List of solar thermal power stations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The PS10 solar thermal power station.

This is a list of the largest facilities generating electricity through the use of solar thermal power, specifically concentrated solar power.

Operational[edit]

Operational solar thermal power stations (of at least 50 MW capacity)
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology type Storage hours Notes and references
510 Noor / Ouarzazate Solar Power Station  Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station) Parabolic trough and solar power tower (Phase 3) 3 / 7 / 7.5 160 MW Phase 1 with 3 hours heat storage.[1][2] 200 MW phase 2 with 7 hours heat storage is online from January 2018.[3][4] 150 MW (Phase 3) with 7.5 hours storage is online from November 2018[5][6]
392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility  US San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) Solar power tower Completed on February 13, 2014[7][8][9]
310 Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)  US Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) Parabolic trough Collection of 9 units 1984-1990 [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Originally 354 MW. First two units (44 MW out of total 354 MW) were decommissioned after 30 years and replaced by solar PV.
280 Mojave Solar Project  US Barstow, California 35°00′40″N 117°19′30″W / 35.01111°N 117.32500°W / 35.01111; -117.32500 (Mojave Solar Project) Parabolic trough Completed December 2014. Gross capacity of 280 MW corresponds to net capacity of 250 MW[19][20][21]
280 Solana Generating Station  US Gila Bend, Arizona 32°55′N 112°58′W / 32.917°N 112.967°W / 32.917; -112.967 (Solana Generating Station) Parabolic trough 6 Completed in October 2013, with 6 hours thermal energy storage[22][23]
280 Genesis Solar Energy Project  US Blythe, California 33°38′37.68″N 114°59′16.8″W / 33.6438000°N 114.988000°W / 33.6438000; -114.988000 (Genesis Solar) Parabolic trough Online April 24, 2014[24][25][26]
200 Solaben Solar Power Station[27]  Spain Logrosán 39°13′29″N 5°23′26″W / 39.22472°N 5.39056°W / 39.22472; -5.39056 (Solaben Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solaben 3 completed June 2012[28]
Solaben 2 completed October 2012[28]
Solaben 1 and 6 completed September 2013[29]
150 Solnova Solar Power Station  Spain Sanlúcar la Mayor 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solnova 1 completed May 2010
Solnova 3 completed May 2010
Solnova 4 completed August 2010[30][31][32][33][34]
150 Andasol solar power station  Spain Guadix 37°13′42.70″N 3°4′6.73″W / 37.2285278°N 3.0685361°W / 37.2285278; -3.0685361 (Andasol solar power station) Parabolic trough 7.5 Completed: Andasol 1 (2008), Andasol 2 (2009), Andasol 3 (2011). Each equipped with a 7.5 hour thermal energy storage.[35][36]
150 Extresol Solar Power Station  Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero 38°39′N 6°44′W / 38.650°N 6.733°W / 38.650; -6.733 (Extresol Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough 7.5 Completed: Extresol 1 and 2 (2010), Extresol 3 (2012). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.[28][37][38]
125 Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project  US Nye County, Nevada 38°14′N 117°22′W / 38.233°N 117.367°W / 38.233; -117.367 (Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project) Solar power tower 10 with 10h heat storage; commercial operation began September 2015[39][40]
125 Dhursar  India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) fresnel reflector Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[41][42][43][44]
121 Ashalim Power Station (Negev Energy)  Israel Ashalim 30°57′N 34°42′E / 30.950°N 34.700°E / 30.950; 34.700 (Ashalim Power Station) Parabolic trough 4.5 4.5h heat storage. Completed August 2019 and located in Negev desert[45]
121 Megalim Power Station (Negev Energy)  Israel Ashalim 30°56′N 34°43′E / 30.933°N 34.717°E / 30.933; 34.717 (Megalim Power Station) Solar power tower Completed April 2019 and located in Negev desert[46][47][48]
100 Kathu Solar Park  South Africa Northern Cape 27°31′59.67″S 23°8′10.56″E / 27.5332417°S 23.1362667°E / -27.5332417; 23.1362667 (Kathu Solar Park) Parabolic trough 4.5 completed February 2018, With 4.5h heat storage

