|Nickname(s): Green City|
|• city||44.11 km2 (17.03 sq mi)|
|Elevation||424 m (1,391 ft)|
|Population (2011)(Including Kathgodam)|
|• Density||3,500/km2 (9,200/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Sanskrit|
|• Local||Urdu, Punjabi, Kumaoni|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Haldwani [ɦəld̪ʋaːniː] is the third most populous city in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. With a population of 156,078 in 2011, it is also the largest city of the Kumaun region. Haldwani is located in the Nainital District, and is one of its eight Subdivisions. The Haldwani Urban Agglomeration has 232,095 people, and is the fourth most populous UA in Uttarakhand, after Dehradun, Haridwar and Roorkee. Being situated in the immediate foothils of Kumaon Himalayas, Haldwani is known as the "Gateway of Kumaon".
The name "Haldwani" is an anglicized version of the Kumaoni word "Halduvani" (literally "forest of Haldu"), named after the tree of "Haldu" (Kadamb), known to botanists as Haldina cordifolia. The Haldu trees were found in abundance prior to deforestation for agriculture and settlement. The place was regionally known as Halduvani until George William Trail took over as Commissioner of Kumaon and renamed it to Haldwani in 1834.
Located in the Bhabhar region in the Himalayan foothills on the banks of the Gaula River, the town of Haldwani was established in 1834, as a mart for hill people who visited Bhabar during the cold season. The establishment of the Bareilly-Nainital provincial road in 1882 and the Bhojeepura-Kathgodam railway line by Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway in 1884 helped develop the town into a major trading post and then a hub between the hilly regions of Kumaon and the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Medical hospital
- 5 Culture and lifestyle
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Government and Politics
- 9 Transport
- 10 Plans
- 11 Sports
- 12 Media and Communications
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The region, where the city is located, has historically been a part of the Kingdom of Kumaon. The region came under the dominion of Kumaun, when King Gyan Chand of Chand Dynasty visited Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. Later, the Mughals tried to take over the hills, but their attempts received a setback due to the difficult terrain.
In the early 1600s, the Haldwani region was sparsely populated. It was inhabited by people of a Native tribe known as the Buksa. The Terai area southward consisted of thick forests, and was used as hunting grounds by the Mughals.
Founding and 19th century
In 1816, after the British defeated Gorkhas, and gained control of Kumaon by the Treaty of Sugauli, Gardner was appointed the Commissioner of Kumaon. Later George William Trail took over as Commissioner and renamed Halduvani as Haldwani in 1834. Though British records suggest that the place was established in 1834, as a mart for hill people who visited the Bhabhar (Himalayan foothills) region, during the cold season. The township, formerly located in Mota Haldu, had only thatched houses. Brick-houses began to be built only after 1850. The first English middle school was established in 1831.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Haldwani was briefly seized by the rebels of Rohilkhand,:19 soon martial law was declared in the region by Sir Henry Ramsay (the Commissioner of Kumaon), and by 1858, the region was cleared of the rebels. The Rohillas, who were accused of attacking Haldwani, were hanged by the British at Phansi Gadhera in Nainital. Later, Ramsay connected Nainital with Kathgodam by road in 1882. In 1883–84, the railway track was laid between Bareilly and Kathgodam. The first train arrived at Haldwani from Lucknow on 24 April 1884.:38
Before the formation of Nainital district in 1891, it was part of the Kumaon district, which was later renamed Almora district. The Town Act was implemented here in 1885 and Haldwani was declared a municipality on February 1, 1897. The Tehsil office was opened here in 1899, when it became the tehsil headquarters of the Bhabhar, one of four divisions of the Nainital district, and included 4 towns and 511 villages; and had a combined population of 93,445 (1901), spread over 1,279 sq. miles.
20th and 21st centuries
In 1901, with a population of 6,624, Haldwani was the headquarters of the Bhabhar region of Nainital District, in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, and it also used to become the winter headquarters of the officers of the Kumaon Division and the Nainital District. The Arya Samaj Bhavan was built in 1901 and Sanatan Dharm Sabha in 1902.:38 The Municipality of Haldwani was disestablished in 1904, and Haldwani was constituted as a Notified area.:38 The first Hospital of the city was opened in 1912.:183
Haldwani hosted the second session of the Kumaon Parishad in 1918.:23:252 Protests against the Rowlatt Act and for Coolie-Begar Abolition were held all over the city in 1920 under the leadership of Pt. Tara Datt Gairola Raibahadur.:23 Many processions were carried out in the city between 1930 and 1934 during the Civil disobedience movement. In 1940, at the Haldwani conference, Badri Datt Pandey voiced for granting special status to the mountainous regions of Kumaon in the United Provinces, thus, giving a way to the future Uttarakhand movement.
Haldwani was a mid-sized town, with a population of about 25,000, in 1947, when India became Independent from the British Rule. Haldwani became a part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city was electrified in 1950. The 2nd battalion of the Naga Regiment, affectionately known as Head Hunters, was raised at Haldwani on February 11, 1985. Haldwani played a major role in the Uttarakhand movement. The town was spearheading the agitation, which often ended up in violence and also in police firing and brutality.
