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|Course||Appetizers or entrees|
|Place of origin||East Asia and South Asia|
|Region or state||Nepal|
India (Sikkim, Ladakh, Darjeeling)
|Associated national cuisine||Nepal, India, Bhutan|
|Main ingredients||White-flour-and-water dough; meat, vegetable or cheese filling served with tomato and mayonnaise dip, tomato soup, soybean- perilla-peanut and sesame soup|
|Variations||Steam-momo, Kothey momo, Jhol momo, C-momo, Fry-momo, Open-momo, fried momo|
|350 to 1000 (35 to 100 per piece) kcal|
|Similar dishes||baozi, jiaozi, mantou, buuz, gyoza, mandu, manti|
Momo is a type of East and South Asian steamed filled dumpling, popular across the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan regions of East-South Asia border. Momos are native to Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, and India (specifically the regions of Darjeeling, Ladakh, Sikkim, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh). It is similar to Chinese baozi, jiaozi, and mantou, Mongolian buuz, Japanese gyoza, Korean mandu and Turkic manti, but heavily influenced by cuisine of the Indian subcontinent with Indian spices and herbs. Momos are extremely popular among the natives of the Indian subcontinent, and can be found in every kind of shop from restaurants to street vendors.
In the native Newar (Nepal Bhasha) from Nepal, the term Mo/mah/mome/maniu/mame denotes the process of steaming while preparing any food similar to yomari and lhocha mari. In Shanxi, where Jin Chinese is spoken, unfilled buns are often called momo (饃饃), which is simply the character for "steamed bun". The name momo spread to Tibet, India and Nepal and usually now refers to filled buns or dumplings. Momo is the colloquial form of the Tibetan word "mog mog". The different names for the dumpling include Assamese: মম; Bengali: মোমো; Hindi-Urdu: मोमोज़, موموز; Nepali: मम; Nepal Bhasa: मम, small momo - ममचा; Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, Wylie: mog mog; simplified Chinese: 馍馍; traditional Chinese: 饃饃; pinyin: mómo.
As for the Himalayan momo, the dish is believed to have spread to Nepal along with the influx of the Tibetan diaspora. Since this dish was initially popular among the Newar community of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, one prevalent belief is that traveling Nepali Newar merchants took the recipe of momo from Tibet where the Nepali Newar Merchants used to go to trade and brought it back home to Nepal. In Tibet, the filling of the dish was typically meat, such as yak, due to the scarcity of vegetables in Tibet. However, after arriving in the North Indian plains, the momo was made vegetarian in the modern era to feed the large population of vegetarian Hindus. Unproven, but substantiated by the dates and references to momo in colloquial references, the civil war in Nepal pushed out the Nepali diaspora to seek a livelihood in the Indian sub-continent, which further proliferated to the prevalence of Himalayan style momo in the southern half of the Indian sub-continent.
Momo is a type of steamed dumpling with some form of filling. Momo has become a traditional delicacy in Nepal, Tibet, as well as among Nepalese and Tibetan communities in Bhutan, as well as people of the Indian regions of Darjeeling, Ladakh, Sikkim, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh.
Traditionally, momo is prepared with ground/minced meat filling, but in the modern era, this has changed and the fillings have become more elaborate. These days, momo is prepared with virtually any combination of ground meat, vegetables, tofu, paneer cheese, soft chhurpi (local hard cheese) and vegetable and meat combinations.
- Meat: Different types of meat fillings are popular in different regions. In Nepal, Tibet, Darjeeling district, Sikkim and Bhutan, pork, chicken, goat meat and buffalo meat are commonly used. In the Himalayan region of Nepal, India, lamb and yak meat are more common. Minced meat is combined with any or all of the following: onions/shallots, garlic, ginger and cilantro/coriander. Some people also add finely puréed tomatoes and soy sauce.
- Vegetables: Finely chopped cabbage, carrot, soy granules, potato, flat bean (Lilva Kachori) or chayote (iskush) are used as fillings in India and Nepal.
- Cheese: Usually fresh cheese (Paneer) or the traditional soft chhurpi is used. This variety is common in India and Eastern Nepal.
- Khoa: Momo filled with milk solids mixed with sugar are popular as dessert in the Kathmandu valley.
The dough is rolled into small circular flat pieces. The filling is then enclosed in the circular dough cover either in a round pocket or in a half-moon or crescent shape. People prefer meat that has a lot of fat because it produces flavorful juicy momos. A little oil is sometimes added to the lean ground/minced meat to keep the filling moist and juicy. The dumplings are then cooked by steaming over a soup (either a stock based on bones or vegetables) in a momo-making utensil called mucktoo. The dumplings may also be pan-fried or deep-fried after being steamed.
Momo are traditionally steamed but can also be deep fried or pan fried. Momo is usually served with chili garlic sauce and pickled daikon in Tibet whereas in Nepal popular dipping sauces include tomato based chutneys or sesame based sauces. (locally called chutney/achhar), normally made with tomato as the base ingredient. Soup momo or mok-thuk (Tibetan) is another way to serve momos where the momos are either cooked in broth for a type of dumpling soup or steamed momos are added to broth. Pan-fried momo is also known as kothey momo. Steamed momo served in hot sauce is called C-momo. There are also a variety of dumplings of Nepal found in the Indian state of Sikkim and Darjeeling district, including tingmo and thaipo.
Kothey, a pan-fried momo variety from "The Bakery Cafe" in Nepal
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|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- Lynelle Seow (15 January 2017). CultureShock! India. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 202–. ISBN 978-981-4771-98-6.
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- Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Akadémiai Kiadó. 1955. p. 209.
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- Sijapati, Alisha (September 17, 2016). "A Juicy Love Affair". Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via The Kathmandu Post.
- "Momo recipe". Himalayanlearning.org. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Williams, James. "Momos Chutney Recipe". ReciPickr.com.