[49][50][51][52][53]

100 KaXu Solar One  South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (KaXu Solar One) Parabolic trough 2.5 with 2.5h heat storage[54][55][56]
100 Xina Solar One  South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (Xina CSP Project) Parabolic trough 5.5 Commissioned in September 2017 with 5.5h heat storage[57]
100 Manchasol Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°11′N 3°18′W / 39.183°N 3.300°W / 39.183; -3.300 (Manchasol Power Station) Parabolic trough 7.5 Manchasol 1 and 2 completed in 2011, each with 7.5h heat storage[28]
100 Valle Solar Power Station  Spain San José del Valle 36°39′N 5°50′W / 36.650°N 5.833°W / 36.650; -5.833 (Valle Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough 7.5 Completed December 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[28][58]
100 Helioenergy Solar Power Station  Spain Écija 37°34′43″N 5°9′24″W / 37.57861°N 5.15667°W / 37.57861; -5.15667 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011[59][60]
Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012[28][59][60]
100 Aste Solar Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°10′22″N 3°15′58″W / 39.17278°N 3.26611°W / 39.17278; -3.26611 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough 8 Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[28]
Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[28]
100 Solacor Solar Power Station  Spain El Carpio 37°54′54″N 4°30′9″W / 37.91500°N 4.50250°W / 37.91500; -4.50250 (Solacor Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solacor 1 completed February 2012[28]
Solacor 2 completed March 2012[28][61]
100 Helios Solar Power Station  Spain Puerto Lápice 39°14′24″N 3°28′12″W / 39.24000°N 3.47000°W / 39.24000; -3.47000 (Helios Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Helios 1 completed May 2012[28]
Helios 2 completed August 2012[28]
100 Shams solar power station  UAE Abu Dhabi Madinat Zayed 23°34′N 53°42′E / 23.567°N 53.700°E / 23.567; 53.700 (Shams solar power station) Parabolic trough Shams 1 completed March 2013 [62][63]
100 Termosol Solar Power Station  Spain Navalvillar de Pela Parabolic trough Both Termosol 1 and 2 completed in 2013[28]
100 Palma del Río I & II  Spain Palma del Río 37°38′42.56″N 5°15′29.32″W / 37.6451556°N 5.2581444°W / 37.6451556; -5.2581444 (Palma del Río I & II) Parabolic trough Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010[28]
Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011[28]
100 Ilanga 1  South Africa Northern Cape (Upington) 28°29′25.79″S 21°32′27.13″E / 28.4904972°S 21.5408694°E / -28.4904972; 21.5408694 (Ilanga 1 CSP Project) Parabolic trough 5 With 5h heat storage. Operational since 2018[64]
100 Shouhang Dunhuang  China Dunhuang (Gansu Province) 40°5′33.11″N 94°39′55.56″E / 40.0925306°N 94.6654333°E / 40.0925306; 94.6654333 (Shouhang Dunhuang CSP Project) Solar power tower 7.5 With 7.5h heat storage. Operational since end of December 2018[65]
75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center  US Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed December 2010[66]
75 Nevada Solar One  US Boulder City, Nevada 35°48.0′N 114°58.6′W / 35.8000°N 114.9767°W / 35.8000; -114.9767 (Nevada Solar One) Parabolic trough Operational since 2007
50 Guzmán  Spain Palma del Río 37°38′N 5°15′W / 37.633°N 5.250°W / 37.633; -5.250 (Guzmán) Parabolic trough Completed July 2012[28]
50 Khi Solar One  South Africa Upington 28°33′0.36″S 21°5′5.28″E / 28.5501000°S 21.0848000°E / -28.5501000; 21.0848000 (Khi Solar One) Solar power tower 2 Completed Feb 2016
