George Town, Penang
|Motto: "Leading We Serve"|
|District||North-East Penang Island|
|Granted city status||1957|
|Merged with neighbouring district||1974|
|• City||305.773 km2 (118.060 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,748.000 km2 (1,061.009 sq mi)|
|Elevation||4 m (13.1 ft)|
|• Density||4,299/km2 (11,130/sq mi)|
|• Metro||2.25 million|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC)|
George Town (also less commonly spelt as Georgetown) is the capital of the state of Penang in Malaysia. Named after Britain's King George III, George Town is located on the north-east corner of Penang Island. The inner city has a population of 510,996 and the metropolitan area known as George Town Conurbation which consists of Penang Island, Seberang Prai, Kulim and Sungai Petani has a combined population of 2,251,792, making it the second largest city in Malaysia.
George Town is one of the few cities in the world to hold the distinction of having conferred a city status twice, first in 1957 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, and again in 2015 by the Federal Government. George Town is also known as Tanjung ("The Cape") in Malay, Qiáozhì Shì (乔治市) in Chinese and ஜோர்ஜ் டவுன் (Georgetown) in Tamil. Its Malay name is derived from the older name of the town, Tanjung Penaga ("Cape Penaigre").
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Parliament And State Assembly
- 4 Unesco World Heritage Site
- 5 ECA International
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Shopping
- 8 Sports
- 9 Healthcare
- 10 George Town's city suburbs
- 11 Ethnic Enclave
- 12 George Town metropolitan satellite towns
- 13 Climate
- 14 Education
- 15 Image gallery
- 16 International partnerships
- 17 Location
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 Literature
- 21 External links
George Town was founded on 11 August 1786 by Captain Francis Light, a trader for the British East India Company, as base for the company in the Malay States. He obtained the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah and built Fort Cornwallis on the north-eastern corner of the island. The fort became the nexus of a growing trading post and the island's population reached 12,000 by 1804.Monographs on Malay Subjects, Volume III. MBRAS. 1925. Psge 42.
The town was built on swampy land that had to be cleared of vegetation, levelled and filled. The original commercial town was laid out between Light Street, Beach Street (then running close to the seashore), Malabar Street (subsequently called Chulia Street) and Pitt Street (now called Masjid Kapitan Keling Street).
The warehouses and godowns extended from Beach Street to the sea. By the 1880s, there were ghauts leading from Beach Street to the wharf and jetties as Beach Street receded inland due to land reclamation. A new waterfront was created at Weld Quay, where commercial buildings sprang up.
The historic commercial centre was segmented into the banking and trading areas related to port activities which included shipping companies, the import and export trade, and the wholesalers who dominate the southern section of Beach Street until now. It has been listed as a World Heritage site since July 2008.
At the turn of the 19th century, the northern section of Beach Street and the adjacent Bishop Street were the 'high street' where the 'modern' European emporium and stores selling imported merchandise were situated.
Among the early foreign companies that located their offices on Beach Street were the Netherlands Trading Society, the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), the Chartered Bank, Boustead & Co., Guthne & Co., Caldbeck & Macgregor, Behn Meyer, Sandilands & Buttery, G.H. Slot and the stores of Pritchard & Co., Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., and others. Among the local businesses that were established here during this period were H.M. Nooradin, Tiang Lee & Co., Guan Lee Hin Steamship, Tye Sin Tat, Pinang Sales Room, Koe Guan and others. Penang's first petroleum lamps were installed on this section of Beach Street by Huttenbach & Co..
A Committee of Assessors was established in George Town in 1801, and was the first local council established in Malaya. In 1857, a board of partly elected Municipal Commissioners was established, but elections were abolished in 1913, before being reintroduced in the run-up to Independence in 1951. In 1956, George Town became the first municipality in the Federation of Malaya to have a fully elected council, and on 1 January 1957, the municipality became a city by a royal charter granted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, becoming the first (and until 1972, the only) city in the Federation. In 1965, the federal Government suspended local elections as a result of the Indonesian Confrontation, and in 1966 the functions of the City Council were transferred to the Chief Minister of Penang. In 1974, a Local Government Management Board (Lembaga Pengurus Kerajaan Tempatan) was established for the whole of Penang Island, which meant that George Town effectively lost its city status. The management board went on to become the Municipal Council of Penang Island (Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang) in 1976. George Town's city status was officially reinstated in 2014.
