan. However, this plan focuses on how agencies can coordinate following floods and lacks a systematic approach to identifying weather-related hazards and vulnerability.[2]

Climate[edit]

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa" (Humid Subtropical Climate).[3]

Climate data for Gorakhpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.2
(73.8)
26.5
(79.7)
32.7
(90.9)
37.9
(100.2)
39.5
(103.1)
37.2
(99)
33.2
(91.8)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
29.3
(84.7)
24.6
(76.3)
31.9
(89.4)
Average low °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
12.0
(53.6)
16.9
(62.4)
22.3
(72.1)
25.2
(77.4)
26.2
(79.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.5
(77.9)
24.7
(76.5)
21.2
(70.2)
15.0
(59)
10.6
(51.1)
19.6
(67.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.7
(0.854)
11.4
(0.449)
10.2
(0.402)
13.7
(0.539)
27.4
(1.079)
163.6
(6.441)
322.3
(12.689)
349.5
(13.76)
213.9
(8.421)
83.8
(3.299)
4.5
(0.177)
6.1
(0.24)
1,228.1
(48.35)
Source: IMD[dead link]

Below the outer hills is a dry boulder-strewn tract, corresponding to the Indo-Gangetic Plain|Bhabar of Kumaun and Garhwal and here the bulk of the moisture contributed by the rainfall and the small streams is absorbed by the soil, to reappear through seepage in the damp and unhealthy tract, known as the terai. The latter comprises a belt some 16 km. in width, running along the northern borders of Maharajganj, Uttar Pradesh|Maharajganj district. It is extensively cultivated.

Geology[edit]

The district geology is primarily river born alluvium. Few mineral products are mined in Gorakhpur, with the most common being a nodular limestone conglomerate known as kankar, brick, and salt petre. The last occurs principally in the south and south-east and is manufactured for export. Lime is obtained by burning kankar. Brick clay is abundant everywhere and bricks are made in the district. The soil in the district is light sandy or dense clay of yellowish brown colour. The sand found in the rivers is medium to coarse grained, greyish white to brownish in colour and is suitable for construction.

Demographics[edit]

In 2011, Gorakhpur had population of 4,440,895 of which male and female were 2,277,777 and 2,163,118 respectively. In 2001 census, Gorakhpur had a population of 3,769,456 of which males were 1,923,197 and remaining 1,846,259 were females. Gorakhpur District population constituted 2.22 percent of total Uttar Pradesh population. In 2001 census, this figure for Gorakhpur District was at 2.27 percent of Uttar Pradesh population. There was change of 17.81 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Gorakhpur District recorded increase of 22.94 percent to its population compared to 1991.

Religions in Gorakhpur
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
90%
Muslims
  
7%
Jains
  
1.4%
Others†
  
1.6%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

In ancient times the geographical area of Gorakhpur included the modern districts of Basti, Deoria, Kushinagar, Azamgarh. According to Vedic writings, the earliest known monarch ruling over this region with his capital at Ayodhya was Iksvaku, founder of the Solar dynasty. The solar dynasty produced a number of kings; Rama of the Ramayana is most well-known. The entire region was an important centre of Aryan culture and civilization, a part of the famous kingdoms of Koshala and Malla, two of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (states) in 6th century BCE India. The region also formed part of Aryavart and Madhyadesh

Gautama Buddha Took Parinirvana in Kushinagar.

Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, who was born at Kapilvastu in Nepal, renounced his princely clothing at the confluence of the rivers Rapti and Rohini, near Gorakhpur, before setting out on his quest of truth in 600 BCE. Later he died in the courtyard of Mall King Sastipal Mall at his capital Kushinara which is now known as Kushinagar, there is a monument to this effect at Kushinagar even today. The city is also associated with the travels of Lord Buddha's contemporary Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. Lord Mahavira was born at a place not very far from Gorakhpur. Later he took his mahaparinirvan at his maternal uncle's palace at Pava which is about 15 kilometers from Kushinagar(Pavapuri and Kushinara were the twin capital of Mall dynasty which was part 16 Mahajanpads of ancient India). Malla dynasty was following democratic way of governance from their Santhagara and thus Gorakhpur is also the part of ancient Gana sangha. There is a mention in the epic Mahabharata that Prince Bhim, the younger brother of King Yudhistr had visited Gorakhpur to invite saint Gorakhnath to attend his Rajsuuya Yagna.

After the Iksvaku dynasty was conquered by Magadha's Nanda Dynasty in the 4th century BC, Gorakhpur became in turn part of the Maurya, Shunga, Kushana, Gupta and Harsha empires. The great emperor of India Chandragupta maurya belonged to Moriyas, a Kshatriya (warrior) clan of a little ancient republic of Pippalivana located between Rummindei in the Nepali Tarai and Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.

In the 10th century, the Tharu king of Mausen Madan Singh ruled over Gorakhpur city and the adjoining area. Gorakhpur was also birthplace of King Vikas Sankrityayan.

