War in North-West Pakistan
|War in North-West Pakistan|
|Part of the Global War on Terrorism|
The Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, aflame after being bombed in September 2008.
|Commanders and leaders|
Asif Ali Zardari
Baitullah Mehsud †
140,000 Pakistani troops
|20,000~ Hakimullah Mehsud's Taliban 
7,000~ TTP militia
2000~ Lashkar-e-Islam militia 
1000+ ~ TNSM militia 
700~ IMU 
|Casualties and losses|
5,000 soldiers killed 
8,671+ soldiers wounded
857+ soldiers and policemen captured (558 released)
Two P-3C Orion aircraft destroyed
|Over 27,000 militants killed (as of April 2013) 
|Over 3.44 million civilians displaced
18,494–48,782 civillians killed (2004–2013)
(11 Frenchmen, 4 Chinese, 3 Americans, 1 Czech, 1 Dane, 1 Pole, 1 Turk and 1 Vietnamese)
The War in North-West Pakistan is an armed conflict between the United States, Pakistan and the armed militant groups such as the TTP, LeI, TNSM, al–Qaeda, regional armed movements, and elements of organized crime.
The armed conflict began in 2004 when tensions, rooted in the Pakistan Army's search for al-Qaeda fighters in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area (in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas), escalated into armed resistance. Pakistan's actions were presented as its contribution to the international War on Terror. Clashes erupted between Pakistani army troops and Pashtun, Arab and Central Asian militia forces. The foreign militants were joined by Pakistani non-military veterans of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) which subsequently established the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and other militia organizations such as Lashkar-e-Islam. The Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TSNM) established in 1992 allied with the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and Lashkar-e-Islam.
In the aftermath of Battle of Tora Bora, formal deployment was begun by the Pakistan Army, at the request of the Pakistan Government, in 2002. The XI Corps, under its commander Lieutenant-General Ali Jan Aurakzai. The XI Corps entered the Tirah Valley in the Khyber Agency for the first time since Pakistans independence in 1947. The troops later moved into the Shawal Valley of North Waziristan, and eventually South Waziristan. The Naval Special Service Group established a reconnaissance base and began to monitor suspicious activities in the area. The troubles mounted as the Tribes began to see Army's deployment and repeated Air Force's flights in the region as an act of subjugation.
In December 2003, two assassination attempts against President Pervez Musharraf were traced to Waziristan. The government responded by intensifying military pressure on the area, however the fighting was costly and government forces sustained heavy casualties throughout 2004 and into early 2005 when the government switched to a tactic of negotiation instead of direct conflict.
Fighting breaks out 
On 16 March 2004, a bloody mountainous battle between the Pakistan Army and the combined Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters was fought in the white mountains of the South Waziristan. The Pakistan media speculated that Pakistan Army had surrounded a "high value target" in the mountainous region, possibly Al-Qaeda's then-second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri. After a week of the battle, the entire area was captured by Pakistan Army, as much as 400 al-Qaeda operatives were apprehended by the Pakistan Army. In spite of its success, the army failed to capture Zawahiri or he was never among between in them.
Peace deals 
In April 2004, the Government of Pakistan signed the first of three peace agreements with militants in South Waziristan. It was signed by militia commander Nek Muhammad Wazir, but was immediately abrogated once Nek Muhammad was killed by an American Hellfire missile in June 2004. The second was signed in February 2005 with Nek's successor Baitullah Mehsud, which brought relative calm in the South Waziristan region. This deal would later, in September 2006, be mimicked in the neighboring North Waziristan territory as the third and final truce between the government and the militants. However, all of these truces would not have a substantial effect in reducing bloodshed. The latter two deals were officially broken in August 2007 with the Operation Silence was initiated in Islamabad, which saw a tenfold increase in suicide attacks on Pakistan Armed Forces.
Transition in Tribal areas: 2005–2006 
On 4 May 2005, in a secretive operations led by the Army Special Services Group (SSG), the special forces combat commandos captured high ranking al-Qaeda operative Abu Faraj al-Libbi after a raid outside the town of Mardan, 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Peshawar. Abu Farraj al-Libbi was a high ranking al-Qaeda official, rumored to be third after Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri. Al-Libbi replaced Khalid Shaikh Mohammed after his arrest in March 2003 in connection with the September 11 attacks. The Pakistani government arrested al-Libbi and held him on charges in relation to being a chief planner in two assassination attempts on the life of President Pervez Musharraf in December 2003.
On January 13, 2006, the United States Air Force launched an airstrike on the village of Damadola. The attack occurred in the Bajaur tribal area, about 7 km (4.3 mi) from the Afghan border, and killed at least 18 people. The attack again targeted Ayman al-Zawahiri, but later evidence suggests he was not there.
On June 21, 2006, pro-Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan militants in the Bannu region of North Waziristan stated they shot down a Bell military helicopter that was reported to have crashed. The government denied missile fire as the cause, stating it was due to technical faults. The helicopter had taken off from a base camp in Bannu at around 7 am for Miramshah and crashed 15 minutes later into the Baran Dam in the Mohmandkhel area on Wednesday morning. Four soldiers were killed while three others were rescued. On the same day militants killed an inspector and two constables on a road connecting Bannu and the main town of Miranshah.
On June 21, 2006, Afghan Taliban leader Sirajuddin Haqqani issued a decree that it was not (Afghan) Taliban policy to fight the Pakistan Army. However, the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan intentionally did not circulate the decree in North Waziristan thereby keeping pressure on the government.
Waziristan peace accord signed 
On September 5, 2006, the Waziristan Accord, an agreement between tribal leaders and the Pakistani government was signed in Miranshah, North Waziristan. to end all fighting. The agreement includes the following provisions:
- The Pakistani Army will help reconstruct infrastructure in tribal areas of North and South Waziristan.
- The Pakistani Military will not tolerate any assistance to intruders in North Waziristan, and will monitor actions in the region.
- The Pakistan government is to compensate tribal leaders for the loss of life and property of innocent tribesmen.
- “Foreigners” (informally understood to be foreign jihadists) are not allowed to use Pakistani territory for any terrorist activity anywhere in the world.
- 2,500 foreigners who were originally held on suspicion of having links to the Taliban were to be detained for necessary action against them.
The agreement, dubbed the Waziristan accord, has been viewed by some political commentators as a success for Pakistan. Others were far more critical, seeing it as allowing militants to regroup and reorganize after military operations.
Madrassa air strike 
On October 30, 2006, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) conducted an air strike against a madrassa in the Bajaur region bordering Afghanistan. The madrassa was destroyed killing 70 to 80 people. In retaliation for the attack the militants conducted a suicide bombing on an army camp on November 8, 2006, killing 42 Pakistani soldiers and wounding 20.
Insurgency in the North, 2007 
In March, Pakistan signed a peace treaty with Faqir Mohammed, the main militant leader in Bajaur. Militant groups now held three districts in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas: South Waziristan, North Waziristan and Bajaur Agency.
Waziri-Uzbek tensions 
Reportedly, the fighting sparked by the killing of Saiful Adil, an al-Qaeda-linked Arab, blamed on the Uzbeks by Maulvi Nazir, described as a top pro-Taliban militant commander in the region. According to the other version, fighting started after Maulvi Nazir, whom the government claimed had come over to its side, ordered the Uzbek followers of Tohir Yo‘ldosh, formerly a close confidant of Osama bin Laden, to disarm. It was also preceded by the clashes between the IMU and a pro-government tribal leader in Azam Warsak, in which 17 to 19 people died before a ceasefire was announced.
Defeat of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan 
Local militants allied to the tribesmen were reported attacking and seizing the IMU's private jail in Azam Warsak. The Pakistan Army said it did not intend to step in, but witnesses say government artillery fired on the Uzbek bunkers they set up to fight the tribesmen.
Heavy fighting resumed on March 29, ending a week-long ceasefire between tribal fighters and foreign militants. According to initial reports, tribesmen attacked a checkpoint manned by Uzbek militants and captured two of them. The clashes also left one tribal fighter dead and three wounded. The following day, a senior Pakistani official announced that 52 people were killed during the past two days, 45 of them Uzbeks and the rest tribesmen. One of Maulvi Nazir's aides put the death toll at 35 Uzbeks and 10 tribal fighters. However, residents in the area said that the death toll on both sides was inflated.
The conflict further escalated on April 2 when a council of elders declared jihad against foreign militants and started to raise an army of tribesmen. According to Pakistani security officials, heavy fighting concentrated in the village of Doza Ghundai left more than 60 people dead, including 50 foreigners, 10 tribal fighters and one Pakistani soldier. He also said that "dozens" of Uzbeks had surrendered to tribal forces and that many bunkers used by militants were seized or destroyed.
