List of solar thermal power stations

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The PS10 solar thermal power station.

This is a list of the largest facilities generating electricity through the use of solar thermal power, specifically concentrated solar power.

Operational[edit]

Operational Solar Thermal Power Stations
Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Technology type Notes and references
392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility  USA San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) solar power tower Completed on February 13, 2014[1][2][3]
359 Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)  USA Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) parabolic trough Collection of 9 units[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]
280 Mojave Solar Project  USA Barstow, California 35°00′40″N 117°19′30″W / 35.01111°N 117.32500°W / 35.01111; -117.32500 (Mojave Solar Project) parabolic trough Completed December 2014. Gross capacity of 280 MW corresponds to net capacity of 250 MW[13][14][15]
280 Solana Generating Station  USA Gila Bend, Arizona 32°55′N 112°58′W / 32.917°N 112.967°W / 32.917; -112.967 (Solana Generating Station) parabolic trough Completed in October 2013, with 6h thermal energy storage[16][17]
250 Genesis Solar Energy Project  USA Blythe, California 33°38′37.68″N 114°59′16.8″W / 33.6438000°N 114.988000°W / 33.6438000; -114.988000 (Genesis Solar) parabolic trough Online April 24, 2014[18][19]
200 Solaben Solar Power Station[20]  Spain Logrosán 39°13′29″N 5°23′26″W / 39.22472°N 5.39056°W / 39.22472; -5.39056 (Solaben Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solaben 3 completed June 2012[21]
Solaben 2 completed October 2012[21]
Solaben 1 and 6 completed September 2013[22]
160 Noor I  Morocco Ghassate, Ouarzazate Province 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station) parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[23][24]
150 Solnova Solar Power Station  Spain Sanlúcar la Mayor 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solnova 1 completed May 2010
Solnova 3 completed May 2010
Solnova 4 completed August 2010[25][26][27][28][29]
150 Andasol solar power station  Spain Guadix 37°13′42.70″N 3°4′6.73″W / 37.2285278°N 3.0685361°W / 37.2285278; -3.0685361 (Andasol solar power station) parabolic trough Completed: Andasol 1 (2008), Andasol 2 (2009), Andasol 3 (2011). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.[30][31]
150 Extresol Solar Power Station  Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero 38°39′N 6°44′W / 38.650°N 6.733°W / 38.650; -6.733 (Extresol Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Completed: Extresol 1 and 2 (2010), Extresol 3 (2012). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.[21][32][33]
110 Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project  USA Nye County, Nevada 38°14′N 117°22′W / 38.233°N 117.367°W / 38.233; -117.367 (Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project) solar power tower with 10h heat storage; commercial operation began September 2015[34]
100 Dhursar  India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) fresnel reflector Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[35][36][37][38]
100 KaXu Solar One  South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (KaXu Solar One) parabolic trough with 2.5h heat storage[39][40][41]
100 Manchasol Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°11′N 3°18′W / 39.183°N 3.300°W / 39.183; -3.300 (Manchasol Power Station) parabolic trough Manchasol 1 and 2 completed in 2011, each with 7.5h heat storage[21]
100 Valle Solar Power Station  Spain San José del Valle 36°39′N 5°50′W / 36.650°N 5.833°W / 36.650; -5.833 (Valle Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Completed December 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[21][42]
100 Helioenergy Solar Power Station  Spain Écija 37°34′43″N 5°9′24″W / 37.57861°N 5.15667°W / 37.57861; -5.15667 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011[43][44]
Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012[21][43][44]
100 Aste Solar Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°10′22″N 3°15′58″W / 39.17278°N 3.26611°W / 39.17278; -3.26611 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[21]
Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[21]
100 Solacor Solar Power Station  Spain El Carpio 37°54′54″N 4°30′9″W / 37.91500°N 4.50250°W / 37.91500; -4.50250 (Solacor Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solacor 1 completed February 2012[21]