With 2h heat storage[54][55]
50 Bokpoort  South Africa Groblershoop 28°43′26.96″S 21°59′34.88″E / 28.7241556°S 21.9930222°E / -28.7241556; 21.9930222 (Bokpoort CSP Project) Parabolic trough 9 with 9h heat storage[67][68]
50 Puertollano Solar Thermal Power Plant  Spain Puertollano, Ciudad Real 38°39′N 3°58′W / 38.650°N 3.967°W / 38.650; -3.967 (Puertollano) Parabolic trough Completed May 2009[69]
50 Alvarado I  Spain Badajoz 38°49′37″N 06°49′34″W / 38.82694°N 6.82611°W / 38.82694; -6.82611 (Alvarado I) Parabolic trough Completed July 2009[70][71][72]
50 La Florida  Spain Alvarado (Badajoz) Parabolic trough Completed July 2010[28][73]
50 Arenales PS  Spain Morón de la Frontera (Seville) Parabolic trough[28][74][75] 2013
50 Casablanca  Spain Talarrubias Parabolic trough[28] 2013
50 Majadas de Tiétar  Spain Caceres 39°58′10″N 5°44′32″W / 39.96944°N 5.74222°W / 39.96944; -5.74222 (Majadas) parabolic trough Completed August 2010[28][76]
50 La Dehesa  Spain La Garrovilla (Badajoz) 38°57′35″N 6°27′50″W / 38.95972°N 6.46389°W / 38.95972; -6.46389 (La Dehesa) Parabolic trough Completed November 2010[28]
50 Lebrija-1  Spain Lebrija Parabolic trough Completed July 2011[28][77]
50 Astexol 2  Spain Badajoz 38°48′42″N 7°3′36″W / 38.81167°N 7.06000°W / 38.81167; -7.06000 (Astexol) Parabolic trough 7.5 Completed November 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[28][74]
50 Morón  Spain Morón de la Frontera 37°7′11.24″N 5°33′50.45″W / 37.1197889°N 5.5640139°W / 37.1197889; -5.5640139 (Morón) Parabolic trough Completed May 2012[28]
50 La Africana  Spain Posada Parabolic trough 7.5 Completed July 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[28]
50 Olivenza 1  Spain Olivenza 38°45′18.73″N 7°8′40.42″W / 38.7552028°N 7.1445611°W / 38.7552028; -7.1445611 (Olivenza1) Parabolic trough Completed July 2012[28]
50 Orellana  Spain Orellana la Vieja 39°1′17.6″N 5°31′57.4″W / 39.021556°N 5.532611°W / 39.021556; -5.532611 (Orellana) Parabolic trough Completed August 2012[28]
50 Godawari Green Energy Limited  India Nokh Village,Rajasthan 27°36′01″N 72°13′25″E / 27.60028°N 72.22361°E / 27.60028; 72.22361 (Godawari) Parabolic trough 2013[78][79][80]
50 Enerstar Villena Power Plant  Spain Villena 38°43′41.51″N 0°55′18.23″W / 38.7281972°N 0.9217306°W / 38.7281972; -0.9217306 (Enerstar Villena) Parabolic trough Completed 2013[28][81]
50 Megha Solar Plant  India Anantapur 14°56′47″N 77°41′15″E / 14.94639°N 77.68750°E / 14.94639; 77.68750 (Megha Solar Plant) Parabolic trough Completed 2014[82][83]
50 Delingha Solar Plant  China Delingha 37°23′N 97°23′E / 37.383°N 97.383°E / 37.383; 97.383 (Delingha) Parabolic trough 9 Completed July 2018 with 9 hours of thermal energy storage[84]
50 Supcon Solar Delingha  China Delingha 37°23′N 97°23′E / 37.383°N 97.383°E / 37.383; 97.383 (Delingha) Solar power tower Completed December 2018 [85]
50 Shagaya CSP  Kuwait Shagaya 29°13′41″N 47°03′45″E / 29.22806°N 47.06250°E / 29.22806; 47.06250 (Shagaya CSP) Parabolic trough 10 Commercial operation started in February 2019, 10 hours thermal storage [86][87]
50 Waad Al Shamal ISCC Plant  Saudi Arabia Waad Al Shamal 31°39′37″N 38°51′29″E / 31.66028°N 38.85806°E / 31.66028; 38.85806 (Waad Al Shamal ISCC Plant) ISCC with parabolic trough Commercial operation started in 2018, 1,390 MW plant with 50 MW solar[88]
50 Qinghai Gonghe CSP  China Gonghe, Qinghai Province Power tower 6 With 6 h heat storage.[89][90]