On April 12, 2007 the army general in charge of South Waziristan said that tribal fighters had cleared the Uzbeks out of the valleys surrounding Wana and the foreign militants had been pushed back into the mountains on the Afghan border. Four days later, the local tribesmen has urged Islamabad to resume control of law and order in the area.
Lal Masjid siege 
On July 3, 2007, the militant supporters of Lal Masjid and Pakistani security forces clashed in Islamabad after the students from the mosque attacked a nearby government ministry building with stones. Their resultant faceoff with the military escalated, despite the intervention of then-ruling Pakistan Muslim League (Q) leaders Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq. The Pakistani security forces immediately put up a siege around the mosque complex which lasted until July 11 and resulted in 108 deaths. This represented the main catalyst for the conflict and eventual breakdown of the truce that existed between Pakistan and the Pakistani Taliban groups. Already during the siege there were several attacks in Waziristan in retaliation for the siege.
Truce in Waziristan broken 
As the siege in Islamabad ensued, several attacks on Pakistani troops in Waziristan were reported. On July 14, 2007, a suicide bomber attacked a Pakistani Army convoy killing 25 soldiers and wounding 54. On July 15, 2007, two suicide bombers attacked another Pakistani Army convoy killing 16 soldiers and 5 civilians and wounding another 47 people. And in a separate incident a fourth suicide bomber attacked a police headquarters killing 28 police officers and recruits and wounding 35 people. The assault on the Red Mosque prompted rebels along the border with Afghanistan to scrap the controversial Waziristan Accord with the government.
New war in Waziristan 
The Army moved large concentration of troops into Waziristan and engaged in fierce clashes with militants in which at least 100 militants were killed including wanted terrorist and former Guantanamo Bay detainee, Abdullah Mehsud. The militants also struck back by attacking Army convoys, security check points and sending suicide bombers killing dozens of soldiers and police and over 100 civilians. In one month of fighting during the period from July 24 to August 24, 2007, 250 militants and 60 soldiers were killed. On September 2, 2007, just a few dozen militants led by Baitullah Mehsud managed to ambush a 17-vehicle army convoy and captured an estimated 247 soldiers without a shot being fired, an event that shocked the nation. Several officers were among the captured.
After the army returned to Waziristan, they garrisoned the areas and set up check-points, but the militants hit hard. In mid-September the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and other forces attacked a number of Pakistani army outposts all across North and South Waziristan. This resulted in some of the heaviest fighting of the war. Following the Lal Masjid Siege, On September 12, 2007, the first outpost was attacked and overrun by the militants resulting in the capture of 12 Pakistani soldiers. The next day on September 13, 2007, a suicide bomber in Tarbela Ghazi attacked a Pakistani army base, destroying the main mess hall and killing 20 members of the Karrar commando group; Pakistan's most elite army unit. A series of attacks ensued and by September 20, 2007 a total of five Pakistani Army military outposts had been overrun and more than 25 soldiers captured. More than 65 soldiers were either killed or captured and almost 100 wounded. A little over two weeks later, the Army responded with helicopter gunships, jet fighters and ground troops. They hit militant positions near the town of Mir Ali. In heavy fighting over four days, 257 people were killed, including 175 militants, 47 soldiers and 35 civilians.
Operation Rah-e-Haq 
By the end of October fighting erupted in the Swat district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, with a large Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi force, under the command of Maulana Fazlullah, trying to impose Sharia law. Around 3,000 paramilitary soldiers were sent to confront them. After almost a week of heavy fighting the battle came to a standstill with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Then on November 1 and November 3, 220 paramilitary soldiers and policemen surrendered or deserted after a military position on a hill-top and two police stations were overrun. This left the Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM) in control of most of the Swat district.
The fighting in Swat is the first serious insurgent threat from militia forces in what is known as a settled area of Pakistan. Forces loyal to Maulana Fazlullah, including some foreign fighters, after taking control of a series of small towns and villages, tried to implement strict Islamic law in November 2007. In mid-November the regular army was deployed with the help of helicopter gunships to crush the uprising. The Pakistan Army deployed over 2,500 men. By the beginning of December the fighting had ended and the Army recaptured Swat. Almost 400 of Maulana Fazlullah's fighters were dead along with 15 Pakistani soldiers and 20 civilians in the military offensive. Despite the victory by the Pakistani army, TNSM militants slowly re-entered Swat over the coming months and started engaging security forces in battles that lasted throughout 2008. By early February 2009, the whole district was in Pakistan Army Control.
Rawalpindi attacks 
On September 3, two suicide bombers targeted a military intelligence (ISI) bus and a line of cars carrying ISI officers. The bus attack killed a large number of Defence Ministry workers and the other attack killed an Army colonel. In all 31 people, 19 soldiers and 12 civilians, were killed.
Two months later on November 24 a military intelligence bus was again attacked. Almost everyone on the bus was killed. Another bomber blew up at a military checkpoint. 35 people were killed, almost all military.
State of emergency 
A state of emergency was declared by Pervez Musharraf on 2007-11-03. It lasted until 2007-12-15. During this time the constitution of the country was suspended. This action and its responses are generally related to the controversies surrounding the re-election of Musharraf during the presidential election that had occurred on 2007-10-06, and also was claimed by the government to be the reaction to the actions by militants in Waziristan.
2008 election and Benazir Bhutto's assassination 
On 27 December 2007, Pakistani opposition leader and former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was killed upon leaving a political rally for the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A suicidal assassin reportedly fired shots in Bhutto's direction just prior to detonating an explosive pellet-laden vest, killing approximately 24 people and wounding many more. Musharraf and the army blamed the attack on Al-Qaida, but the following day a statement by Baitullah Mehsud was sent to the media saying that he and Al-Qaida had no involvement in the murder of the former Prime Minister, and that they believed that Musharraf and the army were responsible. The killing was followed by a wave of violence across the country that left 58 people dead, including four police officers. Most of the violence was directed at Musharraf and the pro-Musharraf political party,PML-Q Pakistan Muslim League (Q). PML-Q was branded as Qatil League or killer league. Bhutto had previously survived an assassination attempt made on her life during her homecoming which left 139 people dead and hundreds wounded.
Escalation, air and ground war 
In January 2008, militants overran Sararogha Fort, and may have overrun a fort in Ladah as well. Both forts are in South Waziristan, and were held by the Pakistan Army. On 25 February 2008, a suicide bomber struck in the garrison-town of Rawalpindi which targeted and killed top military medic and Medical Corps Surgeon-General, Lieutenant-General Mushtaq Baig, along with two more soldiers and five civilians. General Baig was the highest-level military official to be assassinated since Pakistan joined the War on Terror.
The upcoming and then-newly appointed Chairman Joint Chiefs General Tariq Majid formalized a plan and strategy to tackle the insurgency. Terming as "tri-services framework", the chairman joint chiefs emphasized the role of inter-services to tackle the insurgency with full force, and joint army-navy-airforce efforts that are synergized within a framework of jointness and inter-operability to meet present and future challenges". His plan was submitted to Prime minister Yousaf Raza Gillani who approved the new strategy, which followed the new order of battle and new deployments of combat units of joint army-navy-air force in the north-western region.
Operation Zalzala 
A full-fledged security operation called 'Zalzala (lit. earthquake) was undertaken by 14th Army Infantry Division in January with the goal of flushing out Baitullah Mehsud's TTP group militants from the area. The area had previously been a more or less safe zone for militants, with some villagers providing them support and shelter. Many militants were killed during the operation, and within three days the security forces were in full control of the area. The army later captured a few other villages and small towns as part of their attempt to pressure Baitullah Mehsud.
However, the operation led to a huge displacement of local population. According to the GOC of the 14th Army Division's Major-General Tariq Khan, about 200,000 men, women and children, were displaced. Khalid Aziz, former NWFP chief secretary and expert on tribal affairs, said the displacement was "one of the biggest in tribal history" adding that human cost of the conflict in Waziristan "has gone unrecorded."
Peace agreement 
On February 7, 2008, the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) offered a truce and peace negotiations resulting in a suspension of violence. On May 21, 2008 Pakistan signed a peace agreement with the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.
Despite the agreement sporadic fighting continued until late June and escalated with the takeover of the town of Jandola on June 24, by the militants. Around 22 pro-government tribal fighters were captured and executed by the TTP at that time.
On 28 June 2008, Pakistan Army started another offensive against militia fighters in Kyhber, codenamed Sirat-e-Mustaqeem (lit. Righteous Path). The military took control of a key town and demolished an insurgent group's building. In this offense, one militant was reportedly killed while two soldiers died in Swat valley. The operation was halted in early July. On 19 July 2008, clashes erupted between the TTP and a faction of pro-government Taliban militants. The fighting ended with 10–15 of the pro-government fighters were killed and another 120 were captured. Among the captured were two commanders who were tried under "Islamic" law by the Taliban and then executed.