Solacor 2 completed March 2012[21][45]
100 Helios Solar Power Station  Spain Puerto Lápice 39°14′24″N 3°28′12″W / 39.24000°N 3.47000°W / 39.24000; -3.47000 (Helios Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Helios 1 completed May 2012[21]
Helios 2 completed August 2012[21]
100 Shams solar power station  UAE Abu Dhabi Madinat Zayed 23°34′N 53°42′E / 23.567°N 53.700°E / 23.567; 53.700 (Shams solar power station) parabolic trough Shams 1 completed March 2013 [46][47]
100 Termosol Solar Power Station  Spain Navalvillar de Pela parabolic trough Both Termosol 1 and 2 completed in 2013[21]
100 Palma del Río I & II  Spain Palma del Río 37°38′42.56″N 5°15′29.32″W / 37.6451556°N 5.2581444°W / 37.6451556; -5.2581444 (Palma del Río I & II) parabolic trough Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010[21]
Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011[21]
75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center  USA Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed December 2010[48]
64 Nevada Solar One  USA Boulder City, Nevada 35°48.0′N 114°58.6′W / 35.8000°N 114.9767°W / 35.8000; -114.9767 (Nevada Solar One) parabolic trough Operational since 2007
50 Guzmán  Spain Palma del Río 37°38′N 5°15′W / 37.633°N 5.250°W / 37.633; -5.250 (Guzmán) parabolic trough Completed July 2012[21]
50 Khi Solar One  South Africa Upington 28°33′0.36″S 21°5′5.28″E / 28.5501000°S 21.0848000°E / -28.5501000; 21.0848000 (Khi Solar One) solar power tower Completed Feb 2016
With 2h heat storage[39][40]
50 Bokpoort  South Africa Groblershoop 28°43′26.96″S 21°59′34.88″E / 28.7241556°S 21.9930222°E / -28.7241556; 21.9930222 (Bokpoort CSP Project) parabolic trough with 9h heat storage[49][50]
50 Puertollano Solar Thermal Power Plant  Spain Puertollano, Ciudad Real 38°39′N 3°58′W / 38.650°N 3.967°W / 38.650; -3.967 (Puertollano) parabolic trough Completed May 2009[51]
50 Alvarado I  Spain Badajoz 38°49′37″N 06°49′34″W / 38.82694°N 6.82611°W / 38.82694; -6.82611 (Alvarado I) parabolic trough Completed July 2009[52][53][54]
50 La Florida  Spain Alvarado (Badajoz) parabolic trough Completed July 2010[21][55]
50 Arenales PS  Spain Morón de la Frontera (Seville) parabolic trough[21][56][57] 2013
50 Casablanca  Spain Talarrubias parabolic trough[21] 2013
50 Majadas de Tiétar  Spain Caceres 39°58′10″N 5°44′32″W / 39.96944°N 5.74222°W / 39.96944; -5.74222 (Majadas) parabolic trough Completed August 2010[21][58]
50 La Dehesa  Spain La Garrovilla (Badajoz) 38°57′35″N 6°27′50″W / 38.95972°N 6.46389°W / 38.95972; -6.46389 (La Dehesa) parabolic trough Completed November 2010[21]
50 Lebrija-1  Spain Lebrija parabolic trough Completed July 2011[21][59]
50 Astexol 2  Spain Badajoz 38°48′42″N 7°3′36″W / 38.81167°N 7.06000°W / 38.81167; -7.06000 (Astexol) parabolic trough Completed November 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[21][56]
50 Morón  Spain Morón de la Frontera 37°7′11.24″N 5°33′50.45″W / 37.1197889°N 5.5640139°W / 37.1197889; -5.5640139 (Morón) parabolic trough Completed May 2012[21]
50 La Africana  Spain Posada parabolic trough Completed July 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storag[21]
50 Olivenza 1  Spain Olivenza 38°45′18.73″N 7°8′40.42″W / 38.7552028°N 7.1445611°W / 38.7552028; -7.1445611 (Olivenza1) parabolic trough Completed July 2012[21]
50 Orellana  Spain Orellana la Vieja 39°1′17.6″N 5°31′57.4″W / 39.021556°N 5.532611°W / 39.021556; -5.532611 (Orellana) parabolic trough Completed August 2012[21]
50 Godawari Green Energy Limited  India Naukh 27°36′01″N 72°13′25″E / 27.60028°N 72.22361°E / 27.60028; 72.22361 (Godawari) parabolic trough 2013[60][61][62]
50 Enerstar Villena Power Plant  Spain Villena 38°43′41.51″N 0°55′18.23″W / 38.7281972°N 0.9217306°W / 38.7281972; -0.9217306 (Enerstar Villena) parabolic trough Completed 2013[21][63]
50 Megha Solar Plant  India Anantapur parabolic trough Completed 2014[64][65]
31.4 Puerto Errado  Spain Murcia 38°16′42″N 01°36′01″W / 38.27833°N 1.60028°W / 38.27833; -1.60028 (Puerto Errado) fresnel reflector Puerto Errado 1 completed April 2009[21][66]
Puerto Errado 2 completed February 2012[21][67]
25 Hassi R'Mel integrated solar combined cycle power station  Algeria Hassi R'Mel 33°07′29″N 03°21′07″E / 33.12472°N 3.35194°E / 33.12472; 3.35194 (Hassi R'Mel) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed June 2011[68][69]
