European Canadians

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European Canadians
Total population
25,111,695
72.9% of the total Canadian population (2016 Census)[1][nb 1]
Regions with significant populations
All areas of Canada
less prevalent in the North
Languages
Canadian English · Canadian French
Other European Languages
Historically: Scottish Gaelic · Irish
Religion
Predominantly:
Christianity:
Protestantism · Roman Catholicism · Eastern Orthodoxy
Minorities: Oriental Orthodoxy · Mormonism · Other Latter Day Saints · Nondenominational and Other Christians
Related ethnic groups
European diaspora, Europeans, European Americans, European Australians, European New Zealanders, British (English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish), Irish, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Ukrainian, Polish, Portuguese

European Canadians (French: les Canadiens Européens), also known as Euro-Canadians, are Canadians with ancestry from Europe.[2][3][4] They form the largest panethnic group within Canada with roughly 73 percent of the population.

European Canadians can further be classified into regional and ethnocultural subgroups. The census in Canada divides Canadians of European descent into four broad categories which, in alphabetical order, are: Eastern European Canadians, Northern European Canadians, Southern European Canadians and Western European Canadians.[1]

Terminology[edit]

In the Canadian Census, people with origins or ancestry in Europe are all classified as part of the European race.

Subgroups[edit]

There are several subgroups of European Canadians.[5] Although approximately defined categories (due to imprecise, or ethnocultural, regionalization of the continent), the subgroups have been utilized widely in ethnic and cultural identification.[6] This is especially relevant in diaspora, as is the case with European people in Canada.[7] In alphabetical order, and as listed within the census in Canada,[1] some of these subgroups are:[8]

History[edit]

The French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Canada. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France. She was born circa 1620, to Pierre Desportes (born Lisieux, Normandie, France) and Françoise Langlois.[9]

Hundreds of thousands of European immigrants came through Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia in the 1900s.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Beginning with the first Canadian census in 1871, the European Canadian population as a percentage of the total Canadian population had a peak of 98.5 percent. Since then, the proportion of the total Canadian population has been decreasing gradually since the mid-20th century to the most recent census in 2016, however, Canadians who identify with European origins remain the largest ethnic group in Canada with 72.9 percent of the total Canadian population.[11][12][13] Elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States.

In the 2016 census, the largest European ancestry groups originated from the British Isles (11,211,850 including 6,320,085 English, 4,799,005 Scottish and 4,627,000 Irish), French (4,680,820), German (3,322,405), Italian (1,587,965) and Ukrainian (1,359,655).[14] However, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" (accounting for 11,135,965 of the population).[nb 2]

European Canadian population in Canada
Year Population % of total population
1871[13][12][15] 3,433,315 98.5%
1881[16][15] 4,146,900 95.9%
1901[16][15] 5,170,522 96.0%
1911[16][15] 7,005,583 94.4%
1921[16][15] 8,568,584 96.0%
1931[13][15] 10,134,313 97.7%
1941[13][12] 11,242,868 97.8%
1951[13][12] 13,582,574 96.8%
1961[13][12] 17,653,864 96.8%
1966[13][12] N/A 96.8%
1971[13][12] 20,763,915 96.3%
1981[17] 22,402,000 93.0%
1986 N/A N/A
1991 N/A N/A
1996[18] 24,531,635 86.0%
2001[19][20][nb 1] 24,678,880 83.3%
2006[21][nb 1] 25,000,150 80.0%
2011[22][nb 1] 25,186,890 76.7%
2016[23][nb 1] 25,111,695 72.9%
European Canadians by province and territory (2001–2016)
Province/territory Population (2001)[19][20] % of total ethnic population (2001) Population (2006)[21] % of total ethnic population (2006) Population (2011)[22] % of total ethnic population (2011) Population (2016)[23] % of total ethnic population (2016)
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario 8,944,190 79.3% 9,041,200 75.2% 9,070,795 71.7% 8,982,180 67.8%
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec 6,548,205 91.9% 6,673,120 89.7% 6,740,370 87.2% 6,750,200 84.7%
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia 2,862,405 74.0% 2,869,450 70.4% 2,911,568 67.3% 2,908,420 63.8%
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta 2,455,005 83.5% 2,613,790 80.3% 2,690,955 75.4% 2,786,340 70.0%
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba 866,545 78.5% 849,025 74.9% 824,820 70.2% 800,540 64.5%
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia 846,030 94.3% 841,230 93.2% 825,050 91.1% 798,195 87.9%
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan 805,380 83.6% 778,060 81.2% 787,745 78.1% 779,665 72.8%
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick 693,295 96.3% 688,650 95.7% 696,085 94.6% 676,785 92.6%
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador 485,450 95.6% 471,430 94.2% 464,540 91.6% 454,710 88.8%
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg Prince Edward Island 130,860 98.1% 130,645 97.4% 130,885 95.3% 130,310 93.3%
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon 20,955 73.5% 21,395 70.9% 23,595 70.8% 23,915 68.1%
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories 16,925 45.4% 18,150 44.2% 16,915 41.6% 16,320 39.7%
Flag of Nunavut.svg Nunavut 3,735 14.0% 3,990 13.6% 3,820 12.1% 4,115 11.6%
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 24,678,880 83.3% 25,000,150 80.0% 25,186,890 76.7% 25,111,695 72.9%