Medieval[edit]

In medieval times, the city was home to the medieval Hindu saint Gorakhnath, who gave the city its name. The date of Gorakhnath's birth has not yet been settled, but he probably lived in the twelfth century. The site of his samādhi (ecstasy) at Gorakhpur attracts a large number of pilgrims every year.[citation needed]

In the 12th century, the Gorakhpur region, as much of northern India, was conquered by the Muslim ruler Muhammad Ghori. The region remained under the influence of Muslim rulers, such as Qutb-ud-din Aybak and Bahadur Shah, for some centuries. In the early 16th century, the mystic poet and famous saint Kabir lived and worked in Maghar, a village 20 km from Gorakhpur, where his burial place still attracts many pilgrims.

On Akbar's reorganisation of the empire in the 16th century, Gorakhpur gave its name to one of the five Sarkars (administrative units) in the province of Awadh.

Modern[edit]

Gandhi ended the Non-Cooperation Movement in response to the Chauri Chaura incident in Gorakhpur.

Gorakhpur came under direct British control in 1803. It was one of the major centers of the 1857 uprising, and later played a major role in the Indian independence movement. Gorakhpur district was the scene of the Chauri Chaura incident[4] of 4 February 1922, which was a turning point in the history of India's freedom struggle. Enraged by police atrocities, a crowd of 2,000 people burnt down the Chauri-Chaura Police Station, killing nineteen policemen. In response to this violence, 22 August 1942, whish was a turning point in the history of India's freedom struggle. Enraged by police atrocities, a crowd of 7 people shoot down the Shahjanwa Police Station, Shid smarak at Dohariya KalaMahatma Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement that he had launched in 1920 and fasted for 21 days, until he was satisfied that all Non-Cooperation Movement activities had ceased. Born at Shahjahanpur city of Uttar Pradesh, Ram Prasad Bismil was a great revolutionary and believed in armed struggle against the British rulers. As the main accused in the famous Kakori conspiracy case of 1925 he was hanged to death in Gorakhpur District Jail on 19 December 1927. From the condemned cell of this historic jail he wrote his autobiography which was banned by the British Government. From the gallows of Gorakhpur jail he spoke his last will – " I wish the downfall of the British Empire " which became true after 20 years. His martyrdom at prime age inspired the people of Gorakhpur particularly and the nation to advance the freedom struggle to its logical end. His last rites were performed at Rajghat on the bank of Rapti river where about 1.5 lacs of people were present.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Gorakhpur nagar is primarily based on the service industry. People from all over Purvanchal (Eastern U.P) migrate to the city for education, medical and other facilities which are better than those found in rural areas. There are branches of all major nationalized banks as well as of private banks in the city, most of which are found along Bank Road, named as it was the location of Gorakhpur's first bank, the Kayastha Bank, which was opened in 1906. Later on at this place a branch of Imperial Bank of India was opened in 1923. The Imperial Bank of India was converted into State Bank of India by an act of parliament (State Bank of India Act 1955). The main branch of State Bank of India still exists here along with other business process re-engineering units like SARC (Stressed Assets Recovery Centre), CCPC (Centralised Clearing Processing Cell). B R D Medical College, Civil Hospital, L N M Railway Hospital, Hanuman Prasad Poddar Cancer Hospital, Kushth Sewa Ashram, Agrawal are some of the hospitals in the city. The central business district of the city, Golghar, located near the geographical centre includes several major shops, hotels and restaurants, as well as the Rapti Complex, Baldev Plaza, Mangalam Tower and City shopping malls, Mohaddipur, Townhall. The Rapti Complex, built in 1987, is the oldest complex in the area. Here one can find all the of all major brands of apparel, jewellary, shoes, cosmetics and electronics goods. The Buxipur area is the location for one of the biggest book markets in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Religious Places[edit]

Gorakhnath Temple
Pujaris in Gorakhnath Math wear large rings in ears.
  • Gorakshnath Temple

Gorakhnath Math or Gorakshanath Temple is a symbol of the identity of the city. The city itself was named after Mahayogi Guru Gorakshnath. According to popular belief Guru Gorakshnath did tapasya in Treta Yug at the place where the magnificent temple stands today. The temple is built on 52 acre of land in the heart of the city on Gorakhpur-Sonauli national highway. It is not only a peeth of the Nath sect but an example of Indian sculpture. In the garbh grih of the temple, Guru Gorakshnath is depicted as an incarnation of Lord Shiva in deep meditation.

Gita Press Gate, with its pillars inspired from the cave temples of Ellora, the gopuram, by Meenakshi temple, Madurai

Leela Chitra Mandir situated in a magnificent hall in the premises of Geeta Press exhibits the pictorial are trend of the country from time to time. There are approximately 700 pictures (including paintings) related to earthy sojourn and pastimes of Lord Rama and Krishna. During the Gita Jayanti week this Chitra Mandir is decorated tastefully. Satyamvad, Dharamamchar (speak truth and practice dharma) is the inscription at the main gate of Gita press which was inaugurated by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India on 29 April 1955. Gita Press Gate, with its pillars inspired from the cave temples of Ellora, the gopuram, by Meenakshi temple, Madurai.

  • Vishnu Mandir

The famous temple associated with a large Idol of God Vishnu made in 12th century "Pal Kalin Kalin Kasauti" Stone. Ramleela is organized on the eve of Festival Dussehera here and the procession is so grand and in a very traditional that it fetches the tourist visit in the season. Idols of the deities of major shrines of Hindus-viz. Badrinath, Jaganathpuri, Dwarika and Rameshwaram are installed in the four corners of the temple.

