1834 in the United Kingdom
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Events from the year 1834 in the United Kingdom. Uniquely, four Prime Ministers serve during the year.
- Monarch – William IV
- Prime Minister –
- February – Robert Owen organises the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union.
- March – William Whewell (anonymously) first publishes the term scientist in the Quarterly Review (but notes it as "not generally palatable").
- 18 March – the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorset farm labourers, are sentenced to be transported to a penal colony for forming a trade union.
- 23 June – HMS Tartarus is launched at Pembroke Dock. It is the Royal Navy's first steam-powered man-of-war (a paddle gunvessel).
- 16 July – Lord Melbourne succeeds Earl Grey as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- 1 August – slavery abolished in most of the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.
- 14 August – Poor Law Amendment Act states the able-bodied cannot receive assistance unless they enter a workhouse.
- 15 August – Parliament approves the creation of the colony of South Australia.
- 7 October – Birmingham Town Hall, designed by Joseph Hansom and Edward Welch, is opened for the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival.
- 16 October – burning of Parliament: Much of the Palace of Westminster is destroyed by fire.
- 14 November – William IV dismisses the government of Melbourne, after proposals for Church reform are made. The Duke of Wellington forms a caretaker government. This will be the last time a British sovereign chooses a Prime Minister contrary to the will of Parliament.
- 10 December – Sir Robert Peel forms his first government.
- 17 December – the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first public railway in Ireland, opens between Dublin and Kingstown.
- 18 December
- Tamworth Manifesto published: Peel outlines his guiding principles of government, regarded as the basis of the modern Conservative Party.
- Tithe War in Ireland: "Rathcormac massacre": At Gortroe, County Cork, armed Constabulary reinforced by the regular British Army kill at least nine and wound thirty protesters against tithes.
- 23 December – architect and inventor Joseph Hansom patents the Hansom cab.
- 26 December – Ursulines of Jesus take up residence at St Margaret’s Convent in the Whitehouse in Edinburgh, the first Roman Catholic convent established in Scotland since the Reformation; it will be another 5 years before the first such modern establishment in England.
- The government begins to make grants of 50% towards the erection of new elementary schools in England and Wales.
- Hanging in chains upon a gibbet after execution is abolished in England.
- British East India Company monopoly on China trade ended.
- The Exchequer is abolished as a revenue collecting department of the British government.
- The Institute of British Architects in London, predecessor of the Royal Institute of British Architects, is formed.
- Harrods founded as a grocer in Stepney in the East End of London.
- Augustus Smith acquires the lease on the Isles of Scilly from the Duchy of Cornwall.
- History of computing hardware: Charles Babbage begins the conceptual design of an "analytical engine", a mechanical forerunner of the modern computer. It will not be built in his lifetime.
- With an average Central England temperature of 10.51 °C or 50.92 °F, this narrowly overtakes 1733 as the hottest calendar year in the CET record until equalled in 1921 and beaten in 1949.
- W. Harrison Ainsworth's (anonymous) first novel Rookwood, an historical romance featuring the highwayman Dick Turpin.
- Edward Bulwer's (anonymous) novel The Last Days of Pompeii.
- 28 January – Sabine Baring-Gould, hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist and eclectic scholar (died 1924)
- 15 February – William Henry Preece, electrical engineer and inventor (died 1913)
- 19 February – Charles Davis Lucas, Victoria Cross recipient (died 1914)
- 16 March – James Hector, geologist (died 1907)
- 24 March – William Morris, artist, writer, socialist and activist (died 1896)
- 19 June – Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher (died 1892)
- 28 June – Samuel Pasco, United States Senator from Florida from 1887 till 1899. (died 1917)
- 4 August – John Venn, mathematician (died 1923)
- 9 September – Joseph Henry Shorthouse, novelist (died 1903)
- 12 January – William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (born 1759)
- 11 April – John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, philanthropist and patron of the arts and sciences (born 1757)
- 12 July – David Douglas, botanist (born 1799)
- 25 July – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, critic, and philosopher (born 1772)
- 1 August – Robert Morrison, Protestant missionary to China (born 1782)
- 2 September – Thomas Telford, engineer (born 1757)
- 16 September – William Blackwood, writer (born 1776)
- 11 October – William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier, Navy officer, politician and diplomat (born 1786)
- 5 December – Thomas Pringle, poet (born 1789)
- 23 December – Thomas Malthus, demographer and economist (born 1766)
- 27 December – Charles Lamb, essayist (born 1775)
- Marsh, Arthur; et al. Historical Directory of Trade Unions. p. 458.
- "scientist, n.". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. March 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-28. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Guard, John (5 January 2004). "History of Pembroke Dockyard". Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 259–260. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Bloy, Marjorie (2011). "The Peel Web". A Web of English History. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- "The Rathcormac Inquest", House of Commons Debates, 26, pp. 523–4, 3 March 1835, retrieved 2012-10-17
- Rathcormac Tithe Commemoration Committee (1984). A souvenir programme commemorating the Rathmore-Gortroe massacre which took place during the Tithe War on the 18 December, 1834.
- "Introduction" (pdf). Edinburgh: The Gillis Centre. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
- Berry, George (1970). Discovering Schools. Tring: Shire Publications. ISBN 0-85263-091-3.
- "A Brief History of Harrods". Archived from the original on 19 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- "Babbage's Analytical Engine, 1834–1871 (Trial model)". Science Museum (London). Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-858170-X.
- Hadley Centre Central England Temperature.