Ethnicity[edit]

European Canadian population by country of origin (1871–1911)
Ethnicity Population (1871)[16] % of Canadian population (1871) Population (1881)[16] % of Canadian population (1881) Population (1901)[16] % of Canadian population (1901) Population (1911)[16] % of Canadian population (1911)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Austria Austrian N/A N/A N/A N/A 10,947 0.2% 42,535 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belgium Belgian N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,994 0.1% 9,593 0.1%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Denmark Danish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Netherlands Dutch 29,662 0.9% 30,412 0.7% 33,845 0.6% 54,986 0.8%
England English 706,369 20.3% 881,301 20.4% 1,260,899 23.5% 1,823,150 25.3%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Finland Finnish N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,502 0.1% 15,497 0.2%
France French 1,082,940 31.1% 1,298,929 30.0% 1,649,371 30.7% 2,054,890 28.5%
Germany German 202,991 5.8% 254,319 5.9% 310,501 5.8% 393,320 5.5%
Greece Greek N/A N/A N/A N/A 291 0.0% 3,594 0.0%
Hungary Hungarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,549 0.0% 11,605 0.2%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Republic of Ireland Irish 846,414 24.3% 957,403 22.1% 988,721 18.4% 1,050,384 14.6%
Italy Italian 1,035 0.0% 1,849 0.0% 10,834 0.2% 45,411 0.6%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Norway Norwegian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Poland Polish N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,285 0.1% 33,365 0.5%
Portugal Portuguese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Romania Romanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Russia Russian 607 0.0% 1,227 0.1% 19,825 0.4% 43,142 0.6%
Scotland Scottish 549,946 15.8% 699,863 16.2% 800,154 14.9% 997,880 13.9%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Spain Spanish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Switzerland Swiss 2,962 0.1% 4,588 0.1% 3,865 0.1% 6,625 0.1%
Ukraine Ukrainian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
European Canadian population by country of origin (1921–1961)
Ethnicity Population (1921)[16] % of Canadian population (1921) Population (1941)[24][25] % of Canadian population (1941) Population (1951)[24][25] % of Canadian population (1951) Population (1961)[24][25] % of Canadian population (1961)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belgium Belgian 20,234 0.2% 29,711 0.3% 35,148 0.3% 61,382 0.3%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A 42,912 0.4% 63,959 0.4% 73,061 0.4%
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Denmark Danish N/A N/A 37,439 0.3% 42,671 0.3% 85,473 0.5%
Netherlands Dutch 117,506 1.2% 212,863 1.8% 264,267 1.9% 429,679 2.4%
England English 2,545,496 29.0% 2,968,402 25.1% 3,630,344 25.9% 4,195,175 23.0%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Finland Finnish 21,494 0.2% 41,683 0.4% 43,745 0.3% 59,436 0.3%
France French 2,452,751 27.9% 3,483,038 29.5% 4,319,167 30.8% 5,540,346 30.4%
Germany German 294,636 3.4% 464,682 3.9% 619,995 4.4% 1,049,599 5.8%
Greece Greek 5,740 0.1% 11,692 0.1% 13,966 0.1% 56,475 0.3%
Hungary Hungarian 13,181 0.1% 54,598 0.5% 60,460 0.4% 126,220 0.7%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A 21,050 0.2% 23,307 0.2% 30,623 0.2%
Republic of Ireland Irish 1,107,817 12.6% 1,267,702 10.7% 1,439,635 10.3% 1,753,351 9.6%