  • Arogya Mandir

Arogya Mandir, established by Late Sri. Bitthal Das Modi in 1940. The new and beautiful building was completed in 1961. It is approximately 2 km from Gorakhpur city and 4 km from the railway station. It is made in an open area and covered with hundreds of eucalyptus and mango trees. The concept of treatment is Naturopathy.

  • Suraj Kund

Sun temples are rare in India or abroad. The people of Gorakhpur are lucky to have one sun temple, which is located in the north western part of the city, beyond railway line. It wide range of 10 acres of land. The main temple is located in the middle of the tank and is surrounded by water from all sides. It is one of the 26 Surya Kund of the Country and it is believed to be the worshipping and resting places of Lord Ram. Presently Kali temple, Annapurna temple and Ram Sita temple do also exist here. About 100–125 years ago, Baba Muneshwar Das, who was an ardent worshipper of Lord Sun, is said have dug the present Suraj Kund (tank) himself to initiate the worshipping of Lord Sun and Lord Laxmi Narayan.

The Parinirvana Temple with the Parinirvana Stupa, Kushinagar

Kushinagar is a town in Kushinagar district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh located around NH-28, being 52 km east to Gorakhpur city. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Buddhists believe Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death.

The Great Scholar Kabir Died in Maghar, Gorakhpur.

Sant Kabir a mystic poet and a well-known saint left his mortal coil here. Here Kabir taught the lesson of brotherhood after death too. When the town was panic stricken with the news of death of the deity, some naughty elements tried to make it an issue of religious conflict. But the great soul still cared for his people and in the due course of discussion between Hindus and Muslims that he will be buried or burnt, the body disappeared replaced by heap of flowers. The flowers were then divided into half and Muslims buried it whereas Hindus burnt it. Hindus built Samadhi Mandir at the very place where they burnt their flowers and Muslims made Makbara at the very place where they buried there part of flowers. This unique example of co-existence of Hindu-Muslim harmony and peace is visible today in Maghar. Behind the Samadhi-Makbara there is a cave in which Sant Kabir used to perform his deep 'Tapasya'. The present façade and shape of cave is restored by earthwork for about hundred years ago. 'Kabir-Dhuni' and 'Gorakh talaiya' are about 1 km from Samadhi near Kasarwal village on National Highway.

  • Imambara

The Imambara—abode of imams—is a well known landmark of Gorakhpur. Its history begins with the advent of Syed Roshan Ali Shah in Gorakhpur in 1774. His father Syed Ghulam Ashraf, a native of Bakhara, had come to Delhi during the reign of Modammad Shah. He fled from Delhi during one of the invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali. He finally settled at Shahpur. His son Syed Roshan Ali Shah left him and came to Gorakhpur where he inherited a sizable land from his maternal grandfather in mohalla Daud Chak (now Mian Bazzar). He decided to build an Imambara on his land and changed the name of Daud Chak to Imamganj. Raja Pahalwan Singh of Satari donated mauza Kusmahi along with the jungles in 1793 for Niyaz Imam Saheb. Nawab Asif-ud-Daulah, the Shia ruler of Oudh, offer a grant of 16 villages, Rs. 10,000 cash and a silver Tazia in 1796 to Roshan Ali Shah. With rhis grant Shah built a pucca enclosure around the central Imambara and added other edifices to it.

  • Tarkulhi Devi Temple

This temple is considered as one of the most sacred places in and around north-eastern (NE) UP. Located on the outskirts of village Gahira and situated 2 km away from Futahwa Inar on Gorakhpur-Deoria State Highway 1, this temple is mainly famous for its devotees all across NE UP and a month-long fair which starts on first day of Chaitra Ramnavami. The main temple is surrounded by thousands of Tarkul (Palm) trees all over, hence its name. Amar Shaheed Bandhu Singh, a great freedom fighter and staunch Tarkulhi Mata devotee, was closely associated with this place. People from nearby villages throng the temple especially on Mondays and Fridays for Mundan Sanskar, Yagyopavita, etc.

  • Humayunpur Shani Temple

This is one of the first Shani temples in Uttar Pradesh. Located in old area of Gorakhpur this temple offers regular prayers to shani deva.

  • Budhia mai Temple

The famous Budhiya Mai temple is situated in the lush and green milieu of Kushmi Forests. Thousands of devotees throng it to offer their prayer everyday during navrati.

  • Jain Temple

This temple is about 250 years old and 5 km from railway station. The temple is in hall shape and houses about 50 idols of various Jain Thirthankars in its garbhgriha.

  • Jatashanker Gurudwara

This gurudwara is in dharamshala market, Guru Nanak Dev, along with his pupils arrived in Gorakhpur in 1572 during his visit to Kathmandu.

  • Saint John's Church

This Church comes under the Diocese of Lucknow, Church of North India and is located in the Basharatpur locality of Gorakhpur, U.P. at a distance of about 5 km from railway station.

  • Saint Andrew's Christ Church

This church is about 190 years old and is about 3 km from railway station.

  • Believer's Church India
  • Union church
  • St. Joseph's Church
  • Masihi Kalisiya church

This 70 year old church is in railway colony, built for British officers living in Gorakhpur during British rule.

