|Significance||Hindu lunar new year's Day|
|Begins||Chaitra Shuddha Padyami|
|Date||March (generally), April (occasionally)|
|2016 date||April 8 (Friday)|
|2017 date||29 March(Wednesday)|
|Related to||Hindu calendar|
|Part of a series on|
Ugadi (Ugādi, Samvatsarādi, Yugadi) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Telugu and Kannada communities[further explanation needed]in India. It falls on a different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar. This holiday is one of the most auspicious days for Telugus and Kannadigas. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Ugadi marks the first day of the new year. Chaitra is the first month in Panchanga which is the Indian calendar. In some parts of India it is known as Vikram Samvat or Bhartiya Nav Varsh. This holiday is mostly prevalent in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. Gudi Padwa, which is the Marathi new year, is also celebrated on the same day.
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The name Yugadi or Ugadi is derived from the Sanskrit words yuga (age) and ādi (beginning): "the beginning of a new age". Yugadi specifically refers to the start of the age we are living in now, the Kali Yuga. The Kali Yuga began when Lord Krishna left the world. Maharshi Vedavyasa describes this event with the words "Yesmin Krishno divamvyataha, Tasmat eeva pratipannam Kaliyugam". Kali Yuga began on February 17 or 18, at midnight, in 3102 BCE.
In the terminology used by the Andhra-Kannada luni-solar calendar, Yugadi or Ugadi falls on "Chaitra Shudhdha Paadyami" or the first day of the bright half of the Indian month of Chaitra which begins the day after the new moon after the Sun enters Aries. This generally falls in the months of March or April of the Gregorian calendar.
Lunar calendars have a 60-year named-year cycle and starts each named new year on its Yugadi day i.e., on "Chaitra Sudhdha Paadyami" (Chaitram is the name of the first month, Suddha Padyami or Prathama is the first day in the 15 day lunar waxing half-cycle). After the completion of 60 years,the calendar starts anew with the first named year again.
The Yugadi is based on Bhāskara II lunar calculations in the 12th century. It starts on the sunrise after the first new moon after Sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north after the spring equinox and enters the First Point of Aries. For example, the time for the new moon for Bijapur where Bhaskaracharya was born can be determined from the website  (although all official time calculations in these calendars was based on the location of the great center of learning Ujjaini). On some occasions, people celebrate Yugadi on the next morning as Indian day starts from sun rise. Many Indians in America also celebrate Yugadi.
Observance of the festival
The festival marks the new year day for people between Vindhyas and Kaveri river who follow the South Indian lunar calendar, pervasively adhered to in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa.
The Telugu, Kannada, Marathi, Kodava and the Konkani diaspora in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala celebrate the festival with great fanfare; gatherings of the extended family and a sumptuous feast are 'de rigueur'. The day begins with ritual showers with oil, followed by prayers. This tri-state festival could be the result of the common rulers from the Satavahana Dynasty.
While the people of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana use the term Ugadi (ఉగాది) and Karnataka use the term Yugadi (ಯುಗಾದಿ) for this festival, the people of Maharashtra term the same festival, observed on the same day, Gudi Padwa (Marathi: गुढी पाडवा).
Preparations for the festival begin a week ahead. Houses are given a thorough wash. Shopping for new clothes and buying other items that go with the requirements of the festival are done with a lot of excitement.
On Ugadi Day, people wake up before the break of dawn and take a head bath after which they decorate the entrance of their houses with fresh mango leaves. The significance of tying mango leaves relates to a legend. It is said that Kartik (or Subramanya or Kumara Swamy) and Ganesha, the two sons of Lord Siva and Parvathi were very fond of mangoes. As the legend goes Kartik exhorted people to tie green mango leaves to the doorway signifying a good crop and general well-being.
It is noteworthy that we use mango leaves and coconuts (as in a Kalasam, to initiate any pooja) only on auspicious occasions to propitiate gods. People also splash fresh cow dung water on the ground in front of their house and draw colorful floral designs. This is a common sight in every household. People perform the ritualistic worship to God invoking his blessings before they start off with the new year. They pray for their health, wealth and prosperity and success in business too. Ugadi is also the most auspicious time to start new ventures.