Italy Italian 66,769 0.8% 112,625 1.0% 152,245 1.1% 459,351 2.5%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A 7,789 0.1% 16,224 0.1% 27,629 0.2%
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Norway Norwegian N/A N/A 100,718 0.9% 119,266 0.9% 148,681 0.8%
Poland Polish 53,403 0.6% 167,485 1.4% 219,845 1.6% 323,517 1.8%
Portugal Portuguese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Romania Romanian N/A N/A 24,689 0.2% 23,601 0.2% 43,805 0.2%
Russia Russian 100,064 1.1% 83,708 0.7% 91,279 0.6% 119,168 0.7%
Scotland Scottish 1,173,637 13.4% 1,403,974 11.9% 1,547,470 11.0% 1,902,302 10.4%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Spain Spanish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A 85,396 0.7% 97,780 0.7% 121,757 0.7%
Switzerland Swiss 12,837 0.2% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ukraine Ukrainian N/A N/A 305,929 2.6% 395,043 2.8% 473,337 2.6%
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 21,214 0.2%
European Canadian population by country of origin (1991–2006)
Ethnicity Population (1991)[26] % of Canadian population (1991) Population (1996)[27][nb 2] % of Canadian population (1996) Population (2001)[28] % of Canadian population (2001) Population (2006)[29] % of Canadian population (2006)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,935 0.1% 22,395 0.1%
Austria Austrian 107,671 1.2% 37,715 0.3% 32,231 0.2% 106,535 0.6%
Austria Austrian N/A N/A N/A N/A 147,585 0.5% 194,255 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,715 0.0% 4,975 0.0%
Belgium Belgian N/A N/A N/A N/A 129,780 0.4% 168,910 0.5%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A 15,720 0.1% 21,045 0.1%
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A 150,585 0.5% 403,915 1.3%
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 15,195 0.1% 27,255 0.1%
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A 97,050 0.3% 110,880 0.4%
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,060 0.0% 3,395 0.0%
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A N/A N/A 33,540 0.1% 36,970 0.1%
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A 79,910 0.3% 98,090 0.3%
Denmark Danish N/A N/A N/A N/A 170,780 0.6% 200,035 0.6%
Netherlands Dutch 961,600 3.4% 916,215 3.1% 923,310 3.1% 1,035,965 3.3%
England English 8,605,125 30.7% 6,832,095 23.1% 5,978,875 20.2% 6,570,015 21.0%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A 22,085 0.1% 23,930 0.1%
Finland Finnish N/A N/A N/A N/A 114,690 0.4% 131,040 0.4%
France French 8,369,210 29.9% 5,597,845 18.9% 4,668,410 15.8% 4,941,210 15.8%
Germany German 2,793,775 10.0% 2,757,140 9.3% 2,742,765 9.3% 3,179,425 10.2%
Greece Greek 191,475 0.7% 203,345 0.7% 215,105 0.7% 242,685 0.8%
Hungary Hungarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 267,255 0.9% 315,510 1.0%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A 75,090 0.3% 88,875 0.3%
Republic of Ireland Irish N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,822,660 12.9% 4,354,155 13.9%
Italy Italian 1,147,780 4.1% 1,207,475 4.2% 1,270,370 4.3% 1,445,335 4.6%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,200 0.0% 1,530 0.0%
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A 22,615 0.1% 27,870 0.1%
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 36,485 0.1% 46,690 0.1%
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,390 0.0% 3,225 0.0%
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A 31,265 0.1% 37,055 0.1%
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A 33,000 0.1% 37,120 0.1%