Parliament And State Assembly
List of George Town representatives in the Federal Parliament (Dewan Rakyat)
|Parliament||Seat name||Member of parliament||Party|
|P.048||Bukit Bendera||Zairil Khir Johari||PR DAP|
|P.049||Tanjong||Ng Wei Aik||PR DAP|
|P.050||Jelutong||Ooi Chuan Aun||PR DAP|
|P.051||Bukit Gelugor||Ramkarpal Singh A/L Karpal Singh||PR DAP|
List of George Town representatives in State Legislative Assembly
|Parliament||State||Seat name||State assemblyman||Party|
|P.048||N.22||Tanjong Bunga||Teh Yee Cheu||PR DAP|
|P.048||N.23||Air Puteh||Lim Guan Eng||PR DAP|
|P.048||N24||Kebun Bunga||Cheah Kah Peng||PR PKR|
|P.048||N.25||Pulau Tikus||Yap Soo Huey||PR DAP|
|P.049||N.26||Padang Kota||Chow Kon Yeow||PR DAP|
|P.049||N.27||Pengkalan Kota||Lau Keng Ee||PR DAP|
|P.049||N.28||Komtar||Teh Lai Heng||PR DAP|
|P.050||N.29||Dato Keramat||Jagdeep Singh Deo||PR DAP|
|P.050||N.30||Sungai Pinang||Lim Siew Khim||PR DAP|
|P.050||N.31||Batu Lanchang||Law Heng Kiang||PR DAP|
|P.051||N.32||Seri Delima||Nethaji Rayer||PR DAP|
|P.051||N.33||Air Itam||Wong Hon Wai||PR DAP|
|P.051||N.34||Paya Terubong||Yeoh Soon Hin||PR DAP|
Unesco World Heritage Site
|Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv|
|Inscription||2008 (32nd Session)|
On 7 July 2008, George Town was, together with Malacca, formally inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is officially recognised as having a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia.
George Town has been ranked as the most liveable city in Malaysia, eighth most liveable in Asia and the 62nd in the world in 2010 by ECA International, an improvement in ranking from recent years.
In the past, George Town boasted of having the best public transportation system in Malaysia, with Electric Trams, Trolleybuses and also Double-decker buses. George Town Municipal Transport operated both trams and trolleybuses, the tramways system being steadily replaced in the mid-Twentieth Century by trolleybuses, that were first introduced in 1925. GTMT is famous for having operated the smallest public service trolleybus as well as buying ex-London Transport trolleybuses purchased in the 1950s. Despite having purchased new Sunbeam British trolleybuses in 1956/7, the system was abandoned in 1961. The use of double-decker buses ceased in the 1970s when George Town Transport ceased to trade, the network being operated by privately owned buses.
George Town is well connected by roads, buses, etc. The Jelutong Expressway connects the city to Bayan Lepas and the Penang International Airport. With this highway, trips to the airport were cut short to 30 minutes instead of almost an hour in the past. The Penang International Airport serves as the main airport of the northern part of Malaysia.
To get over to Butterworth in the mainland, the Penang Ferry Service at Weld Quay operates every day since 1920. Passengers, cars and motorcycles can all travel in the ferry. Other than that, commuters can drive to the Penang Bridge, located in Gelugor, to cross over to the mainland. To travel elsewhere around Malaysia, through the Penang Bridge, commuters can take the North-South Expressway to reach their destinations.
Contemporary Public transportation in George Town is operated mainly by Rapid Penang, the main bus company in Penang now. Almost every bus connects George Town to their respective destinations, with Weld Quay being the main terminal of Rapid Penang in Penang Island and Komtar being the main hub. There is also a free bus service operated by Rapid Penang. This bus service is only located within George Town, and it also operates every day, taking commuters a drive along George Town's famous heritage sites.
Express buses used to stop at Komtar but has since been relocated to the Sungai Nibong Bus Terminal, which is not that far away. There are many express bus companies operating 24-hours there, and main destinations are usually Genting Highlands and Kuala Lumpur. There are also some buses travelling out of Malaysia mainly to Singapore and Southern Thailand.
Other than that, George Town is famous for having trishaws plying the city. The Port of Penang has four ports, with three on the mainland and one terminal here, Swettenham Pier. There is also a cruise ship situated here and it has become an attraction here.
Due to strict rent controls, George Town retains many of its colonial-era shophouses to this day and is often considered an architectural gem. Since the repeal of the rent controls in 2000, many pre-war buildings have given way to new high rises. Partly for this reason, the city was listed in the 2000 and 2002 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund (WMF). Heritage guidelines are still in its infancy and much needs to be done to conserve architectural treasures for the benefit of future generations. In 2005 WMF helped restore an 1870s structure within the George Town Historic Enclave, with support from American Express. The structure is used by the Penang Heritage Trust as a model to further its mission to protect the most significant buildings in the community.