The celebration of Ugadi is marked by religious zeal and social merriment. Special dishes are prepared for the occasion. In Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, eatables such as "pulihora, bobbatlu (Bhakshalu/ polelu/ oligalu), New Year Burelu and Pachadi" and preparations made with raw mango go well with the occasion. In Karnataka too, similar preparations are made but called "puliogure" and "holige". The Maharashtrians make "puran poli" or sweet rotis.
Ugadi pachchadi is a dish synonymous with Ugadi. It is made of new jaggery, raw mango pieces, neem flowers, and new tamarind which truly reflect life, however taste is not so delicious — a combination of six different tastes (Shut-Ruchi)(sweet, sour, spicy or pungent, salty, astringent and bitter) symbolizing happiness, disgust, anger, fear, surprise, and sadness. The eating of a sauce composed of six tastes - sourness by a raw mango and from tamarind, sweetness with molasses or jaggery, salt, bitterness from neem flowers, astringent from neem flowers as well as from a small amount taken of tender mango seed or skin, spicy/hot/pungent from black pepper or chilli powder - mixed in water, called Ugadi Pachhadi (ఉగాది పచ్చడి) in Telugu symbolizes this. The ingredients of this 'Pachchadi' may vary slightly in different regions but the symbolic meaning is the same in each case.
The special mixture consists of all the flavours which the tongue can perceive, and one could say that each flavour symbolizes a feeling or emotion which is natural in life :
- Neem Buds/Flowers for its bitterness, signifying sadness
- Jaggery for sweetness, signifying happiness
- Green Chilli/Pepper for its hot taste, signifying anger
- Salt for saltiness, signifying fear
- Tamarind Juice for its sourness, signifying disgust
- Neem Flowers and small amount of tender mango seed for making it astringent adding an element of surprise
In Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, a special dish called Bobbattu (Polelu) (Puran Poli) (Oliga) are prepared on this occasion. This special dish is called Bhakshalu in Telangana. These are eaten along with the Ugadi Pachchadi mentioned earlier. In Karnataka a special dish called Obbattu, or Holige (ಹೋಳಿಗೆ / ಒಬ್ಬಟ್ಟು), is prepared. It consists of a filling (gram and jaggery/sugar boiled and made in to a paste) stuffed in a flat roti-like bread. It is usually eaten hot or cold with ghee or milk topping or coconut milk at some places of Karnataka.
Recitation of the Pachangam Almanac
Later, people traditionally gather to listen to the recitation of the religious Panchangam (almanac) of the new year, and the general forecast of the year to come. This is called the Panchanga Sravanam, an informal social function where an elderly and respected person will read the almanac. Panchamgam also contains astrology based on moon signs.
In Telugu, the greeting is "kroththa yeta" / "ugadi panduga" palukarimpulu, or "ugadi subhaakankshalu" - "క్రొత్త ఏట" / "ఉగాది పండుగ" పలుకరింపులు, లేదా ఉగాది శుభాకాంక్షలు (Greetings for the festival of ugadi) and "Nutana samvastara shubhaakankshalu" -నూతన సంవత్సర శుభాకాంక్షలు (Greetings on the new year).
In Kannada, the greeting is "Yugadi Habbada Shubhaashayagalu" - ಯುಗಾದಿ ಹಬ್ಬದ ಶುಭಾಶಯಗಳು (Greetings for the festival of Yugadi) or "Hosa varshada shubhashayagalu" - ಹೊಸ ವರ್ಷದ ಶುಭಾಶಯಗಳು (Greetings on the new year).
In Konkani, it would be Navve varsaache shubhaashay,ನವ್ವೆ ವರ್ಷಾಂಚೆ ಶುಭಾಶಯ್ Samsar padvyache shubhaashay.ಸಂಸಾರ್ ಪದ್ವ್ಯಾನ್ಚೆ ಶುಭಾಶಯ್
In Marathi, it would be 'गुढी पाडव्याच्या हार्दिक शुभेच्छा' (Gudhi padvyachya hardik shubhechcha).
Predictions for the year
Ugadi marks the beginning of a new Hindu lunar calendar with a change in the moon's orbit. It is a day when mantras are chanted and predictions made for the new year. Traditionally, the panchangasravanam or listening to the yearly calendar was done at the temples or at the Town square but with the onset of modern technology, one can get to hear the priest-scholar on television sets right in one's living room.
- "Ugadi - The Beginning of a New Age". SwamiRaRa. Hyderabad, India. 22 March 2017.
- "Ugadi a time to rejoice". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 April 2005.
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