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,055 0.0% 2,370 0.0%
Norway Norwegian 286,240 1.0% N/A N/A 363,760 1.2% 432,515 1.4%
Poland Polish 740,720 2.6% 786,735 2.7% 817,085 2.8% 984,565 3.2%
Portugal Portuguese 292,185 1.0% 335,110 1.1% 357,690 1.2% 410,850 1.3%
Romania Romanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 131,830 0.4% 192,170 0.6%
Russia Russian N/A N/A N/A N/A 337,960 1.1% 500,600 1.6%
Scotland Scottish 4,248,365 15.2% 4,260,840 14.4% 4,157,210 14.0% 4,719,850 15.1%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A 55,540 0.2% 72,690 0.2%
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A 50,860 0.2% 64,145 0.2%
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A 28,910 0.1% 35,935 0.1%
Spain Spanish 158,915 0.6% 204,360 0.7% 213,105 0.7% 325,730 1.0%
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A N/A N/A 282,760 1.0% 334,765 1.1%
Switzerland Swiss N/A N/A N/A N/A 110,795 0.4% 137,775 0.4%
Ukraine Ukrainian 1,054,295 3.8% 1,026,470 3.5% 1,071,060 3.6% 1,209,085 3.9%
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A 350,365 1.2% 440,965 1.4%
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav 21,404 0.2% 68,587 0.4% 65,505 0.2% 65,305 0.2%
European Canadian population by country of origin (2011–2016)
Ethnicity Population (2011)[30] % of Canadian population (2011) Population (2016)[14] % of Canadian population (2016)
Albania Albanian 28,270 0.1% 36,185 0.1%
Austria Austrian 197,990 0.6% 207,050 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque 5,570 0.0% 6,965 0.0%
Belgium Belgian 176,615 0.5% 186,665 0.5%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian 22,920 0.1% 26,740 0.1%
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) 576,030 1.8% 644,695 1.9%
Bulgaria Bulgarian 30,485 0.1% 34,565 0.1%
Croatia Croatian 114,880 0.3% 133,970 0.4%
Cyprus Cypriot 4,815 0.0% 5,650 0.0%
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian 40,035 0.1% 40,715 0.1%
Czech Republic Czech 94,805 0.3% 104,580 0.3%
Denmark Danish 203,080 0.6% 207,470 0.6%
Netherlands Dutch 1,067,245 3.2% 1,111,655 3.2%
England English 6,509,500 19.8% 6,320,085 18.3%
Estonia Estonian 23,180 0.1% 24,530 0.1%
Finland Finnish 136,215 0.4% 143,645 0.4%
France French 5,065,690 15.4% 4,670,595 13.6%
Germany German 3,203,330 9.8% 3,322,405 9.6%
Greece Greek 252,960 0.8% 271,410 0.8%
Hungary Hungarian 316,765 1.0% 348,085 1.0%
Iceland Icelandic 94,205 0.3% 101,795 0.3%
Republic of Ireland Irish 4,544,870 13.8% 4,627,000 13.4%
Italy Italian 1,488,425 4.5% 1,587,970 4.6%
Kosovo Kosovar 2,760 0.0% 2,865 0.0%
Latvia Latvian 27,355 0.1% 30,725 0.1%
Lithuania Lithuanian 49,130 0.1% 59,285 0.2%
Luxembourg Luxembourger 3,790 0.0% 3,915 0.0%
North Macedonia Macedonian 36,985 0.1% 43,110 0.1%
Malta Maltese 38,780 0.1% 41,920 0.1%
Moldova Moldovan 8,050 0.0% 14,915 0.0%
Montenegro Montenegrin 2,970 0.0% 4,160 0.0%
Norway Norwegian 452,705 1.4% 463,275 1.3%
Poland Polish 1,010,705 3.1% 1,106,585 3.2%
Portugal Portuguese 429,850 1.3% 482,605 1.4%
Romania Romanian 204,625 0.6% 238,050 0.7%
Russia Russian 550,520 1.7% 622,445 1.8%
Scotland Scottish 4,714,970 14.4% 4,799,005 13.9%
Serbia Serbian 80,320 0.2% 96,530 0.3%
Slovakia Slovak 66,545 0.2% 72,285 0.2%
Slovenia Slovene 37,170 0.1% 40,470 0.1%
Spain Spanish 368,305 1.1% 396,460 1.2%
Sweden Swedish 341,845 1.0% 349,645 1.0%
Switzerland Swiss 146,830 0.4% 155,120 0.5%
Ukraine Ukrainian 1,251,170 3.8% 1,359,655 3.9%
Wales Welsh 458,705 1.4% 474,805 1.4%
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav 48,320 0.1% 38,480 0.1%