On 21 July 2008, heavy fighting in Baluchistan Province killed 32 militants, 9 soldiers and 2 civilians. More than two dozen militants were captured and a large weapons cache was found. Between 28 July and 4 August 2008, heavy fighting flared up in the northwestern Swat valley leaving 94 militants, 28 civilians and 22 soldiers and policemen, were dead.
Bajaur offensive 
On 6 August 2008, the heavy fighting erupted in the Loisam area of Bajaur district. Loisam lies on the strategically important road leading towards the main northwestern city of Peshawar. The fighting started when hundreds of militants poured into the area and began attacking government forces. After four days of fighting on August 10, the military withdrew from the area. It resulted in confirmed killing of 100 militants and 9 soldiers, and another 55 soldiers were missing, at least three dozen of them captured by the militants. While the fighting was going on in Bajaur, in the Buner area of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa militants killed at least nine policemen in an attack on a check post. The checkpoint was then abandoned, and the local Pakistani forces withdrew to Khar, the main town of Bajaur Agency. There were reports that the town of Khar was then besieged by tribal militants.
On 21 August 2008, in response to the military offensive in Bajaur, two suicide bombers attacked the Pakistan Ordnance Factories in Wah while workers were changing shifts. The attack killed at least 70 people.
Tribesmen declare war against the militants 
By the beginning of September 2008, the Pakistani tribal elders began organising a private army of approximately 30,000 tribesmen to fight the Taliban. A lashkar, or private army, composed of Pakistani tribesmen, began burning the houses of militia commanders in Bajaur, near the Afghan border, vowing to fight them until they are expelled. This included the house of a local militant commander named Naimatullah, who had occupied several government schools and converted them into seminaries. A tribal elder named Malik Munsib Khan, who heads the lashkar, said that tribesmen would continue their struggle until the militants were expelled from the area, adding that anyone found sheltering militants would be fined one million rupees and their houses will be burned. The tribesmen also torched two important centres of the militant activity in the area and gained control of most of the tehsil.
One of the main motivations for this activity was the operations that were taking place in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas that had displaced some 300,000 people while dozens of citizens had been killed in clashes between the militants and military. Since the start of Pakistan's war against the militants, some 150,000 tribesmen have sided with them.
US support and aid for Pakistani tribesmen 
American military proposals outlined an intensified effort to enlist tribal leaders in the frontier areas of Pakistan in the fight against Al-Qaeda, the Afghan Taliban and Pakistani militia groups, as part of a broader effort to bolster Pakistani forces against militancy in the region. The proposal was modeled in part on a similar effort by American forces in Iraq that had been hailed as a great success in fighting foreign insurgents there. But it raised the question of whether such partnerships can be forged without a significant American military presence in Pakistan. And it is unclear whether enough support can be found among the tribes. Small numbers of United States military personnel have served as advisers to the Pakistani Army in the tribal areas, giving planning advice and helping to integrate American intelligence. Under this new approach, the number of advisers would increase.
American officials said these security improvements complemented a package of assistance from the Agency for International Development and the State Department for the seven districts of the tribal areas that amounted to $750 million over five years, and would involve work in education, health and other sectors. The State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs also assisted the Frontier Corps with financing for counternarcotics work.
Islamabad Marriott Hotel Bombing 
On 23 September 2008, the Pakistan Army, backed by the Pakistan Air Force, killed more than 60 insurgents in northwest Pakistan in offensives in response to the bombing over the weekend at the Marriott hotel in the capital Islamabad that killed 53 people. In the nearby Bajur tribal region, the Army killed at least 10 militants, according to government officials. The Bajur operations, which the army said left more than 700 suspected militants dead, won praise from U.S. officials.
Renewed Bajaur offensive 
Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari publicly vowed revenge in response to the Marriott Hotel bombing. By 26 September 2008, Pakistan army and air force had successfully conducted and completed a major offensive in the Bajaur and the Tang Khata regions of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, codenamed Operation Sherdil. The ground troops had killed over 1,000 militants in a huge offensive, a day after President Asif Ali Zardari lashed out at US forces over a clash on the Afghan border.
Major-General Tariq Khan, now Inspector General of the Frontier Corps, mentioned to journalists that since the beginning of the Bajaur operations, there were up to 2,000 militant fighters including hundreds of foreigners who were fighting with the soldiers and the security forces. The overall death toll was over 1,000 militants and also adding that 27 Pakistani soldiers had also been killed with 111 soldiers seriously wounded.
Five top Al-Qaeda operatives and militia commanders were among those killed in a month-long operation in Bajaur. Of the five militant commanders killed, four appeared to be foreigners: Egyptian Abu Saeed Al-Masri; Abu Suleiman, an Arab; an Uzbek commander named Mullah Mansoor; and an Afghan commander called Manaras. The fifth was a Pakistani commander named only Abdullah, a son of ageing hardline leader Maulvi Faqir Mohammad who is based in Bajaur and has close ties to Al-Qaeda second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Between October 22 and October 24, security forces engaged in another push against militants in the restive Bajaur and Khyber tribal regions. Air strikes were carried out in the Nawagai and Mamond sub-districts of Bajaur Agency. The troops destroyed several centres of militants at Charmang, Chinar and Zorbandar and inflicted heavy losses on them. Gunship helicopters shelled in Charming, Cheenar, Kohiand Babarha areas of Nawagai and Mamund Tehsil of Bajaur agency, destroying various underground hideouts and bunkers of militants. The security forces also took control of different areas of Loisam, a militant headquarters, and advanced towards other areas for complete control.
Intensified U.S. strikes 
At the end of August 2008, the United States stepped up its attacks in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. On September 3 a commando attack took place in a village near the Afghan border in South Waziristan, and there have been strikes from unmanned drones in North Waziristan, culminating on the morning of September 8, 2008, when a United States Air Force drone aircraft fired a number of missiles at a "guest house for militants arriving in North Waziristan." 23 people were killed, but the operations target, Jalaluddin Haqqani, was not among them.
On September 25, 2008, following exchanges of gunfire between US and Pakistani forces on the frontier, President Zardari told the United Nations that Pakistan would not tolerate violations of its sovereignty, even by its allies. The incident happened after two US military helicopters came under fire from the Pakistani forces. A US military spokesman insisted that they had been about a mile and a half inside Afghanistan.
President Zardari told the United Nations, "Just as we will not let Pakistani's territory to be used by terrorists for attacks against our people and our neighbours, we cannot allow our territory and our sovereignty to be violated by our friends," he said, without specifically citing the United States or the border flareup.
Militants targeting of tribesmen 
On October 11, 2008, a suicide bomber struck an anti-militant gathering of tribal elders just as they had decided to form a lashkar (tribal militia). At least 110 anti-Taliban tribesmen were killed and a further 125 were wounded. The suicide bomber drove his car into the gathering itself and blew himself up. The attack on the tribal council took place in Orakzai, normally a relatively quiet corner of the nation's chaotic tribal areas.
Fighting for the NATO supply lines 
On October 19, 2008, the Pakistan Army was locked in a fierce battle with militants to keep open the fuel and arms supply routes to British and American forces in Afghanistan. For months, militants had been trying to either attack or seal off the supply routes. The army claimed that Mohammad Tariq Alfridi, the militant commander, had seized terrain around the mile-long Kohat tunnel, south of Peshawar, three times since January. He had coordinated suicide bomb attacks and rocket strikes against convoys emerging from it. Maulvi Omar, a Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan spokesman, said that his fighters would lay down their arms if the Pakistan Army ceased fighting. The Pakistan Army ignored his offer. The battle for the tunnel began at the start of the year when Tehrik-i-Taliban fighters seized five trucks carrying weapons and ammunition. They held the tunnel for a week before they were driven out in fierce fighting with the Army. Since then, Tariq and his men have returned several times to attack convoys. The army launched its latest onslaught after a suicide bomb attack at one of its bases near the tunnel six weeks ago. Five people were killed and 45 were injured, including 35 soldiers, when a pickup truck packed with explosives was driven into a checkpoint.
On November 11, 2008, militants attacked two convoys at the Khyber Pass capturing 13 trucks which were headed for Afghanistan. One convoy was from the United Nations World Food Programme and was carrying wheat. The second was intended for NATO troops and one of the captured trucks was carrying with it two U.S. military Humvees, which were also seized.
