Oxford Circus tube station

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Oxford Circus
London Underground
Oxford Circus stn Bakerloo building.jpg
Bakerloo line surface building
Oxford Circus is located in Central London
Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus
Location of Oxford Circus in Central London
Location Oxford Circus
Local authority City of Westminster
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 6
Fare zone 1
London Underground annual entry and exit
2008 Increase 72.910 million[1]
2009 Increase 73.971 million[2]
2010 Decrease 70.120 million[3]
Key dates
1900 Central line opened
1906 Bakerloo line opened
1969 Victoria line opened
Other information
Lists of stations
Portal icon London Transport portalCoordinates: 51°30′55″N 0°08′30″W / 51.51519°N 0.1416°W / 51.51519; -0.1416

Oxford Circus is a London Underground station serving Oxford Circus at the junction of Regent Street and Oxford Street, with entrances on all four corners of the intersection. The station is an interchange between the Central, Victoria and Bakerloo lines. It is the fourth busiest station on the network and the busiest without connection to the National Rail service.

On the Central line it is between Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road, on the Bakerloo line it is between Regent's Park and Piccadilly Circus, and on the Victoria line it is between Green Park and Warren Street. It is in Travelcard Zone 1.

History[edit]

Busy platform on Central line. This platform has now been renovated.

The station opened on the Central London Railway on 30 July 1900, with the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway's platforms opening on 10 March 1906. The two companies had separate surface buildings and lift shafts. The station buildings, which remain today as exits from the station, were constructed on very confined plots on either side of Argyll Street on the south side of Oxford Street, just to the east of the circus itself. The stations were originally built as entirely separate, but connecting passages were swiftly provided at platform level. The surviving Central London Railway building to the east of Argyll Street is the best surviving example of the stations designed by Harry Bell Measures, and the Bakerloo line building to the west is a classic Leslie Green structure. Both station buildings are Grade II listed.[4]

Almost from the outset, overcrowding has been a constant problem at the station and it has seen numerous improvements to its facilities and below-ground arrangements to deal with this difficulty. After much discussion between the then two separate operators, a major reconstruction began in 1912. This saw a new ticket hall, dealing with both lines, built in the basement of the Bakerloo station, the Bakerloo lifts removed, and new deep-level escalators opened down to the Bakerloo line level. Access to the Central line was by way of existing deep-level subways. The new works came into use on 9 May 1914 with the CLR lifts still available for passengers. By 1923 even this rearrangement was unable to cope, so a second rebuilding commenced. This saw a second set of escalators built directly down to the Central line, the CLR station building becoming an exit only. Then, on 2 October 1928, a third escalator leading to the Bakerloo platforms was opened. Unusually, lifts came back into prominence at an Underground station when, in 1942, a set of high-speed lifts came into use, largely used as an exit route from the Central line platforms directly to the Argyll Street exit building.

The Victoria line opened on 7 March 1969. To handle the additional passenger loads, a new ticket hall was constructed directly under the road junction. To excavate the new ticket hall below the roadway, traffic was diverted for five years (August 1963 to Easter 1968) onto a temporary bridge-like structure known as the "umbrella" covering the Regent Street/Oxford Street intersection. Service tunnels were constructed to carry water mains and telecom cables past the new ticket hall. Construction of the Victoria line station tunnels with their platforms, the new escalator shafts and the linking passages to the Central line platforms was carried out from access shafts sunk from nearby Cavendish Square, Upper Regent Street and Argyll Street. To this day, traffic passing through the Oxford Circus intersection travels directly over the roof of the ticket office.

Cross platform interchange between Bakerloo and Victoria lines

Cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Victoria lines was provided by constructing the Victoria line platforms parallel to the Bakerloo line ones. With the additional escalators in place, a new one-way circulation scheme was introduced and the remaining lifts were removed.

In 1984, during renovation works, the station suffered a severe fire which burned out one of the platforms. It is believed that the fire was caused by smoking materials being pushed through a ventilation grille into a storeroom where they set several materials on fire. The incident led to a smoking ban being introduced on trains.

The station today[edit]

In 2007 the station underwent a major modernisation, removing the murals installed on the Central and Bakerloo line platforms in the 1980s and replacing them with plain white tiles, in a style similar to those used when the station opened in 1900. One 1980s mural remains on the platforms for historical interest. The work has also seen a restoration of the original Hans Unger-designed motifs[5] on the Victoria line platforms. Major escalator refurbishment took place in 2010–11.

Crossrail[edit]

There will be no direct interchange with Crossrail: but the eastern Crossrail ticket hall of Bond Street station will be on Hanover Square, which is a two-minute walk away from Oxford Circus station.[6] This is to decrease the congestion at the already busy Oxford Circus station, and to encourage more passengers to use Bond Street or Tottenham Court Road rather than Oxford Circus.[citation needed]

Nearby places of interest[edit]

Transport links[edit]

London Buses routes 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 23, 25, 55, 73, 88, 94, 98, 137, 139, 159, 189, 390, 453, C2 and night routes N3, N7, N13, N18, N55, N73, N98, N109, N113, N136, N137, and N207.

Gallery[edit]

Oxford Circus tube station
Bakerloo line southbound platform looking north, July 2008 
Roundel on northbound Bakerloo line platform 
Victoria line southbound platform looking north, July 2008 
Central line eastbound platform looking west, July 2008 
Central London Railway station building opened in 1900 
Street Entrance 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Customer metrics: entries and exits: 2008". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Customer metrics: entries and exits: 2009". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "Customer metrics: entries and exits: 2010". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  4. ^ "16 London Underground Stations Listed at Grade II". English Heritage. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Hans Unger motif
  6. ^ "Bond Street Crossrail StationDesign". 

External links[edit]

Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Bakerloo line
Central line
towards Epping, Hainault
or Woodford (via Hainault)
towards Brixton
Victoria line