On 2 August 2006, the federal government announced a plan to build a monorail urban transit system connecting George Town to Tanjung Tokong in the north and Bayan Lepas in the south. However, the proposed development project was called-off after the mid-term review of the Ninth Malaysia Plan which was tabled in Parliament on 26 June 2008.
- Gurney Plaza
- Gurney Paragon
- Queensbay Mall 7 km (4 mi) from City Centre
- Island Plaza
- Komtar Tower
- Prangin Mall
- 1st Avenue Georgetown
- Parkson Grand
- Penang Times Square
- Midlands Park Centre
- Tesco Jelutong
- Tesco Tanjung Pinang
- Sunshine Square
- All Seasons Place
- Penang Plaza
- Penang General Hospital
- Island Hospital
- Gleneagles Medical Centre
- Pantai Mutiara Hospital
- Loh Guan Lye Specialist Centre
- Lam Wah Ee Hospital
- Penang Adventist Hospital
- Tanjung Medical Centre
- Mt Miriam Hospital
- Tropicana Medical Centre Penang
George Town's city suburbs
- City Centre
- Gurney Drive
- Tanjung Bungah
- Tanjung Tokong
- Tanjong Pinang
- Seri Tanjong
- Pulau Tikus
- Desa Baiduri
- Batu Lanchang
- Belachan Village
- Dodol Village
- Hijau Village
- Makam Village
- Masjid Village
- Masjid Bagan Village
- Rawa Village
- Raya Baharu Village
- Syed Village
- Port Weld
- Abidin Garden
- Ara Garden
- Air Itam
- West Garden
- Cemerlang Garden
- Cheeseman Garden
- Continental Garden
- Desa Green Garden
- Dhoby Ghaut
- Free School Garden
- Green Lane Garden
- Guan Joo Seng
- Islands Glades
- Jeliemas Garden
- Jelutong Garden
- Jesselton Height
- Kampar Garden
- Kennedy Garden
- Taman Lita
- P. Ramlee Garden
- Penang Garden
- Perak Garden
- Rampas Garden
- Scotland Garden
- Selamat Garden
- Sri Husin Garden
- Windmill Garden
- Minden Heights
- Karpal Singh Drive
- Sungai Dua
- Sungai Nibong
- Batu Uban
Georgetown is the most diverse city in Malaysia. There are many ethnic enclave in the city, mainly focusing in the center of the city in the UNESCO heritage zone.Little India is the most famous ethnic enclave as serve as main finance centre of the city.Below are the among ethnic enclave found around the city and Penang Island itself:
- Little India
- China Town
- Penang Chinatown is bordered by Lebuh King, Lebuh Stewart, Lebuh Muntri, and Lebuh Campbell.Although, not as famous as it counterpart, Little India, Chinatown were among few interesting place to visit in Penang.
- Kampung Siam
- Kampung Siam were among few colonial-era village that still found in Penang. Documents indicate the land was originally bequeathed by the East India Company on behalf of Queen Victoria to the Siamese and Burmese communities in 1845.
- Kampung Buah Pala
- Kampung Buah Pala is a small village in Penang, Malaysia inhabited mostly by Indians at Gelugor. It was famous as cowboy village or High Chaparral(in conjunction with a series of well-known American drama in the 1960s) among locals due to high number of cattle breeding. Currently, the village were demolished to give way for new development.
George Town metropolitan satellite towns
- Bayan Lepas Bayan Baru Balik Pulau Kepala Batas Butterworth Permatang Pauh Bukit Mertajam Perai Nibong Tebal in Penang
- Sungai Petani Kulim Yan Serdang Baling Sik in Kedah
- Parit Buntar Bagan Serai Selama Taiping Kuala Kangsar Gerik in Perak
 The George Town Conurbation Plan
George Town features a tropical rainforest climate, under the Köppen climate classification. As is the norm for many cities with this climate, George Town experiences relatively consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of about 31 degrees Celsius and an average low of 24 degrees Celsius. While George Town does not have a true dry season, its driest months are from December through February. The city sees on average around 2,550 mm (100.4 in) of precipitation annually.
|Climate data for George Town|
|Average high °C (°F)||32
|Average low °C (°F)||24
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||70
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2013)|
The city is one of main education centres in Malaysia, especially for the Tertiary education. There are several college in Georgetown. IPG College, now known as PTPL Penang is the first college in Penang, established by Malaysia's first Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman and his friend Mr K L Goon in 1981.