On December 8, 2008, militants torched more than 160 vehicles destined for US-led troops in Afghanistan. The militants attacked the Portward Logistic Terminal in the northern city of Peshawar at around 02:30 am, destroying its gate with a rocket-propelled grenade and shooting dead a guard. They then set fire to about 100 vehicles, including 70 Humvees, which shipping documents showed were being shipped to the US-led coalition forces and the Afghan National Army. At the same time, militants torched about 60 more vehicles at the nearby Faisal depot, which like Portward is on the ring road around Peshawar, where convoys typically stop before heading for the Khyber Pass.
Public support and unified military operations 
On February 3, 2009, militants blew up a bridge at the Khyber Pass, temporarily cutting a major supply line for Western troops in Afghanistan. After the attack supplies along the route had been halted "for the time being", according to NATO. In 2009, the Chairman joint chiefs General Tariq Majid, working with his JS HQ staffers, had been running several meetings of planning to conduct the joint warfare operations against the TTP militants
Swat ceasefire 
Pakistan agreed to impose Sharia law and suspend military operations in the Swat Valley. The decision was troubling for the United States, which believed it would embolden militants fighting US-led troops in Afghanistan and desire to impose Islamic law across nuclear-armed Pakistan. US officials believed it would provide another safe haven for the militants within 80 miles (130 km) of Islamabad, the Pakistani capital, as well as a corridor between the Afghan border and the disputed region of Kashmir.
Pakistani officials said that it was the only way to pacify a fierce Islamist insurgency and avoid more civilian casualties in Swat – whose ski resort and mountain scenery once made it a popular tourist destination. Amir Haider Khan Hoti, the chief minister for the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, announced the government’s decision after a meeting with militant leaders in the provincial capital, Peshawar. He said that local authorities would impose Islamic law across Malakand region, which includes Swat. Officials said that Asif Ali Zardari, the Pakistani President, would sign off on the deal once peace had been restored. The agreement came the day after the militants in Swat said that it would observe a ten-day ceasefire in support of the peace process. Pakistani officials say that the laws allow Muslim clerics to advise judges, but not to outlaw female education, music or other activities once banned by the Afghan Taliban in Afghanistan.
Defeat of the militants in Bajaur 
On March 1, 2009, the Pakistan Army finally defeated Bajaur militants and foreign militants in Bajaur, which is a strategically important region on the Afghan border. Major-General Tariq Khan, who was commanding the military operations in five of the seven agencies, said his Army and the Frontier Corps had killed most militants in Bajaur, the smallest of the agencies but a major infiltration route into Afghanistan, after a six-month offensive. By the time the battle in Bajaur was over, the Pakistan Army killed over 1,500 militants while losing 97 of their own soldiers and 404 soldiers seriously injured.
Militant counter-attack 
On March 30, militia commandos struck in Lahore. They attacked the Munawan Police Academy killing and taking hostage police cadets. A siege was under way for about eight hours after the militants had barricaded themselves in the academy. Eventually police forces managed to retake the compound. 18 people were killed in the attack: eight policemen, eight militants and two civilians. At least 95 policemen were wounded and 10 were taken hostage before being rescued. Four gunmen were captured by the police.
On April 4, a suicide bomber attacked a military camp in Islamabad killing eight soldiers. Less than 24 hours later on April 5, two more suicide attacks occurred. One bomber targeted a market on the border with Afghanistan killing 17 people and the other attacked a mosque in Chakwal, in the eastern Pakistani province of Punjab, killing 26 more civilians. The next day, the leader of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Baitullah Mehsud, promised that there were to be two suicide attacks per week in the country until the Pakistani army withdrew from the border region and the United States stopped its missile attacks by unmaned drones on militant bases.
Militants violate Swat deal 
In March 2009, many Pakistanis were horrified when a videotape surfaced that showed miliant enforcers publicly whipping a 17-year-old girl in Swat accused of having an affair. The girl had not committed fornication or adultery but was flogged simply because she refused her brother's demand to marry someone of his choosing. Protests broke out all over Pakistan to demonstrate against the flogging. Raja Zafar ul-Haq, a well-respected Pakistani Islamic scholar and political activist said this summary punishment of flogging simply for refusing a marriage proposal was totally un-Islamic and had nothing to do with Sharia. He went on to say that Prophet Muhammad had strictly forbidden the practice of forced marriages and in this case, the girl had not done anything wrong by refusing a marriage proposal.
In Buner, the Taliban continued their criminal activities when residents said Taliban fighters had been stealing cattle for meat, stealing other livestock, berating men without beards and recruiting teenagers into their ranks. The Taliban also began to steal vehicles belonging to government officials and ransacked the offices of some local non-government organisations for no apparent reason. 12 schoolchildren were killed by a bomb contained in a football.
Operation Black Thunderstorm 
On April 26, 2009, the unified Pakistan Armed Forces started the strategic and tactical airborne attack, codename Black Thunderstorm, with the aim of retaking Buner, Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla districts from the Pakistani Taliban after the militants took control of the area since the start of the year. The Pakistan Army, now backed by the Pakistan Navy and PAF, renewed the unified operation that was well rehearsed and prepared. The fighter jets of Navy and air force began pounding the militant hideouts while army kept advancing in the militant hideouts. The combat fighter pilots of the navy and air force flew their aerial bombing mission together in high altitude at continuous 24 hour period, to avoid being hit from the anti-aircraft guns. During the initial stages of the unified operations, the ground troops and paratroopers performed combat HALO/HAHO techniques to hold the control of high strategic mountains and hills surrounding the Taliban-controlled cities.
The operation largely cleared the Lower Dir district of militia forces by April 28 and Buner by May 5. On May 5, operations started to retake Swat and later on Shangla. Fighting in Swat was particularly fierce since the Taliban threw away their insurgent tactics and the ground forces their counter-insurgency tactics. Both sides favored more conventional frontline warfare as a means of fighting each other. By May 14, the military was only six kilometers south of Mingora, the milita-held capital city of Swat, and preparations for all-out street fighting were underway.
On May 23, the battle for Mingora started and by May 27, approximately 70 percent of the city was cleared of militants. On May 30, the Pakistan military had taken back the city of Mingora from the Pakistani Taliban, calling it a significant victory in its offensive against the militants. However, some sporadic fighting was still continuing on the city's outskirts.
In all, according to the military, 128 soldiers and more than 1,475 militants were killed and 317 soldiers were wounded during operation Black Thunderstorm. 95 soldiers and policemen were captured by the militants, 18 of them were rescued while the fate of the others remained undetermined. 114 militants were captured, including some local commanders. At least 23 of the militants killed were foreigners.
Sporadic fighting throughout Swat continued up until mid-June. On June 14, the operation was declared over and the military had regained control of the region. Only small pockets of Taliban resistance remained and the military started mopping up operations. This led to a refugee crisis, and by August 22, 1.6 million of 2.3 million have returned home according to UN estimates.
Blockade of South Waziristan 
On June 16, 2009, in the aftermath of the successful victory and recapture of the entire Swat valley, the Pakistan military began a massive army troop build-up along the southern and eastern borders of South Waziristan. Pakistan was now taking the fight to Mehsud's mountainous stronghold, ordering an expansion of its current offensive against Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan fighters in the Swat valley. On Sunday night, denouncing Mehsud as "the root cause of all evils," Owais Ghani, the governor of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, said the government has called on the army to launch a "full-fledged" military operation to eliminate Mehsud and his estimated 20,000 men.
Islamabad's decision to launch the offensive against Mehsud signaled a deepening of Pakistani resolve against the militants. The army had targeted the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan leader on three separate occasions – in 2004, 2005 and 2008 – but walked away each time after signing peace deals with Mehsud. The military appeared more determined this time. It also enjoyed the backing of a government that had gained public support as a wave of terrorist attacks had swayed public sentiment against the Taliban.
Killing of Baitullah Mehsud 
The leader of Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Baitullah Mehsud, was killed in a drone attack in early August 2009. This was later confirmed by captured chief spokesman Maulvi Umar. He was replaced by Hakimullah Mehsud.
Taliban counter-attacks 
In early October 2009, the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan started a string of attacks in cities across Pakistan. The goal of the attacks was to show that the militants were still a united fighting force following the death of their leader and to disrupt a planned military offensive into South Waziristan. Places targeted include the U.N. World Food Program offices in Islamabad, Khyber bazaar in Peshawar, Army General Headquarters in Rawalpindi, a market in Shangla, security establishments in Lahore, police stations in Kohat and Peshawar, the International Islamic University, Islamabad, and Pakistan Air Force Complex in Kamra. The month ended with a car bombing of Meena Bazaar, Peshawar killing 118 civilians. The army then began a ground offensive in South Waziristan.
November saw suicide bombings of the Army's National Bank of Pakistan in Rawalpindi, a market in Charsadda, and six bombings in Peshawar including the regional headquarters of the ISI and the Judicial Complex.