22.5 Termosolar Borges  Spain Borges Blanques 41°31′49″N 0°48′10″E / 41.53028°N 0.80278°E / 41.53028; 0.80278 (Termosolar Borges) parabolic trough biomass hybrid Completed December 2012[21]
20 PS20 solar power tower  Spain Seville 37°26′38″N 06°15′34″W / 37.44389°N 6.25944°W / 37.44389; -6.25944 (PS20 solar power tower) solar power tower Completed April 2009
20 Kuraymat Plant  Egypt Kuraymat 29°16′43″N 31°14′56″E / 29.27861°N 31.24889°E / 29.27861; 31.24889 (PS20 solar power tower) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed December 2010[69][70][71]
20 Ain Beni Mathar Integrated Thermo Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant  Morocco Ain Bni Mathar 34°4′11″N 2°6′18″W / 34.06972°N 2.10500°W / 34.06972; -2.10500 (Ain Beni Mathar) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed 2011 [72][73][74]
19.9 Gemasolar  Spain Fuentes de Andalucía (Seville) 37°33′38.17″N 05°19′53.61″W / 37.5606028°N 5.3315583°W / 37.5606028; -5.3315583 (Gemasolar solar power tower) solar power tower Completed May 2011[75] With 15h heat storage[21]
17 Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station  Iran Yazd 31°57′5″N 54°5′30″E / 31.95139°N 54.09167°E / 31.95139; 54.09167 (Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station) ISCC with parabolic trough Dedicated May 2011[76]
11 PS10 solar power tower  Spain Seville 37°26′36.42″N 06°15′14.28″W / 37.4434500°N 6.2539667°W / 37.4434500; -6.2539667 (PS10 solar power tower) solar power tower World's first commercial solar tower in 2007
10 Delingha Solar Power Plant (Supcon)  China Delingha 37°21′59.42″N 97°17′33.28″E / 37.3665056°N 97.2925778°E / 37.3665056; 97.2925778 (Delingha) solar power tower Phase 1 of project completed in July 2013,[77] total 50 MW planned[78] NREL[79]
5 Greenway CSP Mersin Solar Tower Plant  Turkey Mersin 36°51′57″N 34°36′35″E / 36.86583°N 34.60972°E / 36.86583; 34.60972 (Greenway CSP Mersin) solar power tower Turkey's first CSP solar tower plant[80]
5 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant  USA Bakersfield, California 35°34′06″N 119°12′06″W / 35.56833°N 119.20167°W / 35.56833; -119.20167 (Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant) fresnel reflector AREVA Solar, formerly Ausra demonstration plant[81]
5 Sierra SunTower  USA Lancaster, California 34°43′53″N 118°08′19″W / 34.73139°N 118.13861°W / 34.73139; -118.13861 (Sierra SunTower) solar power tower Completed August 2009[82][83][84]
5 Archimede combined cycle power plant  Italy Syracuse, Sicily 37°8′0″N 15°12′58″E / 37.13333°N 15.21611°E / 37.13333; 15.21611 (Archimede solar power plant) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed July 2010. Equipped with heat storage.[85][86]
5 Thai Solar Energy (TSE) 1  Thailand Huai Krachao parabolic trough Completed November 2011[87]
9 Liddell Power Station Solar Steam Generator  Australia New South Wales 32°22′26″S 150°58′40″E / 32.37389°S 150.97778°E / -32.37389; 150.97778 (Liddell Power Station, New South Wales) ISCC with fresnel reflector Electrical equivalent steam boost for coal station. Not yet fully operational.[88][89]
2.5 Acme Solar Thermal Tower  India Bikaner, Rajasthan 28°11′2″N 73°14′26.4″E / 28.18389°N 73.240667°E / 28.18389; 73.240667 (ACME Solar Thermal Power Plant) solar power tower Completed 2012[90]
2 Keahole Solar Power  USA Hawaii 19°42′54″N 156°2′7″W / 19.71500°N 156.03528°W / 19.71500; -156.03528 (Keahole Solar Power, Keahole Point) parabolic trough [91][92]
1.5 Jülich Solar Tower  Germany Jülich 50°54′54″N 06°23′16″E / 50.91500°N 6.38778°E / 50.91500; 6.38778 (Jülich) solar power tower Completed December 2008[93]
1 Feranova CSP Plant  Turkey Aydın fresnel reflector Completed December 2012[citation needed]
1 Saguaro Solar Power Station  USA Red Rock, Arizona 32°32′53″N 111°17′34″W / 32.54806°N 111.29278°W / 32.54806; -111.29278 (Saguaro Solar Power Station) parabolic trough [94]
1 Yanqing (DAHAN)Solar Power Station  China Yanqing County 40°22′59″N 115°56′14″E / 40.38306°N 115.93722°E / 40.38306; 115.93722 (Yanqing Solar Power Station) solar power tower Completed 2012[95]
0.5 Shiraz solar power plant  Iran Shiraz 31°56′N 54°02′E / 31.933°N 54.033°E / 31.933; 54.033 (Shiraz solar power plant) parabolic trough Iran's first solar power plant
0.25 Augustin Fresnel Solar Power Station[96]  France Targassonne fresnel reflector Prototype, Completed 2012, 0.25MWh Thermal Energy Storage
1 City of Medicine Hat Concentrated Solar Thermal Plant[97] Canada Medicine Hat Alberta 50°02'14"N

