1843 in the United Kingdom
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- January – the Quaker magazine The Friend begins publication.
- 6 January – Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross discovers Snow Hill Island.
- 20 January – Daniel M'Naghten shoots and kills the Prime Minister's private secretary, Edward Drummond, in Whitehall.
- 4 March – M'Naghten is found not guilty of murder "by reason of insanity", giving rise to the M'Naghten Rules on criminal responsibility, and subsequently committed to Bethlem Hospital.
- 24 March – Battle of Hyderabad: The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, securing Sindh province for the British Raj.
- 25 March – Marc Isambard Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel under the River Thames, is opened.
- 27 March – decision in Foss v Harbottle, a leading precedent in English corporate law, declares that in any action in which a wrong is alleged to have been done to a company, the proper claimant is the company itself and not individual shareholders.
- 4 April – William Wordsworth accepts the office of Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom following the death of Robert Southey on 21 March.
- April – Protestant Martyrs' Memorial erected in Oxford.
- 4 May – Natal proclaimed British colony.
- 18 May – the Disruption of the Church of Scotland takes place in Edinburgh.
- ? May – Blackgang Chine on the Isle of Wight opens as an amusement park.
- 19 July – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol.
- September – Ada Lovelace translates and expands Menabrea’s notes on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, including an algorithm for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, regarded as the world's first computer program.
- 5 August – Sarah Dazley, the last woman to be executed in public in England, is hanged for murder outside Bedford Prison
- 2 September – The Economist newspaper first published (preliminary issue dated August).
- 1 October – News of the World newspaper first published. It will survive until 2011.
- 3 November–4 November – the statue of Nelson placed atop Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, London.
- 13 December – Basutoland becomes a British protectorate.
- December – the world's first Christmas cards, commissioned by Sir Henry Cole in London from the artist John Callcott Horsley, are sent.
- Theatres Act ends the virtual monopoly on theatrical performances held by the patent theatres, encouraging the development of popular entertainment.
- Liverpool Victoria Friendly Society founded as a burial society.
- Marlborough College founded in Wiltshire for the education of the sons of Church of England clergy.
- Charles Dickens's novel Martin Chuzzlewit (begins serialisation January) and novella A Christmas Carol (17 December).
- John Stuart Mill’s book A System of Logic.
- John Ruskin's book Modern Painters, vol. 1.
- Robert Smith Surtees' comic novel Handley Cross.
- 25 April – Princess Alice, member of the royal family (died 1878)
- 30 June – Ernest Satow, diplomat and scholar (died 1929)
- 5 July – Mandell Creighton, historian and Bishop of London (died 1901)
- 4 September – Jabez Balfour, businessman, politician and fraudster (died 1916)
- 9 January – William Hedley, inventor and locomotive engineer (born 1779)
- 22 February – Mary Hays, writer and feminist (born 1759)
- 21 March – Robert Southey, poet (born 1774)
- 25 March – Robert Murray M'Cheyne, clergyman (born 1813)
- 21 April – Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (born 1773)
- 1 June – William Abbot, actor (born 1798)
- 25 July – Charles Macintosh, chemist (born 1766)
- 18 December – Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, Governor-General of India (born 1748)
- Moran, Richard (2004). "McNaughtan, Daniel (1802/3–1865)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 February 2011.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Slapper, Gary (19 June 2008). "The cases that changed Britain: 1785-1869". The Times. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- Pinion, F. B. (1988). A Wordsworth Chronology. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-333-38860-7.
- Lewis, Darcy (2006). "Timeline: Oxford". TimeTravel-Britain.com. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "The Martyr's Memorial". Jackson's Oxford Journal (4694). 15 April 1843. p. 3.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 266–267. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Royal Visit". The Bristol Mirror. 20 July 1843. pp. 1–2.
- Fuegi, John; Francis, Jo (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
- Menabrea, L. F. (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs. 3. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
- Buday, György (1992). "The history of the Christmas card". Omnigraphics: 8.