Language and immigration[edit]

In the 2016 census, the largest non-official European mother tongue languages were Spanish (458,850), German (384,035), Italian (375,635) and Portuguese (221,540) and Russian (188,255).[31][nb 3]

European mother tongue by language (1991–2001)
Language Population (1991)[32] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (1991)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (1991)
Population (1996)[33] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (1996)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (1996)
Population (2001)[34] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2001)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2001)
Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belarusan N/A N/A N/A 420 0.0% 0.0% 530 0.0% 0.0%
Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A 6,330 0.1% 0.0% 9,130 0.2% 0.0%
Catalan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatian N/A N/A N/A 50,105 1.1% 0.2% 54,880 1.1% 0.2%
Czech N/A N/A N/A 24,985 0.5% 0.1% 24,795 0.5% 0.1%
Danish N/A N/A N/A 20,280 0.4% 0.1% 18,230 0.4% 0.1%
Dutch 124,535 3.5% 0.5% 133,805 2.9% 0.5% 128,670 2.5% 0.4%
Estonian N/A N/A N/A 10,690 0.2% 0.0% 8,720 0.2% 0.0%
Finnish N/A N/A N/A 24,735 0.5% 0.1% 22,400 0.4% 0.1%
Flemish N/A N/A N/A 6,980 0.2% 0.0% 6,010 0.1% 0.0%
Frisian N/A N/A N/A 2,915 0.0% 0.0% 3,185 0.1% 0.0%
German 424,645 12.0% 1.6% 450,140 9.8% 1.6% 438,080 8.4% 1.5%
Greek 114,370 3.2% 0.4% 121,180 2.6% 0.4% 120,365 2.3% 0.4%
Hungarian 72,900 2.1% 0.3% 77,235 1.7% 0.3% 75,550 1.5% 0.3%
Icelandic N/A N/A N/A 2,675 0.1% 0.0% 2,075 0.0% 0.0%
Italian 449,660 12.7% 1.7% 484,500 10.5% 1.7% 469,485 9.0% 1.6%
Latvian N/A N/A N/A 9,635 0.2% 0.0% 8,230 0.2% 0.0%
Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A 9,385 0.2% 0.0% 8,770 0.2% 0.0%
Macedonian N/A N/A N/A 19,300 0.4% 0.1% 16,905 0.3% 0.1%
Maltese N/A N/A N/A 7,120 0.2% 0.0% 7,375 0.1% 0.0%
Norwegian N/A N/A N/A 10,235 0.2% 0.0% 8,725 0.2% 0.0%
Polish 171,975 4.9% 0.6% 213,410 4.6% 0.7% 208,370 4.0% 0.7%
Portuguese 186,995 5.3% 0.7% 211,290 4.6% 0.7% 213,815 4.1% 0.7%
Romanian N/A N/A N/A 35,710 0.8% 0.1% 50,900 1.0% 0.2%
Russian N/A N/A N/A 57,495 1.3% 0.2% 94,555 1.8% 0.3%
Scottish Gaelic N/A N/A N/A 2,175 0.0% 0.0% 2,155 0.0% 0.0%
Serbian N/A N/A N/A 28,620 0.6% 0.1% 41,175 0.8% 0.1%
Serbo-Croatian N/A N/A N/A 17,940 0.4% 0.1% 26,685 0.5% 0.1%
Slovak N/A N/A N/A 18,285 0.4% 0.1% 17,540 0.3% 0.1%
Slovene N/A N/A N/A 14,085 0.3% 0.0% 12,800 0.2% 0.0%
Spanish[nb 4] 158,655 4.5% 0.6% 212,890 4.6% 0.8% 245,495 4.7% 0.8%
Swedish N/A N/A N/A 9,760 0.2% 0.0% 9,070 0.2% 0.0%
Ukrainian 166,830 4.7% 0.6% 162,695 3.5% 0.6% 148,085 2.8% 0.5%
Welsh N/A N/A N/A 1,670 0.0% 0.0% 1,615 0.0% 0.0%
Yiddish N/A N/A N/A 21,415 0.1% 0.5% 19,290 0.4% 0.1%
European mother tongue by language (2006–2016)
Language Population (2006)[35] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2006)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2006)