South Waziristan offensive 
On October 17, the combined units of Pakistan armed forces launched a large-scale offensive in South Waziristan involving 28,000 troops advancing across South Waziristan from three directions.
Starting with air force strike and naval intelligence assessment on Taliban, the first town to fall to the Army was Kotkai, the birthplace of the Pakistani Taliban leader Hakimullah Mehsud, on October 19. However, the next day, the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan re-took the town. Troops had thrust into Kotkai only to be hit by a determined counteroffensive that killed seven soldiers, including an army major, and wounded seven more. The Army managed to take the town once again on October 24, after days of bombardments.
On November 1, the towns of Sararogha and Makin were surrounded, and fighting for Sararogha started on November 3. The fighting there lasted until November 17, when the town finally fell to the military. The same day, the town of Laddah was also captured by the Army and street fighting commenced in Makin. Both Sararogha and Laddah were devastated in the fighting.
By November 21, more than 570 militants and 76 soldiers had been killed in the offensive.
On December 12, 2009, the Pakistan army declared victory in South Waziristan.
Continued insurgency 
Insurgency in West and defeat of Taliban: 2010-2011 
On March 23, 2010, the Pakistan armed forces launched an offensive to clear Orakzai. Officials also announced a future offensive in North Waziristan. The week prior the Pakistan military killed approximately 150 militants in fighting in the region. It was expected that all tribal areas would be cleared by June 2010.
June 3, Pakistani authorities announced a victory over the insurgents in Orakzai and Kurram.
By 2011, Pakistan's armed forces were stretched thin by natural disasters and deployments against extremist groups, with one third of the army deployed for the fight, another third along the Indian border and the rest engaged in preparing to deploy. On May 1, in a clandestine operation in Abbottabad, al-Qaeda supremo Osama Bin Laden was raided and killed by the U.S. Navy SEALs in his private compound. The groups affiliated with the armed TTP vowed to avenge Osama's death to Pakistan Armed Forces, on media. On April 21 and April 28, the Taliban began to attack the Pakistan Navy presence in Northern Areas and Southern areas.
During the month of April, TTP targeted a number of high naval officials of Pakistan Navy in Karachi, first attacking the Navy bus near the Navy bases. On May 22, Taliban attacked the Mehran Naval Base, killing up to 10 naval officers, 30 others were wounded with two reconnaissance naval aircraft were destroyed during their counter offense.
The navy launched its largest offense since 1971 operations, and managed to control and secure the base during the shootout. The navy's counter offense killed all the assailants and ring leaders behind this operations were killed by the Navy's SSG(N) and had secured the base after a massive shoot out. On June 4, senior Al Qaeda operative Ilyas Kashmiri was killed by a US drone strike in South Waziristan, widely suspected in Mehran operation.
In 2012, the north-west region of Pakistan experienced periodic bombings perpetrated by insurgents and resulting in thousands of deaths. On 22 December 2012, a suicide bomb attack carried out by the Pakistani Taliban killed Bashir Ahmed Bilour, a minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 8 other people.
Tirah Valley clashes 
In January 2013, at least 80 militants & civilians were killed in clashes between the Tehrik-e-Taliban / Lashkar-e-Islam and Ansar ul-Islam (a pro-government militant group) in Tirah Valley of Pakistan's Khyber Agency.  Fighting between Ansar ul-Islam & the Pakistani Taliban continued till March and as a result, almost the entire Tirah Valley came under the control of Lashkar-e-Islam and TTP fighters.  Over 250 militants & civilians were killed and 400 others wounded in the three month long clashes.  The fighting also displaced about 200,000 to 300,000 people.  This forced the Pakistan Army to start Operation Rah-e-Shahadat in order to root out insurgents & extremists from the strategically important region & restore peace & stability for the upcoming May elections. 
Operation Rah-e-Shahadat 
On 5 April, 2013 Pakistan Army, Special Services Group & Frontier Corps soldiers (backed by air support) along with Local Peace Committee (Aman Lashkar) members launched Operation Rah-e-Shahadat (English: Path to Martyrdom) to flush out Tehrik-e-Taliban & Lashkar-e-Islam militants from the Tirah Valley of Khyber Agency. At least four Pakistani soldiers & 14 insurgents were killed while 5 soldiers were also wounded. 
On 7 April, 2013 Pakistani security officials said that at least 30 Taliban-linked militants and 23 soldiers including commandos were killed during clashes in the Tirah Valley since April 5. Several Aman Lashkar members were also reported to be killed & wounded. Scores of insurgents and Pakistani troops were injured in the operation. 
On 8 April, 2013 Pakistani military officials said that at least 30 Pakistani soldiers & 97 militants were killed during fierce fighting with Taliban linked-fighters in the Tirah Valley since April 5, the day when the operation began. 
On 11 April, 2013 at least 15 militants and one Pakistani soldier were killed during fighting in southern sector of Tirah Valley.  The areas of Mada Khel and Tut Sar were cleared from militants. 
On 12 April, 2013 nine Pakistani soldiers & seven insurgents were killed during clashes in Sipah area of Tirah Valley. The security forces took control of the areas of Sandana and Sheikhmal Khel in Sipah area. Three Lashkar-e-Islam militants were also arrested while a dozen others were injured.  Two peace committee members were killed and 22 others injured in a bomb blast in the same area. 
On May 5, 2013 Pakistan Army's ISPR said that 16 insurgents and two soldiers were killed during heavy clashes in the Tirah Valley. Three soldiers were reported to be wounded. The military also claimed to have captured militant strongholds Kismat Sur and Sanghar & recovered huge cache of arms & ammunition from the militants fleeing from the area. 
Peace prospects and developments 
Since 2006, major initiatives have been taken out by the government to reconstruct and rehabilitate the war-torn areas of FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The military administrator of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Lieutenant-General Nadeem Ahmad, supervised majority of the socioeconomic development in the areas that were badly effected by the military operations. The government took many initiatives, including promotion the political activities under the Political Parties Act, the construction of the Peshawar-Torkham Road and the establishment of the Investment Bank of FATA, envisioned to bring prosperity and provide employment opportunities. Around ₨ 1 billion were spend for the rehabilitation of the IDPs and ₨ 500 million were immediately transferred into the account of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government for the economic development in the province.
As of 2006 and present, there are numbers of notable and major international agencies and UN efforts to reconstruct the war-torn areas affected of fighting. As early as 2005, there major government institutions who have been involved in public level to lead the reconstruction, economic development and to bring the quick economic recovery in the war-torn areas, as listed below:
- US Aid
- National Reconstruction Bureau (NRB)
- National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
- Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA)
- Special Support Group for IDPs (SSG)
- Federal Relief Commission (FRC)
- National Logistics Cell (NLC)
- Frontier Works Organisation (FWO
- Navy Reconstruction Group (NRG)
Under the 2006–15 program, a nine-year project, over $2.06 billion would be spend for the economic reconstruction of the FATA region, with the U.S. Government has pledged to provide $750 million over a period of 5 years. Since 2010, the engineering units of army, the Frontier Works Organisation (FWO) and Corps of Engineers and Military Engineering Service, have been active in the area to reconstruct the war-torn areas. Major operations were carried out by the FWO to completed the wide canvas of works, including construction of over 400 km roads, dams, canals and hydroelectric works. The engineering units commenced the work on Gomal Zam Dam in Waziristan with the help of the local tribal people who were employed for this mega project. The Pakistan Army started the political and educational activities after rebuilding the damaged schools and colleges in Waziristan and gaven admissions to as many as young tribal teenagers and young men and women in the army institutions since August 2011.
In a debriefing to parliamentarians on October 19, 2011, the military stated that a total of 3,097 security forces members were killed and 721 other were permanently disabled in the war on terror. The Inter-Services Intelligence lost 63 of its personnel owing to targeted assaults on ISI installations. In the same report it confirmed that since 2001 a total of 40,309 Pakistanis, both military and civilian, had lost their lives in the conflict.
In addition, 17,742 militants had been killed or captured by February 2010.  Among these, by November 2007, were 488 foreign extremists killed, 24 others arrested and 324 injured. Before all-out fighting broke out in 2003, independent news sources reported only four incidents of deaths of Pakistani security forces members in 2001 and 2002, in which a total of 20 soldiers and policemen were killed. The independent South Asia Terrorism Portal website has estimated that at least 1,865 soldiers and policemen were killed between 2003 and 2008. The Pak Institute For Peace Studies has estimated that 1,185 soldiers and policemen were killed in 2009.
At least 857 soldiers and policemen were reported captured by the militants in the course of the war, with at least 558 of them being released.
