London Underground 1938 Stock
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2013)|
A preserved train of 1938 Stock at Amersham station
|In service||1938–1988 on London Underground
1989–present on Island Line
|Length per car||DM 52 ft 3 3⁄4 in (15.94 m)
NDM/UNDM/T 51 ft 2 3⁄4 in (15.61 m)
|Width||8 ft 6 1⁄4 in (2.597 m)|
|Height||9 ft 5 1⁄2 in (2.883 m)|
|Weight||DM 27.4 long tons (27.8 t; 30.7 short tons)
NDM 25.9 long tons (26.3 t; 29.0 short tons)
T 20.65 long tons (20.98 t; 23.13 short tons)
|Stock type||Deep-level tube|
|London Transport portal|
The 1938 Tube Stock is a London Underground tube stock design. A total of 1,121 cars were built by Metro-Cammell and Birmingham RC&W. An additional 167 cars (91 new builds plus 76 conversions) were subsequently added to the fleet, and the stock was used on the London Underground until 1988. During their long lives they worked on the Bakerloo, Northern, Piccadilly, East London and Central lines. Some examples are still at work on the Isle of Wight as Class 483, making them the oldest passenger rolling stock operating timetabled services on the National Rail network.
As built, the 1938 Stock was numbered as follows:
|‘A’ Driving Motors||‘D’ Driving Motors||Non-Driving Motors||Special Non-Driving Motors||Trailers|
|north/west facing; solid centre buffer||south/east facing; spring-loaded centre buffer||no driving or door controls||door controls only||no motors or controls|
|10012 - 10323
90324 - 90333
|11012 - 11323
91324 - 91333
|12000 - 12028
92029 - 92058
12059 - 12157
12409 - 12411
12422 - 12446
92447 - 92466
012158 - 012388
092389 - 092408
012412 - 012421
012467 - 012476
Use on different lines
The 1938 Stock was built as part of the London Passenger Transport Board's New Works Programme 1935–1940. The trains were primarily intended for use on the Northern and Bakerloo lines, with an additional seven trains also being used on the Piccadilly line.
As part of the New Works Programme, the Northern and Central lines were to be extended over London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) tracks, and because of a joint working agreement between the LPTB and the LNER, it was necessary for a proportion of the Underground fleet to be owned by the LNER. Accordingly, 289 cars of 1938 Stock (DM numbers 10238–323 and 11238–323, NDM numbers 12117–57 and T numbers 012313–88) were designated as LNER owned, and fitted with plates marked "Property of LNER". Although 129 of these were to cover extensions to the Central line, none of them actually worked Central line services - they were mixed with the Northern and Bakerloo line fleets.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s the Northern line was worked exclusively by 1938/1949 Stock trains. They were starting to show their age by the late 1960s; the first withdrawals from the Northern line took place in the early 1970s with the introduction of the 1972 Stock trains.
In the mid-1970s the Bakerloo line started to use 1972 Stock (Mark II) cars in addition to 1938 Stock. The 1972 Stock cars were intended for eventual use on the Jubilee line (which opened in 1979), thereafter the remaining section of the Bakerloo line continued to be served exclusively by 1938 Stock cars until the 1980s. The Bakerloo line trains received an "Extra Heavy Overhaul" (EHO) to keep them in service long after their intended withdrawal date. The Bakerloo line was thus the last line to be operated solely by 1938 Stock trains.
The Piccadilly line's few 1938 Stock trains operated alongside 1959 Stock for much of their lives. They were replaced by London Underground 1973 Stock, with the 1959 Stock being transferred to the Northern line, replacing other 1938 Stock trains.
During the 1970s the East London Line was worked by 1938 Stock trains, replacing trains of Q Stock. Single 1938 Stock trailer carriages were also inserted into 1960 Stock trains in the mid 80's; these were used on the Woodford–Hainault and Epping–Ongar sections of the Central line. In addition, unit 10177 (latterly shipped to Alderney) worked the Epping-Ongar shuttle between 11/57 and 6/60.
With the 1959 Stock approaching life-expiry, five ex-Bakerloo line trains of 1938 Stock were given a further overhaul in the mid-1980s. These were then used on the Northern line for a further two years, the last day of passenger service was on 19 May 1988. They were then sold for further use on the Isle of Wight (see below).
As part of the New Works Programme of 1935–1940, there were plans to operate nine-car trains of 1938 stock on the Northern line. These cars were originally numbered differently from the other cars, the first digit '1' being replaced by a '9'.