Population (2011)[36] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2011)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2011)
Population (2016)[31] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2016)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2016)
Albanian N/A N/A N/A 23,820 0.4% 0.1% 26,890 0.4% 0.1%
Belarusan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 810 0.0% 0.0%
Bosnian 12,790 0.2% 0.0% 11,685 0.2% 0.0% 12,210 0.2% 0.0%
Bulgarian 16,790 0.3% 0.1% 19,050 0.3% 0.1% 20,025 0.3% 0.1%
Catalan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 865 0.0% 0.0%
Croatian 55,335 0.9% 0.2% 49,730 0.8% 0.2% 48,200 0.7% 0.1%
Czech 24,450 0.4% 0.1% 23,585 0.4% 0.1% 22,290 0.3% 0.1%
Danish 18,735 0.3% 0.1% 14,145 0.2% 0.0% 12,630 0.2% 0.0%
Dutch 128,905 2.1% 0.4% 110,490 1.7% 0.3% 99,020 1.4% 0.3%
Estonian 8,245 0.1% 0.0% 6,385 0.1% 0.0% 975 0.0% 0.0%
Finnish 21,030 0.3% 0.1% 17,415 0.3% 0.1% 2,790 0.0% 0.0%
Flemish 5,665 0.1% 0.0% 4,690 0.1% 0.0% 3,895 0.1% 0.0%
Frisian 2,890 0.0% 0.0% 14,935 0.1% N/A 2,100 0.0% 0.0%
German 450,570 7.3% 1.4% 409,200 6.2% 1.2% 384,035 5.2% 1.1%
Greek 108,925 1.7% 0.3% 106,525 1.5% 0.3% 117,285 1.9% 0.4%
Hungarian 73,335 1.2% 0.2% 67,920 1.0% 0.2% 61,235 0.8% 0.2%
Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,285 0.0% 0.0%
Italian 455,040 7.4% 1.5% 407,485 6.2% 1.2% 375,635 5.1% 1.1%
Latvian 6,995 0.1% 0.0% 6,200 0.1% 0.0% 5,455 0.1% 0.0%
Lithuanian 8,335 0.1% 0.0% 7,245 0.1% 0.0% 7,075 0.1% 0.0%
Macedonian 18,440 0.3% 0.0% 17,245 0.3% 0.1% 16,775 0.2% 0.0%
Maltese 6,405 0.1% 0.0% 6,220 0.1% 0.0% 5,565 0.1% 0.0%
Norwegian 7,225 0.1% 0.0% 5,800 0.1% 0.0% 4,615 0.1% 0.0%
Polish 211,175 3.4% 0.7% 191,645 2.9% 0.6% 181,710 2.5% 0.5%
Portuguese 219,270 3.6% 0.7% 211,335 3.2% 0.6% 221,540 3.0% 0.6%
Romanian 78,500 1.3% 0.3% 90,300 1.4% 0.3% 96,665 1.3% 0.3%
Russian 133,575 2.2% 0.4% 164,330 2.5% 0.5% 188,255 2.6% 0.5%
Scottish Gaelic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,090 0.0% 0.0%
Serbian 51,665 0.8% 0.2% 56,420 0.9% 0.2% 57,350 0.8% 0.2%
Serbo-Croatian 12,510 0.2% 0.0% 10,155 0.2% 0.0% 9,555 0.1% 0.0%
Slovak 18,825 0.3% 0.1% 17,580 0.3% 0.1% 17,580 0.2% 0.1%
Slovene 13,135 0.2% 0.0% 10,775 0.2% 0.0% 9,790 0.1% 0.0%
Spanish[nb 4] 345,345 5.6% 1.1% 410,670 6.3% 1.2% 458,850 6.3% 1.3%
Swedish 8,220 0.1% 0.0% 7,350 0.1% 0.0% 6,840 0.1% 0.0%
Ukrainian 134,500 2.2% 0.4% 111,540 1.7% 0.3% 102,485 1.4% 0.3%
Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,075 0.0% 0.0%
Yiddish 16,295 0.3% 0.1% 15,205 0.2% 0.0% 13,555 0.2% 0.0%
European immigrant population in Canada
Year Population % of immigrants
in Canada
% of Canadian
population
1986[37] 2,430,470 62.2% 9.3%
1991[37] 2,364,695 54.5% 8.4%
1996[37] 2,334,005 47.0% 7.9%
2001[38] 2,287,535 42.0% 7.4%
2006[39] 2,269,705 36.7% 7.0%
2011[40] 2,226,100 30.8% 6.5%
2016[41] 2,082,765 27.6% 5.7%

Culture[edit]

European Canadians celebrating Canada Day.