110°43'15"W

parabolic trough Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

Began operation November 2014

4,861.55 Overall operational capacity
Solar thermal power stations
Part of the 354 MW SEGS solar complex in San Bernardino, California, United States. 
The PS10 and PS20 solar power plant near Seville, in Andalusia, Spain. 
The Andasol Solar Power Station, Spain, uses a molten salt thermal energy storage to generate electricity, even when the sun isn't shining. 
Parts of the Solnova Solar Power Station in the foreground. The two towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar power stations can be seen in the background. 

Under construction[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations under construction
Capacity MW Name Country Location Co-
ordinates
Expected
completion
Technology Notes
200 Noor II  Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 2017/2018 parabolic trough [98]
121 Ashalim power station 1  Israel Negev desert 30°58′N 34°42′E / 30.967°N 34.700°E / 30.967; 34.700 (Ashalim power station) 2017 solar power tower [99][100][101]
110 Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant (Atacama 1)  Chile María Elena, Antofagasta   2018 solar power tower [102]
100 Redstone Solar Thermal Power  South Africa Northern Cape 28°17′53″S 23°21′56″E / 28.29806°S 23.36556°E / -28.29806; 23.36556 (Redstone Solar Thermal Power) 2018 solar power tower with 12h heat storage [103][104][105]
100 Xina Solar One  South Africa Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (Xina CSP Project) 2016 parabolic trough with 5h heat storage [106]
100 Kathu Solar Park  South Africa Northern Cape 27°31′59.67″S 23°8′10.56″E / 27.5332417°S 23.1362667°E / -27.5332417; 23.1362667 (Kathu Solar Park) 2016 parabolic trough with 4.5h heat storage

[107][108][109][110]

