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Xiao Long Bao at Nanxiang Mantou Dian 1.jpg
Steamed xiaolongbao served in a traditional steaming basket
Alternative namesXiaolong bao, xiao long bao, soup dumplings, xiaolong mantou, XLB
CourseDim sum, xiaochi
Place of originChangzhou, China
Region or stateJiangsu and Shanghai
Main ingredientsLeavened or unleavened dough, minced pork (or other meats), aspic
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese小笼包
Traditional Chinese小籠包
Literal meaninglittle-basket bun
xiaolong mantou
Simplified Chinese小笼馒头
Traditional Chinese小籠饅頭
Literal meaninglittle-basket steamed dumpling
"little-basket steamed head"
Japanese name

Xiaolongbao (/ˈʃlɒŋˌb/) is a type of Chinese steamed bun (baozi) from Jiangsu province, especially associated with Wuxi and Shanghai (Shanghai was formerly a part of Jiangsu province). In Shanghainese, they are known as siaulon moedeu or xiaolong-style mantous[1] as Wu Chinese-speaking peoples use the traditional definition of "mantou", which refers to both filled and unfilled buns. It is traditionally prepared in xiaolong, which is a kind of small bamboo steaming basket,[2] which give them their name. Xiaolongbao is often referred to as a kind of "dumpling", but should not be confused with British or American-style dumplings, nor with Chinese jiaozi.

They are also called a soup dumpling in English-speaking countries,[2] although a variety of other Chinese dumplings also have soup in them.


"Xiaolongbao" originated in Changzhou, Jiangsu, by Wan Hua Tea House, in the years of Daoguang Emperor (1820 to 1850). Xiaolongbao evolved from the guantangbao (soup-filled dumplings/buns) from Kaifeng, Henan province, the capital city of Northern Song Dynasty (AD 960–1127).[3]

There are numerous styles of xiaolongbao in Jiangsu cuisine. Shanghai-style xiaolongbao originated in Nanxiang, which was a neighboring village of Shanghai in Jiangsu that eventually ended up becoming an outer suburb of Shanghai's Jiading District.[4][5] The inventor of xiaolongbao sold them in his first store in Nanxiang next to the town's notable park, Guyi Garden. From there the xiaolongbao expanded into downtown Shanghai and outward. The Suzhou and Wuxi styles are larger (sometimes twice as large as a Nanxiang-style soup dumpling) and have sweeter fillings.[6] The Nanjing style is smaller with an almost translucent skin and less meat.[7]

Two specialist xiaolongbao restaurants have a particularly long history. One is Nanxiang Mantou Dian (Nanxiang Bun Shop), which derives from the original store in Nanxiang but is now located in the Yu Garden area. It is famed for its crab-meat-filled buns. The other is Gulong Restaurant, at the original site next to Guyi Garden in Nanxiang.[citation needed]


Chinese buns, in general, may be divided into two types, depending on the degree of leavening of the flour skin.[8] Buns can be made with leavened or unleavened dough. Those made with unleavened dough use clear water for mixing, the skin is thin and the fillings large. It is frequently made in Nanxiang but is imitated elsewhere, calling it Xiang-style. Steamed buns made with raised flour are seen throughout China and are what is usually referred to as mantou. Steamed xiaolongbao made with partially raised flour are more commonly seen in the south. This means that their skin is tender, smoother, and somewhat translucent, rather than being white and fluffy. As is traditional for buns of various sizes in the Jiangnan region, xiaolongbao is pinched at the top prior to steaming, so the skin has a circular cascade of ripples around the crown.

Xiaolongbao is traditionally filled with pork.[2] One popular and common variant is pork with minced crab meat and roe. More modern innovations include other meats, seafood, shrimp, crab meat, and vegetarian fillings. The characteristic soup-filled kind is created by wrapping solid meat aspic inside the skin alongside the meat filling. Heat from steaming then melts the gelatin-gelled aspic into soup. In modern times, refrigeration has made the process of making xiaolongbao during hot weather easier, since making gelled aspic is much more difficult at room temperature.


Traditionally, xiaolongbao is a kind of dim sum (à la carte item) or "xiaochi" (snack). The buns are served hot in the bamboo baskets in which they were steamed, usually on a bed of dried leaves or paper mat, although some restaurants now use napa cabbage instead. The buns are usually dipped in Zhenjiang vinegar with ginger slivers. They are traditionally served with a clear soup on the side.[5] Around Shanghai, "xiaolongbao" may be eaten throughout the day, although usually not for breakfast. They form part of a traditional Jiangnan-style morning tea (早茶).[citation needed] In Guangdong and the West,[note 1] it is sometimes served as a dish during Cantonese tea time. Frozen xiaolongbao are now mass-produced and a popular frozen food sold worldwide.

Related varieties[edit]

The xiaolongbao is one of kind of tang bao ("soup bun"). Another form of tang bao with a differently-textured skin but about the same size is the xiaolong tangbao, a specialty of Wuhan.[citation needed] Shengjianbao are very similar to xiaolongbao, but are pan fried instead of steamed.

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ the West refers to the Western world


  1. ^ 古時面皮中有餡之物方稱爲饅頭。見曾维华,〈古代的馒头〉,《上海师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版)》1995年第2期,页157。
  2. ^ a b c Food Lover's Guide to the World: Experience the Great Global Cuisines. Lonely Planet Food and Drink. Lonely Planet Publications. 2014. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-74360-581-3. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  3. ^ "Dumplings, a dish on the to-do list". SHINE. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  4. ^ "Food Wars: Xiaolongbao Edition". GOOD. 2016-11-17. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  5. ^ a b "Shanghai Dining – Shanghai Snacks: Nanxiang Steamed Stuffed Bun". People's Daily Online. china.org.cn. July 18, 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  6. ^ "[How to]: Eat Xiaolongbao Like a Scientist | SmartShanghai". www.smartshanghai.com. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  7. ^ "Shanghai's 7 Essential Soup Dumplings: Xiaolongbao". Xtreme Foodies - The world's Essential Eats curated by local food experts. 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  8. ^ From the Annals of Jiading (a district in Shanghai)