  • St. Anthony's Church
  • Shri Khaki Baba Mandir

An ancient temple situated at chak jalal near town hall , Gorakhpur

Religious festivals[edit]

  • Khicadi Mela, Gorakhnath Temple

The famous shrine of Guru Gorakshanath, epitomizes the identity of the Gorakhpur city, the city has been named after Guru Gorakshnath. The temple premises spread over about 52 acres of land in the heart of the city, on Gorakhpur Sonauli (Nepal border) national highway. Famous one month long Makar Sankranti fair (Khichadi Mela), starts here from 14 January every year, which is attended by the people from far places.

  • Tarkulha Devi mela

Celebrated at tarkulha devi temple, this mela attracts larges no of devotees from Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.

  • Bhudia Mai Mandir Navratri Mela

Situated in the kushmi forest, many people make a pilgrimage here during navratris.

Several programmes, including Kabir seminar, religious conference, Sufi bhajan, Kisan mela and Akhil Bharatiya Kavi Sammelan are held in the Mohatsava, besides various other sports competitions and cultural programmes to commence the death of saint kabir.

Military facilities[edit]

Air Force Station[edit]

Currently Jaguar Fighter Planes are grounded in Gorakhpur and have two squadrons.

An air force station in Gorakhpur was established in 1963 as Gorakhpur Airport, with a variety of planes and services, most notably Jaguar fighter planes and the second oldest helicopter unit of Indian Air Force (No. 105 Helicopter Unit). It is one of the biggest air force stations in Asia.[5] where aircraft regularly land and take off, with runways, navigational aids, and major facilities for the commercial handling of passengers and cargo in the country of India. Its center lies at a latitude of 26.7397100 and longitude of 83.4497100and it has an elevation of 88 meters above sea level. Gorakhpur Airport also goes by the names, GOP, Gorakhpur, Gorakhpur Airport, VEGK. The air force station, Gorakhpur which is extremely vital for the Defence of the eastern part of the country is equipped with the latest and most sophisticated fighter and bomber planes and equipments and it comes under the Central Air Command (CAC) headquartered at Bamrauli, Allahabad. It has Jaguar fighter planes. It also has a SEPECAT Jaguar training center. The second oldest helicopter unit of Indian Air Force (NO. 105 Helicopter Unit) moved to Air Force Station Gorakhpur in August 1987. Immediately after moving to Gorakhpur the unit carried out extensive flood relief operation in Bihar. Again in 1991 unit carried out flood relief operations in Orissa Ex-Bhubaneswar. Recently this unit carried out Ex-Frog i.e. Flood Relief a rescue Operations in Gorakhpur and Bihar and during the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake.

Memorial to Gurkha soldiers outside the Ministry of Defence, City of Westminster, London.

Gorakha Recruitment Depot[edit]

Gorkha Recruitment depot, one of the selection centers of Gorkha soldiers for Indian army is situated in Gorakhpur. This gorkha Recruitment Depot is the only one of its kind in the country. It recruits the Gorkhas of Nepalese origin from the Anchals of Rapti, Dhaulagiri, Lumbini and Gandaki,Karnali,Seti, Bheri, Mahakali,of Nepal. It was established in 1886.Impressed by the fighting qualities displayed by the Gorkhas of Nepal during the Gurkha War, Sir David Ochterlony was quick to realise Gorkha Regiment, was raised as the Nasiri regiment. This regiment later became the 1st King George’s Own Gurkha Rifles, and saw action at the Malaun fort under Lieutenant Lawtie.Gurkhas are closely associated with the Khukri, a forward-curving Nepalese knife and have a well known reputation for their fearless military prowess. The former Indian Army Chief of Staff Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, once stated that "If a man says he is not afraid of dying, he is either lying or is a Gurkha."

Media[edit]

Gorakhpur has all India Radio and Doordarshan broadcasting and relay centres of its own. A number of Hindi newspapers including Compact, Dainik Jagran, inext, Hindustan, Amar Ujala, Daily Aaj, Swatantra janmitra, Swatantra Chetna and Rashtriya Sahara are leading newspapers printed in the city. The FM radio station, Radio Mantra (91.9 MHz) from Jagran Group also operates in the city.

Culture[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Traditional cuisine includes platters of Galawati and Kakori kababs in Oudh and fish. Wheat, rice, gram, maize, and pulses along with curd, milk, vegetables, ghee and vegetable oils, constitute the items of daily food, rice being the staple food of the people. During khicadi mela khaja is popular sweet among people.

Art[edit]

Gorakhpur is famous for terracotta

Terracotta Town Situated at a distance of 9 to 17 km from Gorakhpur city, there are many villages, which are famous for terracotta products. The entire work is done with bare hands and they use natural color, which stays fast for long time. There are more than 1000 varieties of designs of terracotta works crafted by the local craftsmen. The craftsmen belong to ‘Prajapati’ caste and are mainly spread over villages of Aurangabad, Bharwalia, Langadi Gularia, Budhadih, Amawa, Ekla etc. in Bhathat and Padri Bazar, Belwa Raipur, Jungle Ekla No-1, Jungle Ekla No-2 in Chargawan block of Gorakhpur. There are 04 President awardees, 05 people have got regional medal for excellence in craftsmanship in the last three decades for their outstanding and unique contribution in propagating and taking forward the dying art. The various Govt. schemes have been dovetailed locally to provide working sheds, research/training centre and showrooms for exhibition and sale of their products, and the local administration has taking up development works like road connectivity, electrification, construction of drains etc. to attract tourists.one can also go through the Folk Madhubani Paintings in his own style in the Gorakhnath area in 10 no. Boring, at Gandhi Nagar in the Huge creativity of Ravi Dwivedi an officer of Purvanchal Bank.