Under construction[edit]

Solar thermal power stations under construction (of at least 50 MW capacity)
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Co-
ordinates
Expected
completion
Technology Notes
700 Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park Phase IV  United Arab Emirates Dubai 24°45′17″N 55°21′54″E / 24.7547°N 55.365°E / 24.7547; 55.365 (DEWA solar power park) 2020 Parabolic trough
solar tower
600 MW parabolic trough and 100 solar tower, with 15h heat storage[91][92][93]
200 Golmud CSP  China Golmud, Qinghai province Power tower [89]
110 Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant (Atacama 1)  Chile María Elena, Antofagasta   2019 Solar power tower [94]
100 Urat Middle Banner CSP  China Urat Middle Banner, Inner Mongolia Parabolic trough [89][95]
50 Erdos Solar Power Plant  China Hanggin Banner Parabolic trough [96]
50 Dacheng Dunhuang CSP  China Dunhuang, Gansu Province Fresnel reflector [89]
50 Gansu Akesai CSP  China Akesai, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [89]
50 Hami CSP  China Hami, Xinjiang Autonomous Region Power tower [89]
50 Luneng Haixi CSP  China Haixi Zhou, Qinghai Sheng Power tower [89]
50 Rayspower Yumen CSP  China Yumen, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [89]
50 Yumen CSP  China Yumen, Gansu Province 2019 Beam down tower 9h storage[97]

Announced[edit]

Solar thermal power stations announced
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
230 Noor Midelt II  Morocco Morocco 32°40′51″N 04°43′59″W / 32.68083°N 4.73306°W / 32.68083; -4.73306 (Noor Midelt Power Station) [98]
200 Noor Midelt I  Morocco Morocco 32°40′51″N 04°43′59″W / 32.68083°N 4.73306°W / 32.68083; -4.73306 (Noor Midelt Power Station) Hybrid solar power with combination of 600 MW solar PV and 200 MW solar thermal with 5h heat storage [99][100]
450 Tamarugal Solar Project  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile Three solar power towers with 13h heat storage [101]
390 Likana Solar Project  Chile Antofagasta   Three solar power towers with 13h heat storage[102]
260 Copiapó Solar Project  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile Solar power tower PV integrated. With 14h heat storage [103]
100 Redstone Solar Thermal Power  South Africa Northern Cape 28°17′53″S 23°21′56″E / 28.29806°S 23.36556°E / -28.29806; 23.36556 (Redstone Solar Thermal Power) Solar power tower with 12h heat storage [104][105][106]
100 Solnova 2, 4–5  Spain Sevilla 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough with heat storage [107]
100 CAP SunEdison  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile [108]
100 Gulang CSP  China Wuwei, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [89][95]
100 Golden Tower CSP  China Jinta, Gansu Province Power tower [89]
72 Mashhad solar-thermal power station  Iran Mashhad, Iran Parabolic dish with tracer system [109]
64 Chabei CSP  China Chabei, Hebei Province Parabolic trough [89]
60 Al-Abdaliya  Kuwait ?? Parabolic trough [110]
50 AZ 20  Spain Sevilla Solar power tower [107][89]
50 Shangyi CSP  China Shangyi, Hebei Province Power tower [89]
50 Zhangjiakou CSP  China Zhangbei, Hebei Province Fresnel reflector [89]

Cancelled[edit]