Penang is known as a regional education hub which attracts students from foreign countries due to its quality education and affordable tuition fees. Although it has been an important centre of education, Penang is one of the states in Malaysia that suffers from brain drain. The Malaysian New Economic Plan has been criticised by many people to be one of the key contributors to this social effect. However, this is not the only factor. University graduates do not have much opportunity to experience cutting-edge technologies in many areas of industry, from hard sciences (e.g. nanotechnology, grid computing, algorithmic research etc.) to high finance (e.g. risk management etc.) to global corporate management.
- Penang Free School, the oldest English school in the country
- St. Xavier's Institution, oldest Catholic school in South East Asia.
- St. George's Girls' School, High Performance School
- Methodist Boys' School (Penang)
- Convent Green Lane
- Convent Light Street, oldest girl school in Georgetown
- Convent Pulau Tikus
- Phor Tay High School
- Heng Ee High School
- Penang Chinese Girls' High School
- Convent Datuk Keramat
- Chung Ling High School
- Union High School
- Chung Hwa Confucian High School
- Tenby International School, Penang
- Dalat International School
- St. Christopher's International Primary School
- Prince of Wales Island International School
- Fairview International School
- Sri Pelita International School
- International School of Penang (Uplands)
- Penang Medical College
- KDU College
- SEGi College Penang (Penang branch of SEGi University)
- Sentral college
- olympia college
- INTI international college
- Equator Academy of Art
- Han Chiang College
- PTPL College (formerly known as Institute Perkim Goon,IPG)
- Wawasan Open University
The Penang Japanese (Supplementary) Saturday School (ペナン補習校 Penan Hoshūkō?, PJSS), a supplementary Japanese school, holds its classes in the Moral Uplifting Society of Penang. It opened in January 2012 and had six preschool and 25 primary students as of September 2013.
In additional to national holidays, George Town celebrates the birthday of its mayor annually on 11 August
- City of Adelaide, Australia (8 December 1973)
- Xiamen, China (1991)
- Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan (3 October 1991)
- Medan, Indonesia
- Taipei, Taiwan (March 2011)
- Bangkok, Thailand (April 2012)
- Changwon, South Korea (November 2012)
- Phuket City, Thailand (18 September 2014)
- Architecture of Penang
- City Hall, Penang
- Penang Museum and Art Gallery
- List of cities in Malaysia by population
- List of twin towns and sister cities in Malaysia
- "History of Penang". Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "Penang Info > History". Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics, 2010" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "George Town a city again". Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- 'Some Account of Poolo Penang, or Prince of Wales's Island,' The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and Its Dependencies. Vol. II, From June to December. London: Black, Parbury, & Allen. 1816. Pages 474-478
- L. A. Mills. British Malaya 1824-67. MBRAS. 1960. Page 38.
- Collier's Encyclopedia: With Bibliography and Index, Volume 15. 1958. Pages 515-516
- Gorton Carruth. The Encyclopedia of World Facts and Dates. HarperCollins. 1993. Page 354
- "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". 7 July 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Cabinet approves city status for Penang Island
- "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- Penang Trams, Trolleybuses and Railways:Ric Francis and Colin Ganley:2006. Areca Books:ISBN 978-983-42834-0-7
- World Monuments Fund – George Town Historic Enclave
- SJKT Ramakrishna. Facebook. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
- Tamil school data – Penang |. Mynadi.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
- KDU College Malaysia, Penang Campus. Kdupg.edu.my (5 June 2013). Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
- SEGi College Penang | SEGi University. Segi.edu.my. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
- "English" (Archive). Penang Japanese (Supplementary) Saturday School. Retrieved on 22 June 2014.
- Georgetown. Adelaidecitycouncil.com. Retrieved on 11 August 2011.
- Penang Bridge International Marathon official visit to Xiamen Marathon | Penang – Hotels, Resorts, Entertainment & Events. . Retrieved on 11 August 2011.
- . The Star Online. Retrieved on 19 August 2012.
- Xiamen, Penang and Adelaide as Sister cities – What's On Xiamen. Whatsonxiamen.com (9 May 2007). Retrieved on 11 August 2011.
- Malaysia: Taipei, Georgetown ink friendship memorandum – Taiwan News Onli.com.tw (29 March 2011). Retrieved on 11 August 2011.
- .CM Lim Guan Eng official Facebook page (4 April 2012). Retrieved on 6 April 2012.
- . About Changwon (20 November 2012). Retrieved on 11 April 2014.
- .Phuket Gazette (18 September 2014). Retrieved on 28 September 204.
- Khoo Salma Nasution. More Than Merchants: A History of the German-speaking Community in Penang, 1800s–1940s. Areca Books. (2006). ISBN 978-983-42834-1-4
Media related to George Town, Penang at Wikimedia Commons
- Georgetown travel guide from Wikivoyage