Music[edit]

Folk-songs are also performed at various festivals during the year. The kaharwa is sung at Deepawali, the Alha and the kajari during the rainy and winter nights, and the Phaag during Holi. This is a very artistic vivid part of Gorakhpur’s culture. After a long day of work they unwind with singing and dancing. They have different dances and songs for special occasions also. Folk-songs are performed at different festivals and seasons during the year. They sing the kaharwa at Deepawali, the Alha, Kajri, k Barahmasi during the rainy and winter nights, and the Phaag during Holi. The people of Gorakhpur use the harmonium, dholak, manjira, mridung, nagara, thali, and nagara as musical instruments when they perform. Some of the most popular folk-dances is saved for the special occasion of festivals, fairs, and marriages to celebrate. Gorakhpur’s heritage of songs and dances is an important part of their culture. Annually a Gorakhpur Film Festival is organised here

Entertainment[edit]

As elsewhere in India, cinema is most popular means of entertainment in Gorakhphur. There are eleven cinema halls in the district with a combined capacity of six thousand seats. Documentaries and mobile cinema cater for the rural areas of the district. Dramatic societies and circuses also visit the district. SRS Cinemas brings multiplex experience to Gorakhpur. Champa devi Water Park is a newly added attraction to Gorakhpur city providing water sports and amusement facilities to the residents of the region. The water park has got rides for every age group and to suit every one's taste. Dangal (wrestling matches), nautanki (indigenous open-air dramatic performances), bhajan and qawwali programmes, and mushaira are also arranged at different places from time to time. Ramlila and Krishnalila provide alternative entertainment. The city hosts many malls throughout and has many green lushing parks.

  • Vinod Van

Vinod Van is one of the biggest zoos in East Uttar Pradesh. It is situated in the lush and green forest of Kushmi Jungle. Many varieties on reptiles and mammals can be seen here.

Chauri Chaura Shahid Samarak

Chauri Chaura is situated at State Highway between Gorakhpur and Deoria, 30.5 kilometres (19.0 mi). from Gorakhpur. It has a railway station which is 25 km. south-east of the Gorakhpur railway junction. It has a large Shahid smarak to commence the Chauri Chaura incident. On the north is Murear (Mundera) Bazar, another flourishing market.

  • Rail museum

The city also has a rail museum where the history and antique locomotives of Indian railways can be seen. The museum also has a toy train for children. There is an A.C. food plaza in the museum also. The rail museum is situated near the headquarters of North Eastern Railway zone. This rail museum and amusement park is a newly added attraction of the city, which was inaugurated on 2 July 2007 and is one of its own kinds in Uttar Pradesh. The museum displays the development of NER economically, technically, as well as culturally. The major attraction of this museum is Lord Lawrence's steam engine, which was built in 1874 in London and brought to India by sea. It was the first engines that was used by NER, once it became operational. The museum also houses a gallery which has many significant articles, such as clocks used in saloons, furniture, uniforms used by railway men at different times, a photo gallery, materials pertaining to railway traffic control, library etc. A toy train ride is also available for children. A unique food plaza housed in a railway compartment adds to the attraction of this place.

  • Lord Buddha sangrahalay

There is a Buddhist museum called Lord Buddha sangrahalay near Taramandal which attracts thousands of tourists from East and South-East Asian countries every year. The museum houses a lot of things related to Lord Buddha and his life. Govt. Buddha Museum Gorakhpur was established in 1987 but the present building came into existence in 1997. The museum's main aim is the collection, preservation, documentation, exhibition of the cultural property and to make them available for educational activities to create awareness about the glorious past. It show cases items like age old sculpture, figurines, terracotta items, beads etc. Most of the objects here are rare and priceless. Presently four galleries are on display in the museum. About 2023 pieces of metal and stone sculptures, terracotta, potteries, thankas, miniature paintings etc. have been displayed in the galleries. In the second gallery, miniature paintings of Rajasthani, Pahari and Bundi style are on display. In the third gallery Hindu sculptures are displayed which are very useful for iconographical study. In the fourth gallery terracotta from various Buddhist sites like Sarnath, Kushinagar Rajdhani, Kopia and other places are on display. Animal figures, pots, seals, Suka-Sarika, eight headed Ganesha, dakini (a baby eater), human figures ranging from Maurayan period down to Gupta period certainly deserve appreciation from the visitors.

  • Veer Bahadur Singh Planetarium

The city also boasts of a state of the art planetarium at Taramandal. It has become new destination for students who want to explore about the planets and the universe. Vir Bahadur Singh Planetarium was re-opened for public from 21 December 2009. This planetarium is based on Digital Technology. Six CRT based projectors are installed by Evans & Sutherland, US.