Mr. Naushad Ali Khan Superintendent of Research and Analysis, NWFP Police in his article Suicide and terrorist attacks and police actions in NWFP, Pakistan has provided details of different activities of the terrorists during 2008. Accordingly 483 cases were registered with 533 deaths and 1290 injured. Similarly 29 suicidal attacks were recorded, resulting 247 deaths and 695 injuries. During the same period 83 attempts acts of terrorism were foiled by the NWFP Police.
Popular culture 
Since the success of unified military operations in 2009-2011, the Waziristan war has been heavily featured in Pakistan media, including in theatre, television, cinema, music, video games and literature. The war also influenced Pakistan's civil society to gather their support for Pakistan Armed Forces through the media miniseries and films that were released throughout the war. Pakistan's rock bands, such as Entity Paradigm, Strings, Call and Mizraab released many patriotic songs to gather support for the Pakistan armed forces to tackle down the insurgency. The country's most notable band, Junoon, released their album, Rock & Roll Jihad and literature Rock & Roll Jihad: A Muslim Rock Star's Revolution in 2010.
United States role 
The military involvement of the United States in this conflict came at a bad juncture whose image and credibility in the country was already defamed and maligned, due to their constant pressure on Musharraf, to keep the military debriefings of a senior scientist suspected in proliferation matters since 2004. The US Ambassador Cameron Munter found it difficult to counter the Anti-American sentiment in the country, especially after the Raymond Davis incident. The Anti-Americanism sentiment in Pakistan is one of the strongest in the world. The Anti-Americanism has risen as a result of U.S. military drone strikes introduced by President George W. Bush and continued by President Barack Obama as his counter-terrorism policy. In the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods, the Pakistani civil society was further frustrated with the United States for not doing enough not to deal with the humanitarian crisis, noting that the US spends $5 billion every month in the war in Afghanistan. These sentiments were further intensified due to the killing of Osama Bin Laden by American forces. As of present, almost 60%-80% of Pakistanis consider the United States as an enemy combatant state. The Anti-Americanism has been provoked mainly as a reaction from those who are critical of American CIA activities in Pakistan, such as the infamous break-out of the Raymond Allen Davis incident and American intrusions from Afghanistan border such as the 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan. It has often confronted expatriate Americans in Pakistan too. According to a recent reports of Gallup Pakistan, approximately 3 in 4 Pakistanis now consider the United States as an enemy state. The polls show increasing hostility towards the United States and new lows in the already strained relationship between the two countries. The credibility of Obama administration was undermined in the country and, furthermore, approximately 4 in 10 Pakistanis believe that U.S. military and economic aid is having a negative impact on their country; only 1 in 10 believes the impact has been positive.
Economics and Cost of war 
Studies and research conducted by Pakistan's leading economists and the financial experts, the war hit Pakistan's national economy "very hard", and the outcomes produced by the war on country's national economy, were surprising and unexpected to Pakistan's military and economic planners. The government economic institutions of Pakistan referred the conflict as "economic terrorism" and according to the one Pakistani economist, the indirect and direct cost of the war was around $2.67 billion in 2001-02, which raised up to $13.6 billion by 2009-10, projected to rise to $ 17.8 billion in the current financial year (2010–11). The country's national investment-to-GDP ratio has nosedived from 22.5% in 2006-07 which went down to 13.4% in 2010-11 with serious consequences for job Creating ability of the economy. The leading English language newspaper, The Nation gave great criticism to United States, and called U.S. role as "economic terrorism" in South Asia.
Until July 2009 the conflict, as well as terrorism in Pakistan, had cost Pakistan $35 billion. According to US Congress and the Pakistani media, Pakistan has received about $18 billion from the United States for the logistical support it provided for the counter-terrorism operations from 2001 to 2010, and for its own military operation mainly in Waziristan and other tribal areas along the Durand Line. The Bush administration also offered an additional $3 billion five-year aid package to Pakistan for becoming a frontline ally in its 'War on Terror'. Annual installments of $600 million each split evenly between military and economic aid, began in 2005.
In 2009, President Barack Obama pledged to continue supporting Pakistan and has said Pakistan would be provided economic aid of $1.5 billion dollars each year for the next five years. Unfolding a new US strategy to defeat Taliban and Al-Qaeda, Obama said Pakistan must be a 'stronger partner' in destroying Al-Qaeda safe havens. In addition, President Obama has also planned to propose an extra $2.8 billion dollars in aid for the Pakistani military to intensify the US-led 'War on Terror' along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. The military aid would be in addition to the civilian aid of $1.5 billion dollars a year for the next five years from 2009 onwards.
In his autobiography, President Musharraf wrote that the United States had paid millions of dollars to the Pakistan government as bounty money for capturing al-Qaeda operators from tribal areas bordering Afghanistan. About 359 of them were handed over to the US for prosecution.
Pakistan has purchased 1,000 laser-guided bomb kits and 18 F-16 fighter jets from USA. Amongst Pakistanis opinion about the role of the US is generally negative. Incidents of terrorism cause rage and anger against the terrorist organizations but they also cause frustration with the United States. According to Pew Global Polls only 17% of Pakistanis have a positive view of the US and only 11% see it as a useful partner in the 'War on Terror'.
See also 
- Human rights in Pakistan
- Economic terrorism
- Joint warfare
- Sectarian violence in Pakistan
- Violence in Pakistan 2006-09, table and map providing overview of all violence in Pakistan between 2006 and 2009.
- ROBERT MACKEY (May 23, 2011). "Before Attack, Pakistan’s Navy Boasted of Role in Fight Against Taliban". The New York Times, ROBERT MACKEY. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "Aman Lashkar leader among 4 killed in Peshawar". Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Former Pakistani Taliban No 2 arrested in Afghanistan: Reports".
- "Taliban leader killed in firefight with police – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. August 26, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "US missile strike 'kills al-Qaeda chief' in Pakistan". BBC News. September 28, 2010.
- Barnes, Julian E. (January 23, 2010). "Pentagon chief defends arms sales to India, Pakistan". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Pakistan, Saudi Arabia Cleared for U.S. Arms Buys". Armscontrol.org. September 11, 2001. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "American Dead in Pakistan Bombing Were Special Forces – ABC News". USA: ABC. February 3, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Waraich, Omar (June 16, 2009). "Pakistan's Next Fight? Taliban Leader Baitullah Mehsud". TIME. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "A Profile of Mangal Bagh". TheLongWarJournal.
- "Pak Taliban claims to be using Afghan soil". Rediff News. June 26, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Terrorist Organization Profile: Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)". START. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "‘49,000 Pakistanis have been killed since the war on terror began in 2001’". The Express Tribune. April 30, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "Forgotten victims of Pakistan’s Taliban war". dawn.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Pakistan Timeline – 2009". SATP. 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- War in North West Pakistan
- Battle of Bajaur
- "Taliban kill, then behead three Pakistan tribesmen". The China Post. Taiwan (ROC). March 14, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- By RAVI NESSMAN, Associated Press Writer (January 7, 2008). "Tribesmen Killed in Northwest Pakistan". Fox News. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Five tribesmen killed in NW Pakistan – People's Daily Online". People's Daily. May 7, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Officials say 12 tribesmen, 4 Taliban killed in clashes in restive northwest Pakistan". Blog.taragana.com. July 4, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- DPA (August 12, 2009). "More than 100 killed in Pakistan clashes". Earth Times News - Earthtimes.org. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "U.S. Fatalities in and around Afghanistan". iCasualties. September 9, 2005. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Red Cross 'gravely concerned' about conditions in Swat Valley". CNN. May 31, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Pakistani Civilians, costsofwar.org
- "DefenseLink News Article: American Diplomat Killed In Pakistan Suicide Attack". Defenselink.mil. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Stephen Graham (September 29, 2008). "Suicide attacks kill 1,188 in Pakistan since '07". Associated Press. Retrieved October 19, 2008.[dead link]
- "GMANews.TV – Suicide attacks soar in Pakistan since 2007 – World – Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs – Latest Philippine News – BETA". Gmanews.tv. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Varun Vira and Anthony Cordesman "Pakistan: Violence versus Stability: A Net Assessment." Center for Strategic and International Studies, 25 July 2011.
- "The War in Pakistan". The Washington Post. January 25, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Zaffar Abbas (Last Updated:). "Pakistan's undeclared war". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "[Pakistan Primer Pt. 1] The Rise of the Pakistani Taliban," Global Bearings, October 27, 2011.
- David Montero (June 22, 2006). "Killing scares media away from Waziristan". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- "Pakistan attacks Waziristan compound". Al Jazeera. March 16, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Rohde, David (September 10, 2006). "Al Qaeda Finds Its Center of Gravity". New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2006.