The culture of the Canadians of European descent, European-Canadian culture, is the main culture of Canada. From their earliest presence in North America, European Canadians have contributed literature, art, architecture, cinema and theater, religion and philosophy, ethics, agricultural skills, foods, medicine, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, business, economics, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to Canadian culture. European-Canadian culture derived its earliest influences from English, French, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of Canadian culture. The overall Canadian culture reflects European-Canadian culture, also known as White Canadian culture. The culture has been developing since long before Canada formed a separate country. Much of Canadian culture shows influences from English culture, with later periphery influence, due to 19th-century immigration, from different regions of Europe, such as the customs of Eastern European Canadians. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.

Canadian flag[edit]

George Stanley designer of the current Canadian flag.

Music[edit]

Another area of cultural influence are Canadian Patriotic songs:

Sport[edit]

  • Ice Hockey - British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter. Ice hockey was first played in Canada during the early nineteenth century, based on similar sports such as field hockey that were played in Europe.[48] The sport was originally played with a stick and ball, but in 1860 a group of English veterans from the Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment played a game in Kingston, Ontario, utilising a puck for what is believed to be the first time. This match, played on the frozen harbour by the city, is sometimes considered to be the birth of modern ice hockey.[49]

Prime Ministers[edit]

Most of the heritage that all twenty-three Canadian Prime Ministers come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Ulster Scot or Welsh) ancestry. Later Canadian Prime Ministers' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an aboriginal identity.
  2. ^ a b All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.
    Source 1: Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million 'Canadian'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
    Source 2: Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2.
  3. ^ English and French are not included here because although they are European originating languages, they are the two official languages of Canada and therefore may also be the mother tongue of non-European Canadians.
  4. ^ a b Not all speakers are European (ie. Mexicans and South Americans).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  2. ^ www.oxforddictionaries.com Euro-Canadian definition
  3. ^ Kappler, Maija. "Eye-Opening Show, 'First Contact,' Tackles White Canadians' Racism Toward Indigenous People". Huffington Post. Example of White Canadian being used
  4. ^ Menzies, Charles (1994). "Stories from Home: First Nations, Land Claims, and Euro-Canadians". American Ethnologist. American Anthropological Association. 21 (4): 776–791. doi:10.1525/ae.1994.21.4.02a00060. JSTOR 646839. Example of Euro-Canadian being used
  5. ^ A. S. Whiteley (1932). "The Peopling of the Prairie Provinces of Canada". American Journal of Sociology (Volume 38 ed.). University of Chicago Press . pp. 240–252. The Prairie born constituted the largest single element in the population in 1926 and with those from other provinces comprised 62.75 per cent of the total. With respect to "origin," about one-half of those from Central, South, and East Europe and less than one-fourth of those from Northwest European stocks were foreign born.
  6. ^ James Muir (2016). "Keeping Canada British: The Ku Klux Klan in 1920s Saskatchewan by James M. Pitsula (review)". University of Toronto Quarterly (Volume 85 ed.). University of Toronto Press. p. 541-542. Similarly, a broad spectrum of people, from J.S. Woodsworth to John Diefenbaker, accepted as truth the imagined superiority of British people and northwestern Europeans over central and southern Europeans, let alone Africans, Asians, and North American indigenous people.
  7. ^ David Goutor (2008). Guarding the Gates: The Canadian Labour Movement and Immigration, 1872-1934. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0774813655. From 1903 to 1914, more than one-quarter of all immigrants came from continental Europe, with a pronounced increase in the migration of Ukrainians, Poles, Italians and other eastern and southern Europeans ... a growing proportion of eastern and southern Europeans were brought in to do the rough, unskilled work in Canada's flourishing railway, mining, lumbering, and manufacturing sectors.
  8. ^ Kevin Woodger (2017), "Whiteness and Ambiguous Canadianization: The Boy Scouts Association and the Canadian Cadet Organization", Journal of the Canadian Historical Association (Volume 28 ed.), Canadian Historical Association, p. 95–126, Indeed, the 1969 Canadian Scout Handbook section on “Canada’s National Origins,” which purported to outline Canada’s contemporary ethnic and racial composition, continued to emphasize the British and French as the two founding nations, while detailing the myriad different national origins of northwestern, Eastern and Southern European Canadians.