  • Golghar

Golghar serves as the economic hub of the city. The market has various malls, towers, parks, restaurants one can have a lot of fun here. Various restaurents like Domino's Pizza, Pizza hut,moti mahal ,7days are present.

  • Nauka Kendra

The Nauka kendra situated at Ramgarh Tal Lake with an area of 723 hectares and overhelming beauty. Boats are available for lake trip.

  • Indira Bal Vihar

This Park is in the heart of City, Golghar, providing a good amusement to the children. Various restaurants are here providing quality snacks.

  • Neer Nikunj Water Park

It is the largest water park in Uttar Pradesh. This newly added attraction of Gorakhpur city provides water sports and amusement facilities to the residents of Gorakhpur region. The water park has got rides for every age group and to suit every one's taste, family rides, adult rides&children rides. Amusement park is equipped with bowling alley, shooting range, toy train, paint ball, go carting, dance floor, musical rides, merry go round, bull rides, caterpillar and many more. Food outlets, activity games, gaming arcade are other attractions of the park. Banquet hall &lawns are also there for meetings and other functions

  • Ambedkar Park

Constructed near the lake Ramgarh Tal Lake, this park offers a large number of refreshment facilities. The park is also well lit and a good place to spend evenings.

  • DDU Gorakhpur University Pant Park

Maintained by GDA, this green lush park is heaven for children and morning, evening walkers.

  • Vindhyavasini Park

The park is managed by the Horticulture, Agriculture department of the Government. A well developed nursery also runs here and plants are available for sale. It is very popular among morning, evening walkers. The park has various old buildings.

  • Suhelva Wildlife Sanctuary

The Sanctuary was established in 1988 and covers an area of 452.77 km2. Five ranges of the forest make up the core area and two ranges are clubbed together to make the buffer zone of the Sanctuary. Suhelwa is connected with the forest of Mahadevpuri in Nepal. It is one of the habitats of tigers in Uttar Pradesh, which is the main attraction of the Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary. According to latest census the Tiger population is estimated to be around 10. It is about 200 km from Gorakhpur.

King Suddhodana was seated in kapilvastu

Kapilvastu is an important buddhist spot. The city was the seat of King Suddhodana, father of Lord Gautama Buddha. Prince Siddhartha (childhood name of Lord Buddha), spent most of his early years here. He grew up amidst luxury and was kept away from miseries of life. But one day, having seen the pain of life, he broke out of the luxurious entrapment of his father and renounced all the worldly riches and pleasure, at the age of 29 in search for truth and salvation for which he proceeded to Bodhgaya and revisited it 12 years later, long after he attained Enlightenment. It is believed that Lord Buddha preached Madhupindika Sutta in kapilvastu. There are many archaeological sites to see.

  • Barhaj

This place is famous for the anant peeth ashram which is built in the memory of anant mahaprabhu ji who was a renowned freedom fighter. This place is about 75 km from Gorakhpur.

  • Kakandi

This place is the birthplace of 9th Tirthankar Pushpadanta. He took deeksha in Pushpakvan, now The temple has a big idol of Bhagwan Pushpadant in padmasan mudra which is made of granite.

  • Sohgi Barwa Wildlife Sanctuary

This area was declared a Sanctuary in the year 1987 and is spread over an area of 480 km2. This pace is about 50 km from Gorakhpur. The Sanctuary acts as the corridor between the Sanctuaries in Nepal and Bihar.

  • Madhuban

This park has been built to commemorate the memory of martyrs of 1942's Non-cooperation movement of freedom struggle of India and their Shaheed Smarak has been built inside the park which is named after them. This place is about 92 km from Gorakhpur.

  • Firaq Smarak
Firaq Gorakhpuri

A memorial has been built in memory of Firaq Gorakhpuri the great Urdu, Hindi scholar. in his ancestrol village banwapar.

  • Chando Tal Bird Sanctuary

This place is about 80 km from Gorakhpur. This place attracts a large number of migratory birds in winters.

  • Bharat Bhari

This temple is associated in memory of bharata(brother of lord Rama). its believed that he stayed here for some time.

  • Kanhav Jain Pillar

A Jain pillar with inscriptions constructed in 460 AD by Samudragupta is present here. located about 75 km from Gorakhpur.

  • Bisra Temple

About 250 years old and 52 km from Gorakhpur the temple is dedicated to Lord Rama, Sita and Hanuman and their idols made of Ashta Dhatu are installed in the garbhgriha of the temple.

Also known as deodah, this place is protected by archaeological department and is said to be the maternal village of Gautama Buddha.

Lakes In Gorakhpur[edit]

Bakhira lake

Ramgarh Taal is a lake located in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. It covers an area of 723 hectares and its embankment is 18 km long. On the south-east of Gorakhpur city and the south side of the metalled road to the kasia in Deoria district is the Ramgarh Tal. It was formerly covered, save during the rains, with a dense growth of reeds, which was cleared off for health reasons. An unsuccessful attempt was also made to drain off the water of this lake through a channel from the southern end into the Rapti. Ramgarh Tal has many fish and affords living to people in several villages on its banks.

