Oxford Circus tube station

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Oxford Circus London Underground
Oxford Circus stn Bakerloo building.jpg
Bakerloo line surface building
Oxford Circus is located in Central London
Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus
Location of Oxford Circus in Central London
Location Oxford Circus
Local authority City of Westminster
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 6
Fare zone 1
London Underground annual entry and exit
2010 Decrease 70.12 million[1]
2011 Increase 77.09 million[1]
2012 Increase 80.55 million[1]
2013 Increase 85.25 million[1]
Key dates
1900 CLR opened
1906 BS&WR opened
1969 Victoria line opened
Listed status
Listed feature Original CLR and BS&WR buildings.
Listing grade II
Entry number 1400976 (CLR) [2][3]
1401022 (BS&WR)[3][4]
Added to list 20 July 2011
Other information
Lists of stations
London Transport portalCoordinates: 51°30′55″N 0°08′30″W / 51.51519°N 0.1416°W / 51.51519; -0.1416

Oxford Circus is a London Underground station serving Oxford Circus at the junction of Regent Street and Oxford Street, with entrances on all four corners of the intersection. The station is an interchange between the Bakerloo, Central and Victoria lines.[5] It is the second busiest station on the network and the busiest without connection to National Rail services.[citation needed]

On the Central line it is between Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road, on the Bakerloo line it is between Regent's Park and Piccadilly Circus, and on the Victoria line it is between Green Park and Warren Street and is in Travelcard Zone 1.[5]

History[edit]

Bakerloo and Central lines[edit]

The busy Central line platform. This platform has now been renovated.

The station opened on the Central London Railway on 30 July 1900, with the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway's platforms opening on 10 March 1906. The two companies had separate surface buildings and lift shafts. The station buildings, which remain today as exits from the station, were constructed on very confined plots on either side of Argyll Street on the south side of Oxford Street, just to the east of the circus itself. The stations were originally built as entirely separate, but connecting passages were swiftly provided at platform level. The surviving Central London Railway building to the east of Argyll Street is the best surviving example of the stations designed by Harry Bell Measures, and the Bakerloo line building to the west is a classic Leslie Green structure. Both station buildings are Grade II listed.[2][3][4]

Almost from the outset, overcrowding has been a constant problem at the station and it has seen numerous improvements to its facilities and below-ground arrangements to deal with this difficulty. After much discussion between the then two separate operators, a major reconstruction began in 1912. This saw a new ticket hall, dealing with both lines, built in the basement of the Bakerloo station, the Bakerloo lifts removed, and new deep-level escalators opened down to the Bakerloo line level. Access to the Central line was by way of existing deep-level subways. The new works came into use on 9 May 1914 with the CLR lifts still available for passengers. By 1923 even this rearrangement was unable to cope, so a second rebuilding commenced. This saw a second set of escalators built directly down to the Central line, the CLR station building becoming an exit only. Then, on 2 October 1928, a third escalator leading to the Bakerloo platforms was opened. Unusually, lifts came back into prominence at an Underground station when, in 1942, a set of high-speed lifts came into use, largely used as an exit route from the Central line platforms directly to the Argyll Street exit building.

Victoria line[edit]

Cross platform interchange between Bakerloo and Victoria lines

The Victoria line opened on 7 March 1969. To handle the additional passenger loads, a new ticket hall was constructed directly under the road junction. To excavate the new ticket hall below the roadway, traffic was diverted for five years (August 1963 to Easter 1968) onto a temporary bridge-like structure known as the "umbrella" covering the Regent Street/Oxford Street intersection. Service tunnels were constructed to carry water mains and telecom cables past the new ticket hall. Construction of the Victoria line station tunnels with their platforms, the new escalator shafts and the linking passages to the Central line platforms was carried out from access shafts sunk from nearby Cavendish Square, Upper Regent Street and Argyll Street. To this day, traffic passing through the Oxford Circus intersection travels directly over the roof of the ticket office.

Cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Victoria lines is provided by constructing the Victoria line platforms parallel to the Bakerloo ones. With the additional escalators in place, a new one-way circulation scheme was introduced and the remaining lifts were removed.