100 Ilanga 1  South Africa Northern Cape (Upington) 28°29′25.79″S 21°32′27.13″E / 28.4904972°S 21.5408694°E / -28.4904972; 21.5408694 (Ilanga 1 CSP Project) 2017 linear Fresnel technology with 4.5h heat storage [111][112]
100 El Reboso 2+3  Spain El Puebla del Rio (Seville) 2015 parabolic trough [113][114]
100 Diwakar  India Askandra 2014 parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[115]
100 KVK Energy Solar Project  India Askandra 2014 parabolic trough with 4h heat storage[116]
100 Noor III  Morocco Ghassate, Ouarzazate Province 2017/2018 solar power tower [98]
50 Erdos Solar Power Plant  China Hanggin Banner 2013 parabolic trough [117]
50 CGNSED power plant  China Delingha 37°21′26″N 97°16′18″E / 37.35722°N 97.27167°E / 37.35722; 97.27167 (CGNSED) sep 2016 parabolic trough [118]
27.5 Jinshawan  China China solar updraft tower

Operations underway at 200 kW.[119]

25 Gujarat Solar One  India Kutch 23°22.233′N 70°41.988′E / 23.370550°N 70.699800°E / 23.370550; 70.699800 (Gujarat Solar One) 2013 parabolic trough with 9h heat storage[120]
17 Stillwater  USA Nevada 2014 parabolic trough [121]
12 Alba Nova 1  France Corsica July, 2015 fresnel reflector First utility-scale solar thermal plant in France[122][123]
5 Sundt Power Plant  USA Arizona 2014 fresnel reflector [124]
3 Airlight Energy Ait Baha Plant  Morocco Ait Baha 2013 parabolic trough with 12h heat storage[125]
1.5 Sundrop  Australia Port Augusta 2016 solar power tower [126]
1.5 Tooele Army Depot  USA Tooele 2013 dish [127]
1.4 THEMIS Solar Power Tower  France Pyrénées-Orientales 42°30′5″N 1°58′27″E / 42.50139°N 1.97417°E / 42.50139; 1.97417 (Themis (solar power plant)) solar power tower Hybrid solar/gas power plant[128]
1 e-Cube 1  China Hainan 2013 Modular Heliostat First Modular Heliostat solar thermal plant in the world[129]
1 Renovalia  Spain Albacete dish [21]

Announced[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations Announced
Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
2,000 Ordos  China Mongolian desert, China solar power tower [130]
2,000 Sandstone Energy 10X (fr)  USA Nye County, Nevada solar power tower 10 plants with 10h heat storage[131]
1,540 Solar Energy Project  Morocco Ain Bni Mathar, Foum Al Quad, Boujdour, Sebkhat Tah - Morocco unknown [132]
450 Tamarugal Solar Project  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile three solar power towers with 13h heat storage [133]
390 Likana Solar Project  Chile Antofagasta   three solar power towers with 13h heat storage[134]
260 Copiapó Solar Project  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile solar power tower PV integrated. With 14h heat storage [135]
280 Al-Abdaliya  Kuwait  ?? parabolic trough [136]
120 Shneur Solar Power Station  Israel Tze'elim, Israel parabolic trough [137]
100 Solnova 2, 4–5  Spain Sevilla 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) parabolic trough with heat storage [138]
100 CAP SunEdison  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile [139]
72 Mashhad solar-thermal power station  Iran Mashhad, Iran Parabolic dish with tracer system [140]
60 Mashavei Sadde solar-thermal power station  Israel Mashavei Sadde (Negev), Israel CSP [141]
50 AZ 20  Spain Sevilla solar power tower [138]
30 Archetype SW 550 solar power plant  Italy Passo Martino (CT), Sicily Parabolic trough with heat storage, biomass integration and cogenerating desalination [142][143]
14 Agua Prieta II integrated solar combined cycle power station  Mexico Agua Prieta (Sonora), Mexico ISCC [144][145]

Decommissioned[edit]

  • Eurelios pilot plant, a 1 MW, power tower design in Adrano, Sicily, operational 1981-1987[146]
  • Solar One pilot plant, operational 1982-1986; converted into Solar Two, operational 1995-1999; site demolished 2009 — USA California, 10 MW, power tower design
  • SES-5 — USSR, 5 MW, power tower design, water / Steam, service period 1985-1989[147]
  • Maricopa Solar — USA Peoria, Arizona, 1.5 MW dish stirling SES / Tessera Solar's first commercial-scale Dish Stirling power plant. Completed January 2010,[148] decommissioned September 2011 and sold to CondiSys Solar Technology of China on April 2012.[149][150]

Largest plants by technology[edit]