Solar thermal power stations cancelled
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
1,600 Sandstone Solar Energy Project  US Nye County, Nevada 37°54′00″N 116°42′00″W / 37.90000°N 116.70000°W / 37.90000; -116.70000 (Sandstone Solar Energy Project) solar power tower 8 units with 10h heat storage[111]
1,000 Blythe Solar Power Project  US Blythe, California Parabolic trough 4 units, converted to 485 MW PV[112]
850 Stirling Energy Systems Solar One Project  US San Bernardino County, California Dish Stirling converted to 618 MW PV, license terminated 27 August 2013[113]
750 Stirling Energy Systems Solar Two Project  US Imperial County, California Dish Stirling converted to 594 MW PV[114]
500 Palen Solar Power Project  US Riverside County, California Parabolic trough 2 units, certification expired 15 December 2015[115]
250 Ridgecrest Solar Power Project  US Kern County, California Parabolic trough 2 units, license terminated 22 April 2014[116]
160 Luz SEGS XI-XII Project  US San Bernardino County, California Parabolic trough license expired 22 September 1989[117]
150 Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project  Australia Port Augusta, South Australia 32°12′S 137°36′E / 32.2°S 137.6°E / -32.2; 137.6 (Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project) solar power tower [118]
100 El Reboso 2+3  Spain La Puebla del Rio (Seville) Parabolic trough[119][120]
100 SCE Solar 100  US Johnson Valley, California Solar power tower license expired 1983[121]
100 Diwakar  India Askandra Parabolic trough 2014, Parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[122]
100 KVK Energy Solar Project  India Askandra Parabolic trough 2014, Parabolic trough with 4h heat storage[123]

Decommissioned[edit]

  • Eurelios pilot plant, a 1 MW, power tower design in Adrano, Sicily, operational 1981–1987[124]
  • Solar One pilot plant, operational 1982–1986; converted into Solar Two, operational 1995–1999; site demolished 2009 – USA California, 10 MW, power tower design
  • SES-5 – USSR, 5 MW, power tower design, water / Steam, service period 1985–1989[125]
  • Maricopa Solar – USA Peoria, Arizona, 1.5 MW dish stirling SES / Tessera Solar's first commercial-scale Dish Stirling power plant. Completed January 2010,[126] decommissioned September 2011 and sold to CondiSys Solar Technology of China on April 2012.[127][128]

Largest plants by technology[edit]

Largest operational Solar Thermal Power Stations by technology
Technology type Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Notes and references
Solar power tower without thermal storage 392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility  US San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) Completed on February 13, 2014[7][8][9] The station uses natural gas as supplementary fuel.
with thermal storage 150 Ouarzazate Solar Power Station  Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station)
Parabolic trough without thermal storage 310 Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)  US Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) Collection of 9 units[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The station has gas firing facility to run the units during night time.
with thermal storage 360 Ouarzazate Solar Power Station  Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station)
ISCC with parabolic trough 75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center  US Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) Completed December 2010[66] Basically combined cycle power plant running on natural gas. Solar energy is supplemented to reduce the natural gas consumption for the same station output.
Fresnel reflector without thermal storage 100 Dhursar  India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[41][42][43][44]
Dish Stirling No utility scale installastions currently operational, 1.5MW Maricopa Solar was largest