- John Diamond (May 4, 2005). "Pakistan reports arrest of Osama bin Laden's operations chief". USA Today.
- "'Policemen killed' in Waziristan". BBC News. June 22, 2006. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- "Forces, militants heading for truce". Dawn. June 22, 2006.
- Press, Associated (September 2, 2006). "Pakistan, Taliban militants sign peace agreement". Fr.jpost.com. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Waziristan accord signed". Dawn.com. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- US outraged as Pakistan frees Taliban fighters – Daily Telegraph
- Some See Pakistan's Truce As a Defeat – Fox news
- Roggio B (March 17, 2007). "Pakistan signs the Bajaur Accord". The Long War Journal. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Stakelbeck E (April 3, 2007). "Bajaur: When 'Peace' Yields War". CBN News.[dead link] Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Roggio B. "The fall of northwestern Pakistan: An online history". The Long War Journal. Retrieved on January 13, 2008.
- "Rival militants clash in Pakistan". BBC. March 20, 2007.[not in citation given]
- Plett B (April 12, 2007). "Tribesmen 'oust' foreign fighters". BBC. Retrieved on January 16, 2008.
- "Tribe in Pakistan security plea". BBC. April 16, 2007. Retrieved on January 16, 2008.
- "FOXNews.com – Two Days of Homicide Attacks Kill 70 in Pakistan". Fox News. July 15, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Ismail Khan. "Suicide Bombers Kill 49 in Pakistan". Fairuse.100webcustomers.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Scores killed in Pakistan attacks". News.bbc.co.uk. Last Updated:. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- [dead link]
- Pakistan crisis 'hits army morale' By Ahmed Rashid September 6, 2007 – BBC
- "12-hour curfew clamped on Swat -DAWN – Top Stories; November 17, 2007". Dawn.com. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- [dead link]
- "Musharraf imposes emergency rule". Dawn. November 3, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- "Martial law declared in Pakistan". CNN. November 3, 2007. Archived from the original on November 4, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- Nelson, Dean (November 4, 2007). "Pervez Musharraf spoils for a fight as he declares emergency rule". The Times (London). Retrieved November 4, 2007.
- "Bhutto killed in suicide attack". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved December 27, 2007.[dead link]
- Benazir Bhutto is dead Reuter's video
- "Benazir Bhutto Assassination NBC News Coverage". NBC. December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.[dead link]
- "Benazir Bhutto Assassination CBS News Coverage". CBS. December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.[dead link]
- "Benazir Bhutto Assassination ABC News Coverage". ABC. December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.[dead link]
- Gall, Carlotta; Masood, Salman (October 19, 2007). "Bomb Attack Kills Scores in Pakistan as Bhutto Returns". The New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- "Pakistani troops 'flee border post'". Al Jazeera. January 17, 2008. Retrieved on January 18, 2008.
- "Pakistan attacks hit aid group, military HQ". CNN. February 25, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Kohat GOC, six other officers die in copter crash: Technical fault caused accident: ISPR" Dawn, February 7, 2008
- AAJ News (13th December 2007). "Armed Forces guardian of national integrity: General Tariq Majid". Aaj TV Headlines. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Zaffar Abbas. "Taliban ousted, but Spinkai is now a ghost town" Dawn, May 19, 2008
- Iqbal Khattak. "Deserted town shows human cost of Operation Zalzala" Daily Times, May 20, 2008
- "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistani militants 'call truce'". News.bbc.co.uk. Last Updated:. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Al Jazeera English – News – Pakistan Troops To Vacate Swat". English.aljazeera.net. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Baitullah men storm Jandola -DAWN – Top Stories; June 24, 2008". Dawn.com. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "France 24 | Pakistan broadens anti-militant offensive | France 24". France24.com. June 29, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.[dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Laura King and Zulfiqar Ali (August 10, 2008). "Pakistan fighting ends as troops withdraw – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Taliban militants kill nine policemen in Pakistan – Yahoo! India News". In.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved October 19, 2008.[dead link][dead link]
- "BBC NEWS | South Asia | 'Dozens die' in Pakistan clashes". News.bbc.co.uk. August 10, 2008<!- – 12:44 UK -->. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Twin suicide bombers hit factory in Pakistan". Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- David Montero. "Pakistani tribesmen organize private armies to fight Taliban". Csmonitor.com. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Saeed Shah (September 26, 2008). "Pakistani tribesmen organize to fight Taliban insurgents". McClatchy Washington Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "U.S. hopes to arm Pakistani tribes against Al Qaeda – International Herald Tribune". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Eric Schmitt, Mark Mazzetti And Carlotta Gall (Published: November 19, 2007). "U.S. Hopes to Use Pakistani Tribes Against Al Qaeda". New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- cache:Fda3_xPQYTkJ:www.state.gov/p/sca/rls/2008/106495.htm US support pakistani tribes – Google Search
- "Pakistani Army Says 60 Suspected Militants Killed". Fox News. September 23, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "The Associated Press: Pakistan army says 60 suspected militants killed". Google. Habib Khan – September 23, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.[dead link]
- "The Standard – Hong Kong's First Free English Newspaper". Thestandard.com.hk. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- [dead link]
- "AFP: Pakistan says 1,000 militants killed near Afghan border". Google. September 26, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Pakistan says 1,000 militants killed in Bajaur campaign | Reuters". In.reuters.com. September 26, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Pak security forces kill 16 militants". Outlookindia.com. October 23, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web". Dawn.Com. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Suspected US Missile Strike Hits Taliban Commander's House – Voice of America, September 8, 2008
- Perlez, J. & Shah, P.Z. 2008, 'US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan' most of the people killed in these attacks are civilians., International Herald Tribune, September 9. Retrieved on September 10, 2008.
- "AFP: Taliban militants behead four in Pakistan: officials". Google. October 11, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Four pro-govt tribal elders beheaded -DAWN – Top Stories; October 11, 2008". Dawn.com. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Dozens killed in Pakistan bombing". BBC. October 10, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Militants grab U.S. military Humvees in ambush". CNN. November 11, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Troops defeat Taliban in Pakistan’s Bajaur region". The Indian Express. March 1, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Taliban Invasion Is About Power, Not Islam In Pakistan". Help The Middle Class. May 10, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Video of Swat girl flogging was fake: report,2/25/2011 6:10:35 AM
- "Swat girl flogging video 'fake': Pak probe team". The Indian Express. April 19, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Football Bomb Kills 12 Children In Northern Pakistan While Another Four Die As Grenade Explodes". News.sky.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- From Reza Sayah CNN (May 30, 2009). "Pakistan secures key Swat Valley city". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "South Asia | Pakistan army 'regains' Swat city". BBC News. May 30, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "1.6 million Pakistani refugees return home: UN – Times Of India". The Times of India. August 22, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "1.3 million displaced Pakistanis return home: UN". Sify.com. August 19, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Search Results tehrik i taliban spokesman mohmand qs | Latest news, Breaking news, Pakistan News, World news, business, sport and multimedia | DAWN.COM
- "WashingtonTV تلویزیون واشنگتن Washington TV – ايميل". Televisionwashington.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Pakistan blast toll reaches 45". Malaysia News.Net. October 13, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "41 killed in terror strikes targeting security forces in Pakistan – Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. October 15, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "One killed, nine injured in Peshawar car bomb attack". Malaysia News.Net. October 15, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Schools across Pakistan close after deadly suicide blasts". CNN. October 21, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Search Results explosion heard peshawar qs | Latest news, Breaking news, Pakistan News, World news, business, sport and multimedia | DAWN.COM
- Hussain, Shaiq (November 2, 2009). "Suicide bombing kills 35, injures dozens in Pakistan". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Pakistan bombings kill 18 as spy agency hit". Sify.com. November 13, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "15 Pakistanis Killed in Peshawar Suicide Bombing, November 14, 2009". United Nations. November 14, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Pakistan forces move on Taliban". BBC News. October 17, 2009.
- "Taliban retake town as Pakistan offensive runs into trouble | McClatchy". Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "South Asia | Pakistan 'takes key Taliban town'". BBC News. October 24, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Pakistan takes Taliban stronghold". BBC News. November 2, 2009.
- Bill Roggio (November 1, 2009). "Pakistani Army surrounds major Taliban strongholds in South Waziristan". The Long War Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- By Bill Roggio (November 3, 2009). "Pakistan captures two Taliban strongholds in South Waziristan". The Long War Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Search Results main taliban bases in south waziristan captured army szh | Latest news, Breaking news, Pakistan News, World news, business, sport and multimedia | DAWN.COM
- Earth Times Staff (November 21, 2009). "Six Pakistani troops, 14 Taliban killed in clashes – Summary". Earth Times News - Earthtimes.org. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "AFP: Taliban driven out of key battleground: Pakistan PM". Google. December 12, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Security forces seize control of damadola ss". Dawn.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Bajaur declared conflict free zone". Dawn.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Pakistan’s Orakzai offensive". Gcreport.com. March 29, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Accord for operation in North Waziristan". Dawn.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "31 militants killed in Pakistan's Orakzai tribal area – People's Daily Online". People's Daily. March 30, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/20100331/wl_mcclatchy/3465984[dead link]
- "Anti-Taliban operations successful: Pakistan". The Hindu (Chennai, India). June 3, 2010.
