Hemp oil

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Hemp seed oil

Hemp oil (hemp seed oil or hempseed oil) is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavour. It should not be confused with hash oil, a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower.

Description[edit]

Refined hemp seed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavor. It is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hemp seed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hemp seed oil is used in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil has a 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids.[1] It may also be used as a feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel.[2]

Manufacture[edit]

Hemp seed oil is manufactured from varieties of Cannabis sativa that do not contain significant amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive element present in the cannabis plant. This manufacturing process typically includes cleaning the seed to 99.99% before pressing the oil. There is no THC within the hemp seed, although trace amounts of THC may be found in hemp seed oil when plant matter adheres to the seed surface during manufacturing. The modern production of hemp seed oil, particularly in Canada, has successfully lowered THC values since 1998.[3] Regular accredited sampling of THC in Canadian hemp seed oil shows THC levels usually below detection limit of 4 ppm (parts per million, or 4 mg/kg). Legal limit for THC content in foodstuffs in Canada is 10 ppm.[4] Some European countries have limits of 5 ppm or none-detected, some EU countries do not have such limits at all.

Nutrition[edit]

About 49% of the weight of hempseed is an edible oil[5] that contains 76% as essential fatty acids; i.e., omega-6 fatty acids including linoleic acid (LA, 54%) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 3%), omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 17%) in addition to monounsaturated fat (5% to 11%) and stearidonic acid (2%).[6] Hemp seed oil contains 5% to 7% saturated fat.[5][6] In common with other oils, hemp seed oil provides 9 kcal/g. Compared with other culinary oils it is low in saturated fatty acids.[6]

Hempseed oil has a relatively low smoke point and is not suitable for frying. Hemp seed oil is primarily used as a food oil and dietary supplement.

Comparison to other vegetable oils[edit]

Vegetable oils[7][8]
Type Processing
treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[7] Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Total poly[7] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado[9] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 271 °C (520 °F)[10]
Canola[11] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[12]
Coconut[13] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[12]
Corn[14] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C (450 °F)[15]

Cottonseed[16] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[15]
Flaxseed/Linseed[17] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C (225 °F)

Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 216 °C (421 °F)[18]
Hemp seed[19] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C (330 °F)[20]

Olive[21] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[12]
Palm[22] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[23] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[15]
Safflower[24] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[12]
Soybean[25] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[15]
Sunflower (standard, 65% linoleic)[26] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 227 °C (440 °F)[15]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[27] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[28] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 232 °C (450 °F)[29]
Cottonseed[30] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[31] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[32] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

Wood finish[edit]

Hemp oil is a "drying oil", as it can polymerize into a solid form. Due to its polymer-forming properties, hemp oil is used on its own or blended with other oils, resins, and solvents as an impregnator and varnish in wood finishing, as a pigment binder in oil paints, and as a plasticizer and hardener in putty.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Callaway, J. C. (2004). "Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview". Euphytica. 140 (1–2): 65–72. doi:10.1007/s10681-004-4811-6.
  2. ^ Agua Das (November 16, 1997). "Hemp Oil Fuels & How to Make Them". HempFarm.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  3. ^ Holler JM, Bosy TZ, Dunkley CS, Levine B, Past MR, Jacobs A (2008). "Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of commercially available hemp products". J Anal Toxicol. 32 (6): 428–32. doi:10.1093/jat/32.6.428. PMID 18652749.
  4. ^ "Cannabis Hemp THC in the Food–Cosmetic Supply". drugwatch.org. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Basic Report: 12012, Seeds, hemp seed, hulled". USDA National Nutrient Database. April 2018. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Tom Sanders, Fioa Lewis (February 26, 2009). "King's College Review of Nutritional Attributes of Cold Pressed Hemp Seed Oil" (PDF). Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College, London.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  8. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details") example: avocado oil; user can search for other oils". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  9. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  10. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  11. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  13. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  14. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  16. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  17. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  18. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutr Metab Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  19. ^ "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  20. ^ https://www.veghealth.com/nutrition-tables/Smoke-Points-of-Oils-table.pdf
  21. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  22. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  23. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  24. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  25. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  26. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  27. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  28. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  29. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. April 17, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
  30. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  31. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  32. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017.