Incidents and Accidents[edit]

In 1984, during renovation works, the station suffered a severe fire which burned out one of the platforms. It is believed that the fire was caused by smoking materials being pushed through a ventilation grille into a storeroom where they set several materials on fire. The incident led to a smoking ban being introduced on trains.

The Station today[edit]

Oxford Circus is one of the London Underground stations to have the most escalators, which is 14 escalators.[6]

In 2007 the station underwent a major modernisation,[7] removing the murals installed on the Central and Bakerloo line platforms in the 1980s and replacing them with plain white tiles,[7] in a style similar to those used when the station opened in 1900.[citation needed] One 1980s mural remains on the platforms for historical interest.[citation needed] The Central Line platforms works were substantially complete and a new Station Operations Room at top level opened.[7] This enabled the entire CCTV system to be switched over to new recordable digital technology.[7] The work has also seen a restoration of the original Hans Unger-designed motifs[8] on the Victoria line platforms. Major escalator refurbishment took place in 2010–11.[9]

Close Proximity to Tottenham Court Road and Bond Street[edit]

The average time taken for a Central line train to travel between Oxford Circus and Tottenham Court Road stations is less than one minute, which is about 52 seconds.[10] At the same time, the average time taken for a Central line train to travel between Oxford Circus and Bond Street stations is slightly more than 52 seconds, which is about 56 seconds.[10]

Services[edit]

Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but Central line trains generally operate every 3-6 minutes between 06:15 and 00:22 in both directions[11][12] while Victoria line trains operate every 3-6 minutes between 05:50 and 00:14 in both directions.[13][14] Bakerloo line trains generally operate in a less frequent service than the other lines, which is every 4-9 minutes between 06:17 and 00:15 in both directions.[15][16]

Connections[edit]

London Buses routes 3; 6; 7; 10; 12; 13; 23, 25; 55; 73; 88; 94; 98; 137; 139; 159; 189; 390; 453 and C2,[17] and night routes N3; N7; N8; N13; N18; N55; N73; N98; N109; N113; N136; N137 and N207[17][18] serve the station. Additionally, bus routes 6, 10, 12, 23, 25, 88, 94, 139, 159, 189, 390, 453 and C2 provide a 24-hour bus service.[17][18]

Future Proposals[edit]

Crossrail[edit]

There will be no direct interchange with Crossrail, but the eastern Crossrail ticket hall of Bond Street station will be on Hanover Square, which is a two-minute walk away from Oxford Circus station.[19] This is to relieve congestion at the already busy Oxford Circus station, and to encourage more passengers to use Bond Street or Tottenham Court Road rather than Oxford Circus.[citation needed]

Nearby attractions[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Oxford Circus Underground Station at the north-east corner of Argyll Street and Oxford Street, including offices above". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. 
  3. ^ a b c "16 London Underground Stations Listed at Grade II". English Heritage. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Oxford Circus Underground Station entrance on north-west corner of Argyll Street and Oxford Street". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. 
  5. ^ a b Transport for London (December 2014). Standard Tube Map (PDF) (Map). Not to scale. Transport for London. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Tube Facts - Tube Stations with the most escalators
  7. ^ a b c d "Station Refurbishment Summary". London Underground Railway Society. July 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Hans Unger motif
  9. ^ Exit and interchange only at Oxford Circus on weekday mornings
  10. ^ a b Tube Facts - Stations that are less than 60 seconds apart
  11. ^ "Central line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Tottenham Court Road Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  12. ^ "Central line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Bond Street Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "Victoria line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Warren Street Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Victoria line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Green Park Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "Bakerloo line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Regent's Park Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "Bakerloo line timetable: From Oxford Circus Underground Station to Piccadilly Circus Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c "Buses from Oxford Circus". Transport for London. 26 October 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "Night buses from Oxford Circus". Transport for London. 26 October 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  19. ^ "Bond Street Crossrail StationDesign". 

External links[edit]

Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Bakerloo line
Central line
towards Epping, Hainault
or Woodford (via Hainault)
towards Brixton
Victoria line