- Garamone, Jim. "Fight Against Extremists Stretches Pakistan’s Military." American Forces Press Service, April 20, 2011.
- "Nation mourns Bashir Ahmed Bilour". The News International. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Pakistani Taliban overrun rival faction's headquarters, dozens killed". March 20, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "80 killed in clashes between rival militant groups in Pak". Jan 28, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Militant infighting compels thousands to flee Tirah Valley". 2013-03-26. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Fall of Tirah Valley". March 27, 2013. Retrieved 9 April, 2013.
- "Pakistan army starts offensive in NW; 4 troops die". U.S. News & World Report. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Tirah Valley clash leaves 14 militants, 4 security officials dead". The Express Tribune. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Tirah valley operation intensifies, 23 soldiers killed". Dawn. 07-04-2013. Retrieved 09-04-2013.
- "30 militants, 23 soldiers killed in Pak clashes". The Statesman. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "30 Pakistan soldiers killed in northwest valley". Khaleej Times. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "30 Pakistani soldiers killed in northwest valley". April 8, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "ISPR confirms deaths of 23 soldiers in Tirah Valley offensive". Dawn. April 9, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- "110 militants, 23 soldiers killed in Tirah fighting: officials". The News International. April 10, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- "At least 15 militants killed in Khyber’s Tirah valley, one soldier killed". Dawn. 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "Fighting rages in NW Pakistan, 15 militants, one soldier killed - army". April 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Report: Tirah Operation- Day 6". April 12, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Nine soldiers, 7 militants killed in Tirah". Dawn. 12 April, 2013. Retrieved 19 April, 2013.
- "TTP denies Mangal Bagh appointed Khyber militant chief". Dawn. 11 April, 2013. Retrieved 19 April, 2013.
- "Seven militants killed in Tirah, Khyber Agency during last 24 hours". Daily Times (Pakistan). April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Member of lashkar killed in Tirah blast". The News International. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Four militants killed, five injured in Tirah strikes". Dawn. 1 May, 2013. Retrieved 2 May, 2013.
- "Troops kill 16 militants in Tirah valley: Military". The Express Tribune. May 5, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Staff (May 11, 2009). "Int’l Donors conference to be called for IDPs: Gilani". Associate Press of Pakistan. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Staff report (November 25, 2012). "Development projects: FATA ACS highlights initiative". Tribune Express, 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Govt. Pakistan. "FATA Development (2000-2015)". Ministry of Finance. Government of Pakistan (Public Domain). Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- PA. "Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Development Works". FWO. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Staff (Friday, July 02, 2010). "South Waziristan free of terrorists: Army". Daily Pakistan. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Muhammad Faisal Ali (1 April 2012). "S. Waziristan marching on road to progress: army". DAWN News Waziri. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Iftikhar A. Khan. "Pakistan lost two brigades in war on terror" Dawn, October 20, 2011
- "‘Global war on terror claims 30,000 Pakistani casualties'". ummid.com. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "600 Pakistan security men killed in 28 suicide attacks after Lal Masjid operation". Topnews. Retrieved October 19, 2008.</ 220 policemen were killed in fighting in 2007 and 2008.
- Rondeaux, Candace (February 4, 2009). "Taliban Destroys a Key Bridge in Pakistan". The Washington Post (in WP-2009-02-04). Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- "AL QAEDA PRISONERS KILL 6 GUARDS, FLEE". Daily News (New York). December 20, 2001. Retrieved March 27, 2011.[dead link]
- "Ten Pakistani Soldiers, Two Suspected Al Qaeda Fighters Killed in Gunbattle". Fox News. June 26, 2002. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Main News". The Tribune. India. October 29, 2001. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "7 Killed in Shootout Between Pakistani Forces and Suspected al-Qaida | News | English". Voanews.com. July 3, 2002. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Pakistan Assessment 2009". unknown. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- "Pak Institute for Peace Studies (PIPS), Independent Think Tank in Pakistan". San-pips.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Action Update: March 15–28, 2004". Center for Defense Information. March 31, 2004. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "More police kidnapped in Pakistan". Al Jazeera. May 21, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Tribesmen kill four militants to save army officer". Rantburg. July 7, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Over 200 soldiers in captivity of militants By Mushtaq Yusufzai & Sailab Mahsud[dead link] September 3, 2007 The News International, Pakistan
- "10 FC soldiers released". TheNews. September 5, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.[dead link]
- "Another Pakistani Defeat as More Soldiers Feared Kidnapped". ABC News. October 1, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Militants seize 120 police, soldiers in Pakistan". AFP. September 3, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Pakistan: Swat militants release 48 captured soldiers". Rediff News. September 3, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.[dead link]
- "Militants claim kidnapping two Army captains". The News. December 25, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.[dead link]
- "10 policemen reported kidnapped". Dawn. December 26, 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web". Dawn.Com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Another Waziristan fort falls to militants". Dawn. January 17, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "17 Pakistani policemen kidnapped". PressTV.IR. June 23, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Taliban abducts 140 soldiers (Pakistan)". Islamoscope. July 3, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Two policemen kidnapped". Dawn. July 15, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Militants Kidnap 25 Police and Paramilitary Troops in Pakistan". ABC News. July 29, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "45 cops surrender to militants". The News. December 16, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.[dead link]
- "Ghalanai: ‘Spy’ killed, official freed in Mohmand". Dawn. August 20, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Pakistani Policemen Kidnapped; 36 Militants Killed". Javno. September 4, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Suspected militants kidnap 9 policemen in Pakistan". KUNA Kwait News Agency. October 25, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "15 more killed in Swat operation". The News. November 25, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.[dead link]
- "30 security men freed after ‘promising to quit force’". Dawn. February 4, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Militants kidnap 11 policemen in Pakistan’s Khyber area". Taragana. March 29, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "4 soldiers kidnapped in Pakistan's Swat". People's Daily. April 21, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Taliban kidnap dozens of Pakistani security forces". Associated Press. April 29, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Taleban kidnap 10 paramilitaries in NW Pakistan". Khaleej Times. May 1, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Civilians told to flee ahead of Pakistan offensive against Taliban". CNN Asia. May 5, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Troops killed in Pakistan clashes". BBC News. May 7, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Computerization of Police Stations in District Swat". NWFP.gov.PK. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Suicide and Terrorist attacks, Pakistan Society of Criminology
- Tara McKelvey. "A Former Ambassador to Pakistan Speaks Out". Daily Beast. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Strongest anti-American sentiment in Serbia, Pakistan". B92. 7 July 2009. Retrieved August 2010.
- GHUND, YUKKA (22 January 2006). "Pakistan seeks to quell anti-American sentiments". USA Today/The Associated Press. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Stack, Liam (8 July 2009). "Fresh drone attacks in Pakistan reignite debate". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- McGivering, Jill (21 August 2010). "Pakistani flood victims' anger at US". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Pakistan's flood victims give USAID chief an earful". CNN. 25 August 2010. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "3 in 4 Pakistanis now consider US an enemy as resentment grows". TR News. June 27, 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Malik Siraj Akbar (9 September 2011). "Pakistan views India as the perpetual enemy and the US as an unfaithful ally". Dawn News. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Sohail Ahmed. "Pakistan’s economy hit hard by war on terro". Central Asia Online. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Hali, S.M (March 7, 2012). "Economic Terrorism". The Nation. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Search Results war on terror cost pakistan bn qureshi qs | Latest news, Breaking news, Pakistan News, World news, business, sport and multimedia | DAWN.COM
- [dead link]
- "Pakistan: $1 billion from U.S. to fight terror". Aki/Dawn. November 14, 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2006.[dead link]
- "Obama unveils new US policy for Pakistan, Afghanistan". Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- "Obama to propose 28 billion dollars military aid for Pakistan". Thaindian.com. March 31, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea (March 2, 2010). "US to send Pakistan laser-guided bomb kits". Reuters.
- Pakistan Conflict Monitor Daily highlights of news, research and analysis on the conflict and security related issues, published by the Human Security Report Project
- Battling Taliban: Where Does It Stop? ongoing coverage from Dawn in Pakistan
- Waziristan War (2004 – present) from The History Guy