Largest operational Solar Thermal Power Stations by technology
Technology type Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Notes and references
solar power tower 392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility  USA San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) Completed on February 13, 2014[1][151][152]
parabolic trough 359 Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)  USA Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) Collection of 9 units[153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161]
ISCC with parabolic trough 75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center  USA Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) Completed December 2010[162]
fresnel reflector 100 Dhursar  India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[35][36][37][38]
Dish Stirling

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Large Solar Energy Projects, California Government
  2. ^ PG&E and BrightSource Sign Contracts for Over 1,300 MW of Solar Thermal
  3. ^ World’s Largest Solar Thermal Power Project at Ivanpah Achieves Commercial Operation
  4. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station I
  5. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station II
  6. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station III
  7. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IV
  8. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station V
  9. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VI
  10. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VII
  11. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VIII
  12. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IX Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ csp-world.com Abengoa's Mojave 250 MW CSP plant enters commercial operation, 2 December 2014
  14. ^ Abengoa: Plants under construction - United States Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ CSP World: Abengoa closes $1.2 billion financing for the Mojave Solar Project and starts construction
  16. ^ Abengoa Solar: Abengoa’s Solana, the US’s first large-scale solar plant with thermal energy storage system, begins commercial operation
  17. ^ SolarServer: Concentrating solar power: Solana CSP plant begins commercial operation
  18. ^ CSP World
  19. ^ Another Huge Solar Plant Goes Online in California's Desert, Chris Clarke, REWIRE, May 5, 2014
  20. ^ Abengoa Solar begins construction on Extremadura’s second solar concentrating solar power plant
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Mapa de proyectos en España
  22. ^ CSP World: Abengoa closes financing and begin operation of Solaben 1 & 6 CSP plants in Spain
  23. ^ Saudi Power Developer Gives Spanish Firms Work in Morocco
  24. ^ King Mohammed VI of Morocco will inaugurate the first phase of solar plant “Noor I,” on Sunday in Ouarzazate, according to Minister Delegate in Charge of Environment Hakima El Haite
  25. ^ Abengoa Rakes in $426M for 4 Solar Power Plants
  26. ^ "Abengoa Begins Operation of 50MW Concentrating Solar Power Plant". SustainableBusiness.com News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  27. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 1
  28. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 3
  29. ^ Abengoa Solar Reaches Total of 193 Megawatts Operating
  30. ^ Andasol 1 has started test run
  31. ^ The Construction of the Andasol Power Plants
  32. ^ Solar Thermal Power Generation - A Spanish Success Story
  33. ^ ACS Launches the Operation Phase of its Third Dispatchable 50 MW Thermal Power Plant in Spain, Extresol-1
  34. ^ Tonopah Solar Energy
  35. ^ a b NREL: Dhursar
  36. ^ a b "Initiatives in Renewable Energy". Reliance Energy. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  37. ^ a b "India Reliance Power’s Dhursar concentrated solar power (CSP) project nears completion". HELIOSCSP. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  38. ^ a b "Linear Fresnel Reflector". European Solar Thermal Electricity Association. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  39. ^ a b Abengoa: Plants under construction - South Africa
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  42. ^ VALLE 1 and VALLE 2
  43. ^ a b Renewable Energy Magazine: Abengoa-E.ON joint solar thermal electric plant comes online
  44. ^ a b Abengoa Projects in Andalucia
  45. ^ CSP World Solacor 2 comes on-line
  46. ^ World’s Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Launches In Abu Dhabi