The formation for a nine-car train was DM + NDM + SNDM + T + NDM + T + SNDM + NDM + DM.
With the scaling back of the planned extensions for the Northern and Bakerloo lines, and the need to order further stock to balance the fleet(the 1949 stock), cars were renumbered in the early 1950s. The DMs and trailers had the '9' replaced by a '1', the DMs becoming 10324-10333, 11324-11333 and the trailers 012389-012408. Twenty-eight of the thirty NDMs were likewise renumbered, the exception being 92055 and 92058 which were rebuilt into UNDMs along with all twenty SNDMs. The twenty two cars rebuilt into UNDMs were renumbered 30000-30021.
So successful was the 1938 Stock that, when in 1948 additional cars were needed, 91 almost identical cars were built, 70 non-driving-motor (NDM) cars and 21 trailer cars. These were known as 1949 stock and operated with the 1938 stock. They were numbered in the same scheme; the UNDMs were numbered 30022-30045, 31000-31045 and the trailers 012495-012515.
After World War II, the former 1935 stock streamlined DMs were rebuilt into trailers, and included with the 1938 stock, being renumbered 012477-012494. Before the war, three trailers were built for use with the streamlined DMs. These three cars differed from the 1938 trailers in that they were not equipped with compressors. However, the cars were not delivered until after the war and with the DMs rebuilt the three cars became part of the 1938 stock fleet, being numbered 012412-012414, and fitted with compressors.
In 1938 fifty-eight 'Standard Stock' trailers, originally built in 1927, were converted to operate with the 1938 Stock. These cars were renumbered 70513–70570. The first car withdrawn was 70550, as a result of damage sustained in an accident at Watford in 1962, and the last car, 70534, was withdrawn in 1973.
Isle of Wight
The only examples still in daily use are the six units that survive operating the Island Line service on the Isle of Wight, and allocated TOPS Class 483. Ten sets (nine serviceable; a total of twenty cars) were bought by Network SouthEast from London Underground in 1988.
According to an article in the October 2005 issue of Rail Professional, Island Line were paying "an eye-watering £140,000 a year" to lease the trains, meaning that "[s]ince privatisation, HSBC Rail has pocketed over £1m for leasing these relics that are effectively worthless."
After running many years in NSE colours, the trains were repainted into 'dinosaur'[clarification needed] livery. However, as of mid-2008, all trains had been returned to an approximation of their original LT train red livery; albeit with yellow fronts as per mainline regulations.
|'A' DM||'D' DM|
In addition, some other units survive in preservation, including cars from the first-built unit, which are preserved at the London Transport Museum Depot in Acton. The preserved sets have been restored into their original red liveries, one with an orange roof (Bakerloo line) and one with a grey roof (other lines). The LTM operates trips of its preserved four-car set for railtours around the LU system. The 1938 stock is also used for occasional filming work. Dates and times can be found at their website and people can sign up to receive the Museum's e-newsletter. A driving cab had been preserved at the London Transport Museum (LTM) in Covent Garden, but was not included in the Museum's refurbishment. It was fitted as a driving stock simulator, and was located next to the Museum's driving trailer.
On 9 January 2013, 1938 tube stock appeared on a £1.28 British postage stamp as part of a set commemorating the 150th anniversary of the first London underground train journey. The stamp's captions read "Classic rolling stock" and "1938", with the caption's background in Bakerloo line colour.
- Connor, Piers (1989). The 1938 Tube Stock. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. p. 32. ISBN 1-85414-115-5.
- Hardy, Brian (2001). Underground Train File: Tube Stock 1933-1959. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. pp. 68, 78–79. ISBN 1-85414-235-6.
- Randall, Chris (October 2005). "The Rail Professional Interview: Haydn Abbott - Angel Trains" (PDF). Rail Professional (103): 17. ISSN 1476-2196. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
- Department of the Environment: Railway Inspectorate (1976). Report on the Accident that occurred on 28 February 1975 at Moorgate Station. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-550398-6. . "PDF copy" (PDF). The Railways Archive.
- "Royal Mail celebrates 150 years of the London Underground" (Press release). Royal Mail. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Media related to London Underground 1938 Stock at Wikimedia Commons
- London Transport Museum Photographic Archive
- District Dave's London Underground Site -1938 Tube Stock photos
- Tubeprune - Rolling Stock Summary