See also[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Saudi Power Developer Gives Spanish Firms Work in Morocco". 30 April 2013. Archived from the original on 12 November 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  2. ^ "King Mohammed VI to Inaugurate 'Noor' Solar Plant in Ouarzazate". moroccoworldnews.com. 26 December 2015. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Morocco expands solar capacity". Zawya. 2013-09-23. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  4. ^ Morocco’s Noor II Begins Synchronization to Grid Archived 2018-05-27 at the Wayback Machine, solar paces, January 14, 2018.
  5. ^ "Chinese firm helps build world's largest concentrated solar power complex in Morocco's desert". Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Noor Ouarzazate III central receiver concentrated solar power plant with storage completes its reliability test". Archived from the original on 12 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ a b Commission, California Energy. "Relocation of the Solar Energy Projects Page". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  8. ^ a b "PG&E and BrightSource Sign Contracts for Over 1,300 MW of Solar Thermal". www.renewableenergyworld.com.
  9. ^ a b "News Release - Investors - NRG Energy". phx.corporate-ir.net. Archived from the original on 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  10. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station I - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  11. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station II- Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  12. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station III - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  13. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station IV - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  14. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station V - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  15. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station VI - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  16. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station VII - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  17. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station VIII - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  18. ^ a b Solar Electric Generating Station IX Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ csp-world.com Abengoa's Mojave 250 MW CSP plant enters commercial operation Archived 2014-12-10 at the Wayback Machine, 2 December 2014
  20. ^ Abengoa: Plants under construction - United States Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "CSP World: Abengoa closes $1.2 billion financing for the Mojave Solar Project and starts construction". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
  22. ^ "Abengoa Solar :: About us :: Press :: News :: 2013". www.abengoasolar.com. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
  23. ^ SolarServer: Concentrating solar power: Solana CSP plant begins commercial operation Archived 2013-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ CSP World Archived 2014-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Another Huge Solar Plant Goes Online in California's Desert Archived 2014-05-06 at the Wayback Machine, Chris Clarke, REWIRE, May 5, 2014
  26. ^ "Genesis Solar Energy Project Eastern Riverside County, California - Amendment (09-AFC-8)" (PDF). California Energy Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  27. ^ "Abengoa Solar begins construction on Extremadura's second solar concentrating solar power plant". abengoasolar.com. Archived from the original on 2009-12-04. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Mapa de proyectos en España Archived 2014-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "CSP World: Abengoa closes financing and begin operation of Solaben 1 & 6 CSP plants in Spain". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
  30. ^ Rubens, Craig (8 August 2008). "Abengoa Rakes in $426M for 4 Solar Power Plants". earth2tech.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
  31. ^ "Abengoa Begins Operation of 50 MW Concentrating Solar Power Plant". SustainableBusiness.com News. May 6, 2010. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  32. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 1 Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 3 Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Abengoa Solar Reaches Total of 193 Megawatts Operating[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ 1527443821, ;. "Solar Millennium AG - Andasol 1 has started test run - Archives - Press - Press Releases - Archive 2008". www.solarmillennium.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2011-09-02.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  36. ^ 1527443824, ;. "Solar Millennium AG - The Construction of the Andasol Power Plants. - Archives - Technology - References and Projects - Andasol (Spain)". www.solarmillennium.de. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2011-09-02.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  37. ^ Solar Thermal Power Generation - A Spanish Success Story Archived 2009-03-18 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ ACS Launches the Operation Phase of its Third Dispatchable 50 MW Thermal Power Plant in Spain, Extresol-1 Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ SolarReserve. "Home — SolarReserve". tonopahsolar.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  40. ^ "Crescent Dunes Solar Thermal Power Plant". Grupo COBRA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  41. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Dhursar - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  42. ^ a b "Initiatives in Renewable Energy". Reliance Energy. Archived from the original on 2017-06-05. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  43. ^ a b "India Reliance Power's Dhursar concentrated solar power (CSP) project nears completion". HELIOSCSP. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  44. ^ a b "Linear Fresnel Reflector". European Solar Thermal Electricity Association. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  45. ^ "Israel inaugurates Negev concentrated solar power plant". Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  46. ^ "Israel's Megalim Concentrated Solar Power Plant Begins Operations". Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  47. ^ "Negev Energy – Negev Energy English site". www.negevenergy.co.il. Archived from the original on 2018-08-01. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  48. ^ "Israel's 121 MW Ashalim Plot B Concentrated Solar Power plant set for 50% expansion". HELIOSCSP. Archived from the original on 2018-08-21. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  49. ^ Creamer, Terence. "100 MW Kathu CSP plant to be operational in 2018". Engineering News. Archived from the original on 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  50. ^ "New solar plants in sunny Northern Cape". www.southafrica.info. Archived from the original on 2016-05-23. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  51. ^ "Kathu Solar Power Park - Nersa" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-06.
  52. ^ "The R12bn Kathu solar project: Good-bye diesel. Hello molten salt". Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  53. ^ Kathu Solar Park Archived 2017-06-09 at the Wayback Machine, NREL
  54. ^ a b Abengoa: Plants under construction - South Africa Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ a b "CSP World: Abengoa kicks off South Africa's first CSP plants construction". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-06. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
  56. ^ "Abengoa Solar :: Our plants :: Operating facilities :: South Africa". Abengoa Solar. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  57. ^ "Xina Solar One Concentrated Solar Power plant completes first month of operation, South Africa". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  58. ^ VALLE 1 and VALLE 2 Archived 2009-09-03 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ a b Renewable Energy Magazine: Abengoa-E.ON joint solar thermal electric plant comes online Archived 2012-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ a b "Abengoa Projects in Andalucia". abengoasolar.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  61. ^ "CSP World Solacor 2 comes on-line". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
  62. ^ "World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Launches In Abu Dhabi - CleanTechnica". cleantechnica.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  63. ^ Al Makahleh, Shehab (23 November 2012). "Milestone: Shams 1 set to tap solar power". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 26 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  64. ^ "100MW Ilanga Concentrated Solar Power 1 achieves Commercial Operation Date". Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  65. ^ "China 1st 100MW molten salt Solar Tower CSP Plant connected to grid". Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  66. ^ a b Here comes the sun! FPL's Next Generation Solar Energy Center to be world's first hybrid solar plant, first utility-scale solar facility in Florida Archived 2008-12-06 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate. "CDM: Bokpoort CSP (Concentrating Solar Power) Project, South Africa". cdm.unfccc.int. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  68. ^ "CSP World: Groundbreaking ceremony for Bokpoort CSP plant in South Africa has been held". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
  69. ^ José María Barreda and Ignacio Galán open Iberdrola Renovables’ first solar termal power plant[permanent dead link]
  70. ^ Acciona Status Solarpaces 2008 Archived 2009-03-18 at the Wayback Machine p.25
  71. ^ "ACCIONA - Líder Mundial en Energía Renovable e Infraestructuras". arquivo.pt. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16.
  72. ^ ACCIONA opens its first CSP plant in Spain, in Extremadura
  73. ^ "Spain - A Solar Thermal Powerhouse - Energy Matters". energymatters.com.au. 15 July 2010. Archived from the original on 18 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  74. ^ a b Concentrated Solar Power(CSP) Archived 2010-04-02 at Archive.today
  75. ^ 1527443869, ;. "Solar Millennium AG - Solar Millennium AG and OHL Industrial jointly take over planned Spanish 50 megawatt power plant Arenales from Fotowatio Renewable Ventures - Archives - Press - Press Releases - Archive 2011". www.solarmillennium.de. Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2011-09-05.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  76. ^ Acciona starts work on its €237 million CSP plant in Spain[permanent dead link]
  77. ^ "Solel Begins Construction on New 50 MW Solar Field in Spain using Advanced SunField LP Technology" (PDF). solel.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-07-11. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  78. ^ CSP World: Godawari Green Energy Archived 2013-08-02 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Godawari Solar Project - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  80. ^ Solar Reference (17 June 2013). "Godawari green energy - Solar thermal power plant". slideshare.net. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  81. ^ www.vgcomunicacion.com, v.g.comunicacion -. "Página no encontrada - Enerstar". enerstar.es. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