The Bakhira Bird Sanctuary is the largest natural flood plain wetland in Sant Kabir Nagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The sanctuary was established in 1980. It is situated 44 km west of Gorakhpur city. It is a vast stretch of water body expanding over an area of 29 km2. This is an important lake of eastern UP, which provides a wintering and staging ground for a number of migratory waterfowls and a breeding ground for resident birds. The sanctuary is named after the village Bakhira located adjacent to the lake along with as many as hundred and eight villages surrounding the lake within the 5 km radius.

  • Maheshara Lake Maniram

Located at Gorakhpur Nepal road 14 kilometers from Dharmsala taxi stand most of the Bhojpuri Film's shooting is done here.

Notable Residents[edit]

Anurag Kashyap
Jimmy Shergill

Literature[edit]

The Gita Press is world's largest publishers of Hindu religious texts. Gita Press is a unit of Gobind Bhawan Karyalaya registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (presently governed by the West Bengal Societies Act, 1960). The institution's main objective is to promote and spread the principles of Sanatana Dharma, the Hindu religion, among the general public by publishing Gita, Ramayana, Upanishads, Puranas, Discourses of Saints and other books and magazines and marketing them at highly subsidised prices. The "Kalyan" in Hindi and the "Kalyana-Kalpataru" in English are monthly magazines brought out by the institution. Information about latest releases, and essays are provided in the house-magazine "Yug Kalyan". Gita Press is not merely a publishing house but instead it is a place of worship. God has said in geeta that i don't leave a place where i am worshipped are said in these shlokas from Geeta.

नाहं वसामि वैकुण्‍ठे योगिनां हृदये न च।
मद्भक्ता यत्र गायन्ति तत्र तिष्‍ठामि नारद।।
  • Lila Chitra Mandir

The Art Gallery has the lilas ( exploits ) of Shri Rama and Shri Krishna portrayed in 684 paintings by famed artists of the past and present. Other paintings, including Mewari style paintings of the Shri Krishna Lila are also on exhibit. The entire 700 verses of the Bhagvad Gita are displayed on marble plaques affixed to the walls.

  • Amrita Kala Vithika

It forms as a part of the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University. Named on Amrita Sher-Gil, it has many picture galleries and holds many literary exhibitions.

Sport[edit]

Syed Modi

Cricket, Football, Kabbaddi, Kushti are popular in Gorakhpur. The main stadium in the city is the Regional Stadium in civil lines, other than this there is Sayyid Modi Railway Stadium which has produced a fleet of players like Syed Modi, Narendra Hirwani, Panne Lal Yadav, Prem Maya, Janardan Singh, Ram Ashray Yadav, Chandra Vijay Singh, Janardan Yadav. The Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University has a sports stadium which supports basketball, football, cricket and various sport activities. The Sports Department of the university offers courses in sports. Gorakhpur has a sports college name Veer Bahadur Singh Sports College which produces International level players every year .The city has a golf course which is owned by railways.

Administrative structure[edit]

Gorakhpur is the headquarters of Gorakhpur Division and District. Gorakhpur division comprises four districts, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Mahrajganj and Kushinagar. As a basic administration unit the district, has assumed a greater development and regulatory role consequent to emphasis on decentralised planning. It is divided into seven Tehsils ( Revenue Sub- Divisions) presided over by a Sub Divisional Magistrate. Tehsils are further subdivided into nineteen Development Blocks, Blocks into 191 Nyay Panchayat and these Nyay Panchayats into 1233 Gram Sabhas which consists of 3319 Revenue villages. The District Administrative unit is shown as:

Yogi Adityanath is the current MP from Gorakhpur division.
Unit No.
Number of Tehsil 7
Number of Blocks 19
Number of Nyay Panchayat 191
Number of Gram sabha 1234
Number of Villages 3319

Division of District into Tehsils and Blocks is shown below:

Name of Tehsil Name of Block
Sadar Jungle Kaudia, Chargawa, Bhathat, Khorabar, Pipraich
Chauri Chaura Sardarnagar, Brahmpur
Sahjanawa Pali, Piprauli, Sahjanwa
Khajni Khajni, Belghat
Campierganj Campierganj
Bansgaon Bansgaon, Kauriram, Gagaha
Gola Gola, Barhalganj, Uruwa

Political representation[edit]

There are two Loksabha constituencies and nine assembly seats in the district of Gorakhpur. The sitting MPs are as follows

Loksabha seats (2)[edit]

S No. Constituency Member Party
1 64-Gorakhpur Adityanath Yogi BJP
2 67-Bansgaon Kamlesh Paswan BJP

Assembly Seats (9)[edit]

S No. Constituency Member Party
1 327-Bansgaon Dr. Vijay Kumar BSP
2 325-Khajani Sant Prashad BJP
3 328-Chillupar Rajesh Tripathi BSP
4 320-Campiarganj Fatehbahadur Singh NCP
5 327-Chauri chaura Jai Prakash Nishad BSP
6 321-Pipraich Rajmati Devi SP
7 322-Gorakhpur Radha Mohan Das Agarwal BJP
8 323-Gorakhpur Rural Vijay Bahadur Yadav BJP
9 324-Sahjanwan Rajendra Singh BSP

Members of Vidhan Parishad (2)[edit]

Seat
No.
Member Party
1 Ganesh Shankar Pandey BSP
2 Devendra Pratap Singh SP

Local bodies[edit]

Seat
No.
Body Member Designation Party
1 Nagar Nigam Dr. Satya Pandey Mayor BJP
2 Zila Panchayat Sadhana Singh Chairman

Transport[edit]

Railways[edit]

Gorakhpur Junction Has the worlds longest railway platform.
Lucknow Junction railway station serves as divisional headquarter of North Eastern Railway zone.