  47. ^ Al Makahleh, Shehab (23 November 2012). "Milestone: Shams 1 set to tap solar power". Gulf News. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  48. ^ Here comes the sun! FPL's Next Generation Solar Energy Center to be world's first hybrid solar plant, first utility-scale solar facility in Florida
  49. ^ Project 7841 : Bokpoort CSP (Concentrating Solar Power) Project, South Africa
  50. ^ CSP World: Groundbreaking ceremony for Bokpoort CSP plant in South Africa has been held
  51. ^ José María Barreda and Ignacio Galán open Iberdrola Renovables’ first solar termal power plant
  52. ^ Acciona Status Solarpaces 2008 p.25
  53. ^ ACCIONA Energía develops 900-million-euro renewables projects in the region of Extremadura
  54. ^ ACCIONA opens its first CSP plant in Spain, in Extremadura
  55. ^ Spain - A Solar Thermal Powerhouse
  56. ^ a b Concentrated Solar Power(CSP)
  57. ^ Solar Millennium AG and OHL Industrial jointly take over planned Spanish 50 megawatt power plant Arenales from Fotowatio Renewable Ventures
  58. ^ Acciona starts work on its €237 million CSP plant in Spain
  59. ^ Solel Begins Construction on New 50 MW Solar Field in Spain using Advanced SunField LP Technology
  60. ^ CSP World: Godawari Green Energy
  61. ^ NREL: Godawari Solar Project
  62. ^ Bloomberg: Godawari Starts Asia’s Biggest Solar-Thermal Power Plant
  63. ^ Enerstar homepage
  64. ^ NREL: Megha Solar Plant
  65. ^ Kumar, V Rishi (12 November 2014). "MEIL Green Power commissions 50 MW solar farm". The Hindu Business Line. 
  66. ^ World First in Solar Power Plant Technology
  67. ^ NREL: Puerto Errado 2 Thermosolar Power Plant
  68. ^ Abengoa Annual Information 2007
  69. ^ a b ISCC's outlook brightens with wave of projects
  70. ^ First parabolic trough solar field in Egypt is under construction
  71. ^ Egypt’s first solar-thermal plant goes into operation in Kuraymat
  72. ^ King Mohamed VI Launches Thermo-Solar Energy Plant in Morocco
  73. ^ World Bank: Nurturing Low Carbon Economy in Morocco
  74. ^ Centrale Thermo-Solaire à Cycle Combine Integre d'Ain Beni Mathar
  75. ^ Torresol Energy commissions Gemasolar Power Plant in Spain
  76. ^ "Iran - Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station". Helios CSP. 21 May 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. 
  77. ^ MeetingChina: China’s First Solar-thermal Power Project Achieved Grid-connected Power Generation
  78. ^ SUPCON: Delingha 50 MW Solar Power Plant Succeed in Producing Steam
  79. ^ NREL: Supcon Solar Project
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  81. ^ Ausra’s first solar thermal plant starts up
  82. ^ eSolar Flips the Switch on First Solar Power Tower in U.S.
  83. ^ eSolar Ushers in New Era of Solar Energy with Unveiling of Sierra Power Plant
  84. ^ SciAm - First U.S. "Power Tower" Lights Up California
  85. ^ The Thermodynamic Solar Project p.14-18 (dead link)
  86. ^ At Priolo Enel Inaugurates the "Archimede" Power Plant
  87. ^ Weekly Intelligence Brief: November 28 – December 5
  88. ^ CLFR
  89. ^ Solar thermal plant at the Liddell Power Station gets government support Archived 2009-02-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  90. ^ Solar Thermal
  91. ^ Sopogy Wins Innovative Company of the Year 2008
  92. ^ Aloha, MicroCSP: Sopogy 2MW solar thermal system inaugurated on big island of Hawaii
  93. ^ Salt-Free Solar: CSP Tower Using Air
  94. ^ Saguaro Solar Trough (dead link)
  95. ^ CSP World: China's first megawatt-size power tower is complete and operational
  96. ^ NREL: Augustin Fresnel 1
  97. ^ "City of Medicine Hat : Solar Concentrating Steam Power Plant Project". www.medicinehat.ca. Retrieved 2017-05-17. 
  98. ^ a b "Morocco expands solar capacity". Zawya. 2013-09-23. 
  99. ^ Israel to hold tender for solar energy plants
  100. ^ Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: Electricity Generation
  101. ^ BrightSource takes solar thermal energy home to Israel
  102. ^ http://www.cspworld.org/cspworldmap/planta-solar-cerro-dominador
  103. ^ "New solar plants in sunny Northern Cape". South Africa.info. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  104. ^ "Redstone Solar Thermal Power Plant". Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  105. ^ "Reliably Powering South Africa with Clean Solar Energy – Day and Night." (PDF). SOLARRESERVE. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  106. ^ "NERSA XiNa Solar One license application – public hearing Kimberley, 18 February 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  107. ^ Creamer, Terence. "100 MW Kathu CSP plant to be operational in 2018". Engineering News. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  108. ^ "New solar plants in sunny Northern Cape". www.southafrica.info. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  109. ^ "Kathu Solar Power Park - Nersa" (PDF). 