  9. ^ Bennett, Ethel M. G. (1979) [1966]. "Desportes, Hélène". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  10. ^ "The Pier 21 Story" (PDF). pier21.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 7, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  11. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Table 1: Population by Ethnic Origin, Canada 1921-1971 (P.2)" (PDF). justice.gc.ca. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ethnic origins: Census of Canada (Page: 17)" (PDF). Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  14. ^ a b Census Profile, 2016 Census - Ethnic origin population
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Canada Year Book 1922-23: Racial Origin" (PDF). Census and Statistics Office of Canada. 1921. pp. 158–59.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Canada - Origins according to the censuses. 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 AND 1921. (Page: 134-135)
  17. ^ Nationalism and National Integration By Anthony H. Birch (Page: 169)
  18. ^ "Census of Canada, A population and dwelling counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 1997. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  19. ^ a b "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  20. ^ a b "2001 Census Aboriginal Population Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  21. ^ a b "2006 Census Area Profiles". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  22. ^ a b "National Household Survey Profile". Statistics Canada. 2011.
  23. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  24. ^ a b c Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader By Elspeth Cameron (Page: 73-73)
  25. ^ a b c Statistics Canada Distribution of the population, by ethnic group, census years 1941, 1951 and 1961
  26. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (June 1, 1993). "1991 Census of Canada: Data tables – Population by Ethnic Origin (188) and Sex (3), Showing Single and Multiple Responses (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1991 Census (20% Sample Data)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  27. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 17, 1998). "1996 Census of Canada: Data tables – Population by Ethnic Origin (188) and Sex (3), Showing Single and Multiple Responses (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996 Census (20% Sample Data)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  28. ^ contenu, English name of the content author / Nom en anglais de l'auteur du. "English title / Titre en anglais". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  29. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (April 2, 2008). "Statistics Canada: Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  30. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (May 8, 2013). "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  31. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Canada". Statistics Canada. August 2, 2017. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  32. ^ Population by Mother Tongue (27), Showing Age Groups (13), 1991 Census of Canada
  33. ^ Population by Mother Tongue (27), Showing Age Groups (13), 1996 Census of Canada
  34. ^ Population by Mother Tongue (27), Showing Age Groups (13), 2001 Census of Canada
  35. ^ Population by Mother Tongue (27), Showing Age Groups (13), 2006 Census of Canada Archived July 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Census Profile – Province/Territory, Note 20". Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  37. ^ a b c Immigrant Population by Selected Places of Birth (84) and Sex (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1986-1996 Censuses (20% Sample Data), 1996 Census of Canada
  38. ^ Place of birth for the immigrant population by period of immigration, 2006 counts and percentage distribution, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, 2001 Census of Canada
  39. ^ Topic-based tabulations|Place of birth for the immigrant population by period of immigration, 2006 counts and percentage distribution, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, 2006 Census of Canada Archived July 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Citizenship (5), Place of Birth (236), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". Archived from the original on June 15, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  41. ^ "Data tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  42. ^ Foot, Richard (February 13, 2014). "The Stanley Flag". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
  43. ^ McIntosh, Andrew (March 26, 2012). "O Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  44. ^ "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. June 23, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  45. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Canadian Heritage – National Anthem: O Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
  46. ^ "Marches". L'Association Canadienne De L'Infanterie/Canadian Infantry Association. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  47. ^ "Canadian Heritage – Patriotic Songs". Pch.gc.ca. March 3, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  48. ^ "Ice Hockey Equipment and History". The Olympic Movement. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  49. ^ "About Ice Hockey". Ice Hockey UK. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

Statistical[edit]