This station serves as the sole headquarters of India's North Eastern Railway zone and it also has the world's longest railway platform. It connects to almost every major city in India. Direct trains connect to Hyderabad, Chennai, Agra, Aligarh, Moradabad, Bareilly, Bhopal, Jhansi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Pune, Siwan, Jammu, Amritsar, Bilaspur, Raipur, and other distant parts of the nation. The station offers Class A railway station facilities. On 6 October 2013, Gorakhpur became the world's Longest Railway platform, after inauguration of the remodelled Gorakhpur Yard, with a stretch of around 1.35 kilometres (0.84 mi).[6][7][8][9] Formed on 14 April 1952 by combining two Railway systems and bifurcated into two Railway Zones on 15 January 1958, the present N. E. Railway (NER), after re-organisation of Railway Zones in 2002, comprises three Divisions - Varanasi, Lucknow and Izatnagar. NER has 3402.46 route km with 486 stations. NER primarily serves the areas of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkhand and western districts of Bihar.The metropolitan area of gorakhpur serves 10 railway station within its city limit are Gorakhpur junction,gorakhpur cantt,domingarh,kushmi,nakaha jungle,maniram,shihapur,jagatla,sahjanwa,and unaula.

Gorakhpur is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway.[8] It handles over 189 trains and about 270,000 passengers daily. Some of the other railway stations in Uttar Pradesh handling large number of passengers are Kanpur Central (597,000 passengers daily), Varanasi Junction (363,000), Mathura Junction (381,000) and Mughalsarai (417,000), Aligarh Junction (204,000).

The Gorakhpur Railway Station is located in the heart of the city of Gorakhpur in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway. The station offers Class A railway station facilities. On 6 October 2013, Gorakhpur became the world's Longest Railway platform, after inauguration of the remodelled Gorakhpur Yard, with a stretch of around 1.35 kilometres (0.84 mi). Gorakhpur is also the headquarters of North Eastern Railways.[10] The mechanical workshop, NER, Gorakhpur was established in 1903. Steam engines were maintained here for a long time, but now diesel engines, coaches, and wagons are the main subjects of maintenance here.

Gorahkpur Cantonment is a railway station in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was originally constructed in 1914. It is likely to be electrified by May 2015 when Chhapra - Gorakhpur section's electrification will be commissioned. Gorakhpur cantonment railway station is a second largest railway station in Gorakhpur after Gorakhpur junction. Mainly used for luggage trafficking, this station serves as an outer checkpost before trains enter Gorakhpur.

Roadways[edit]

Major national highways intersect at Gorakhpur, including NH 28 and 29. Frequent bus services are available for most of these cities. Considerable improvement in this aspect is expected after the completion of the east-west corridor road project that enhances Gorakhpur's road connectivity.[citation needed] There are two bus station in Gorakhpur One named railway bus stand which is nearest to railway station, and the other one is at Rapti Nagar Depo. Gorakhpur has buses to Sonauli and Kathmandu. Gorakhpur main city has two main bus depots one near railway station and oyher near kutchari.

boarding operation in progress at Gorakhpur Airport

Airport[edit]

Gorakhpur is served by an airport located 10 km east from the city centre named Kasia airport but officially its Gorakhpur Airport. It caters primarily to Indian Air Force traffic. A small number of domestic airlines operate civil aviation services to Delhi, Mumbai and elsewhere. Gorakhpur is also host to many tourists who use it as a hub to travel to Lord Buddha's pilgrimage sites. Actually Gorakhpur Airport is Indian Air Force base. Its main constituents are two squadrons of SEPECAT Jaguar fighter planes and helicopter units.

Education[edit]

Gorakhpur offers a variety of schooling. Schools in Gorakhpur are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), ICSE or the U.P Board.

Gorakhpur has a 2 residential Universities, Medical College and Degree colleges for the students of the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh.

DDUGU is one of the oldest universities in Uttar Pradesh.

St. Andrew’s College, Gorakhpur had a beginning in 1828 as a Mission School by the Church Missionary society to provide education primarily to Christian children but also to others irrespective of creed that voluntarily joined it. From 1899 to 1927, the college got its affiliation to Allahabad University and to Agra University from 1927 to 1958. There after it remains affiliated to Gorakhpur University. It will be worthwhile to recall that the principal V.M. Chacko conceived the plan for the evolution of University of Gorakhpur.

  • National Institute Of Electronics And Information Technology

NIELIT, Gorakhpur Centre which is an autonomous Scientific Society of the Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Govt. of India. NIELIT Society is the only professional examination body in India, which accredits Computer courses in 'O', 'A', 'B' & 'C' level approving institutes / organizations for conducting particular course, specializing in the non-formal sector of IT education and training.

References[edit]