  82. ^ "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Megha Solar Plant - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  83. ^ Kumar, V Rishi (12 November 2014). "MEIL Green Power commissions 50 MW solar farm". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  84. ^ "China's First Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Has Connected to the Grid". Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  85. ^ "Delingha 50 MW Tower CSP has successfully connected to the grid". Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  86. ^ "Kuwait eyes up to 400 MW of Concentrated Solar Power". Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  87. ^ "Brief on Shagaya 50MW CSP plant--Kuwait first Concentrated Solar Power project". Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  88. ^ SEC starts operating solar-powered plant in Waad Al-Shamal Archived 2019-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, Saudi Gazzette, July 9, 2018
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Concentrating Solar Power Projects in China". Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  90. ^ "Power China Gonghe 50 MW Molten Salt Tower Concentrated Solar Power Project successfully connected to the grid". Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  91. ^ "DEWA launches tender for 900MW 5th phase of Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Concentrated Solar Power Park". Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  92. ^ "Phases of energy production, DEWA". Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  93. ^ "UAE's push on concentrated solar power should open eyes across world". Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  94. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2015-04-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  95. ^ a b "15 GW Concentrated Solar Power projects to compete for China 2nd batch pilot projects". Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  96. ^ "Project 6835 : Inner Mongolia Erdos 50MWp Groove Type Solar Thermal Project". unfccc.int. Archived from the original on 2014-07-26. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
  97. ^ "Three solar modules of world's first commercial beam-down tower Concentrated Solar Power project to be connected to grid". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  98. ^ "Morocco follows lowest ever Concentrated Solar Power price with fresh tender". Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  99. ^ "Controllable solar power – competitively priced for the first time in North Africa". Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  100. ^ "Morocco Breaks New Record with 800 MW Midelt 1 CSP-PV at 7 Cents". Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  101. ^ "SolarReserve Receives Environmental Approval for 450 MW 24/7 Baseload Solar Facility in Chile_EnergyTrend PV". pv.energytrend.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-07. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  102. ^ admin. "Likana". www.solarreserve.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  103. ^ SolarReserve. "Solarreserve Obtiene Aprobación Ambiental para Construir una Central de Concentración Solar de 260 MW". www.prnewswire.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  104. ^ "New solar plants in sunny Northern Cape". South Africa.info. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-01-14. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  105. ^ "Redstone Solar Thermal Power Plant". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  106. ^ "Reliably Powering South Africa with Clean Solar Energy – Day and Night" (PDF). SOLARRESERVE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  107. ^ a b "Solúcar Platform". abengoasolar.com. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  108. ^ "CAP y SunEdison firman acuerdo para construir en Chile la mayor planta solar de Latinoamérica". latercera.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  109. ^ Iran's biggest solar power plant[dead link]
  110. ^ "Kuwait's first solar park to be built for US$3.27 billion". pv-tech.org. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  111. ^ "Docket: 17-08003 - Original filing (insert docket number in search field)". pucweb1.state.nv.us. Nevada Public Utilities Commission. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  112. ^ "Blythe Solar Power Project". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  113. ^ "Calico Solar Project". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  114. ^ "Imperial Valley Solar". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  115. ^ "Palen Solar Power Project". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  116. ^ "Ridgecrest Solar Power Project". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  117. ^ "Solar Energy Projects in California". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  118. ^ "Port Augusta solar thermal power plant scrapped after failing to secure finance". ABC News. 5 April 2019. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  119. ^ Boragis: El Reboso II Archived 2009-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  120. ^ Boragis: El Reboso III[permanent dead link]
  121. ^ "SCE Solar 100". www.energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  122. ^ "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Diwakar - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  123. ^ "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - KVK Energy Solar Project - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  124. ^ Guida All'energia Solare. Edizioni Mediterranee. 1983. p. 231.
  125. ^ "Making solar thermal power generation in India a reality – Overview of technologies, opportunities and challenges" (PDF). aprekh.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  126. ^ Wilson, Alex (April 29, 2010). "Building Green's Product of the Week". Stirling SunCatcher with "Heat Engine" Technology. Building Green. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  127. ^ "Former Stirling power plant in Peoria to be sold, disassembled". Archived from the original on 2014-08-11. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  128. ^ "Top bid on plant is $250K - USATODAY.com". usatoday.com. Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2017-09-03.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]