  110. ^ "The R12bn Kathu solar project: Good-bye diesel. Hello molten salt.". Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  111. ^ "ILANGA CSP 1/KAROSHOEK SOLAR ONE 100 MW CSP, KAROS, UPINGTON" (PDF). Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  112. ^ "Project Ilanga Solar Thermal Power Plant , Northern Cape Province Basic Assessment Phase Report: Canals and Detention Ponds" (PDF). Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  113. ^ Boragis: El Reboso II
  114. ^ Boragis: El Reboso III
  115. ^ NREL: Diwakar
  116. ^ NREL: KVK Energy Solar Project
  117. ^ Project 6835 : Inner Mongolia Erdos 50MWp Groove Type Solar Thermal Project
  118. ^ http://www.spaceman.com.cn/Item/Show.asp?m=111&d=23
  119. ^ China's first solar chimney plant starts operating in desert
  120. ^ NREL: Gujarat Solar One
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  122. ^ www.solareuromed.com
  123. ^ Alba Nova 1 : le chantier de la centrale thermodynamique corse démarre
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  125. ^ NREL: Airlight Energy Ait Baha Plant
  126. ^ Fairfax Regional Media (24 March 2016). "Solar tower reaches new heights". The Transcontinental. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  127. ^ NREL: Tooele Army Depot
  128. ^ Production d'Electricité par turbine à GAz et énergie SolairE
  129. ^ 光热发电:新能源产业创新转型捷径
  130. ^ Woody, Todd (2010-01-09). "Pasadena's ESolar lands 2,000-megawatt deal in China". Los Angeles Times. 
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  132. ^ "Update 1- Morocco to invite bids for solar station in Feb". Reuters. 2010-01-06. 
  133. ^ "SolarReserve Receives Environmental Approval for 450 MW 24/7 Baseload Solar Facility in Chile_EnergyTrend PV". pv.energytrend.com. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 
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  135. ^ Solarreserve Obtiene Aprobación Ambiental para Construir una Central de Concentración Solar de 260 MW
  136. ^ PV-Tech: Kuwait’s first solar park to be built for US$3.27 billion
  137. ^ Project 4444 : Shneur Solar Thermal Grid-Connected Power Plant in Ze'elim
  138. ^ a b Solúcar Platform
  139. ^ CAP y SunEdison firman acuerdo para construir en Chile la mayor planta solar de Latinoamérica
  140. ^ Iran's biggest solar power plant
  141. ^ Two Sigma and Hezzi Kogler plan to build solar thermal power station with a budget worth 300 Million NIS
  142. ^ EGP realizza in Italia la prima centrale solare termodinamica
  143. ^ Demonstration of innovating parabolic solar trough using an alternative heat transfer fluid producing electricity and fresh water: ARChimede Hot Energy TYPology Enhanced Water Solar 550
  144. ^ Realizará CFE proyecto de campo solar
  145. ^ Abengoa to build Mexico’s first hybrid solar-gas plant
  146. ^ Guida All'energia Solare. Edizioni Mediterranee. 1983. p. 231. 
  147. ^ Making solar thermal power generation in India a reality – Overview of technologies, opportunities and challenges
  148. ^ Wilson, Alex (April 29, 2010). "Building Green's Product of the Week". Stirling SunCatcher with "Heat Engine" Technology. Building Green. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  149. ^ Former Stirling power plant in Peoria to be sold, disassembled
  150. ^ Top bid on plant is $250K
  151. ^ PG&E and BrightSource Sign Contracts for Over 1,300 MW of Solar Thermal
  152. ^ World’s Largest Solar Thermal Power Project at Ivanpah Achieves Commercial Operation
  153. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station I
  154. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station II
  155. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station III
  156. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IV
  157. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station V
  158. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VI
  159. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VII
  160. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VIII
  161. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IX Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  162. ^ Here comes the sun! FPL's Next Generation Solar Energy Center to be world's first hybrid solar plant, first utility-scale solar facility in Florida

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]