40 human skeletons and 300 'grave-like structures' were discovered in Haldwani’s Golapar area on 9 May 2017 during the construction of the Haldwani ISBT. The Skeletons were speculated to be the remains of the Rohilla chieftains from Bareilly who fought against the British in 1857 and were killed by the British army or of those who died of epidemics, malaria or famine. However forensic tests later revealed the Skeletons to be only two year old.
Haldwani is located at  in the Nainital district on the right bank of the Gaula River. Geologically, Haldwani is settled on a piedmont grade (called Bhabhar) where the mountain rivers go underground to re-emerge in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The Haldwani Bhabhar stretches horizontally, surrounded by the regions of Ramnagar and Tanakpur and lies between the Shivalik hills to the north and the Terai region of Rudrapur to the south. The average land elevation is 424 m (1,391 ft) above sea level. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, haldwani falls under seismic zone 4, in a scale of 2 to 5 (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes).:27,
The city has an area of 44.11 km2 (17.03 sq mi), including both flat and hilly ground, and is in the Indian Standard Time Zone (UTC−5:30). When Haldwani was founded in 1837, most of the early buildings were around Mota Haldu. The city gradually developed northwards towards the present Bazaar and Railway Station. The city had in the past seen haphazard development due to the absence of a development authority. Dozens of colonies were set up in the early 2000s without any regulation with narrow roads, making commuting a nightmare. The city ranked 395 in the Swachh Survekshan 2017, out of 434 cities, with a total score of 557.
Haldwani is the principal city in the Haldwani Urban Agglomeration Area, situated in the south-eastern part of Uttarakhand, in the Kumaon region. Apart from the towns of Haldwani and Kathgodam, the Urban Agglomeration of Haldwani also includes eleven outgrowths (Damua Dhunga Bandobasti, Byura, Bamori Talli Bandobasti, Amrawati Colony, Shakti Vihar, Bhatt Colony, Manpur Uttar, Haripur Sukha, Gaujajali Uttar, Kusumkhera, Bithoria No. 1, Korta, Bamori Malli and Bamori Talli Kham) and two census towns (Mukhani and Haldwani Talli).
Haldwani is also a tehsil; one of the eight subdivisions of the Nainital district. The tehsil of Haldwani is situated in the southern part of the Nainital district and shares its borders with the tehsils of Nainital, Kaladhungi, Lalkuan and Dhari tehsils in Nainital district; Gadarpur, Kiccha and Sitarganj in Udham Singh Nagar district and the tehsil of Poornagiri in Champawat district. The Tehsil comprises four towns and 202 villages.
|Climate data for Haldwani|
|Average high °C (°F)||20
|Daily mean °C (°F)||13.9
|Average low °C (°F)||7.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||57
|Source: District Census Handbook: Nainital:509–510|
† Includes population figures of Haldwani and its Outgrowths
The municipality of Haldwani has an official population of 156,078 people, as per provisional data released by the 2011 census. The 2017 estimate, on the other hand, predicted a population of 291,338. The population of the municipality area, combined with outgrowths was 201,461, and the urban agglomeration of Haldwani-cum-Kathgodam had a population of 232,095, out of which males were 121,409 and females were 110,686.
Hinduism is the majority religion in Haldwani with 64.84% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city with approximately 31.89% following it. In Haldwani, Christianity is followed by 0.89%, Sikhism by 2.19%, Jainism by 0.09%,and Buddhism by 0.09%. Around 0.01% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.07% stated 'No Particular Religion'.
Culture and lifestyle
The region is dominated by both Kumaoni people and migrant people from western Uttar Pradesh or who are now the native of terai-bhabhar region of Uttarakhand but still it is home to a significant percentage of people belonging to other religions and regions. One can find variety in all aspects from dishes to clothings and from dialect to architecture. Rock and popular English music is finding a good market in the rapidly expanding music market along with traditional Pahari music of the Kumaon Hills and local Desi Folk songs. Punjabi Music is also very popular and this region of Uttarakhand also have a large number of Punjabis living here.
Haldwani is the only city in Kumaon which has as many as four cinema halls. Laxmi cinema, the oldest cinema hall in the city is located on Rampur road. Originally a theatre named 'Dilruba', the building was converted into a cinema hall in 1955. Other halls include Nahid in the Railway Bazar area and Sargam on Rampur Road, which became functional in 1990.
Haldwani is said to be a "Great city shadowed by Nainital". Haldwani at all geo-political bases is always above Nainital town which is the district centre. The Government policy of "Polishing" Nainital and doing nothing for the ever big Haldwani city, has left the citizens of Haldwani demanding Haldwani as a new district headquarters in place of Nainital, or creating a new district called Haldwani consisting the Bhabhar area of Kumaon excluding the hilly Nainital. Many uprisings were led by the local public since independence with the demand for the creation of a new district.
Since the creation of Udham Singh Nagar district in 1995 with headquarter at Rudrapur, only 28 km. away from Haldwani there seems no demand of Haldwani district. Now Tarai area is excluded from Nainital district leaving only bhabhar and hills.
Uttarakhand Open University
The University was established by an Act Of Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly on 31 October 2005 with a view to democratise education, so that it covers large segments of population, vocations and professions. Uttarakhand Open University is the only Open University in Uttarakhand. The total number of students in 2009 was hardly 700, but today the total enrolment has crossed 20,000 students. The construction work at its new campus is in full swing and the staff will shift there in June. At present there are more than 140 courses. The prominent among them are Journalism and Mass Communication, Hotel Management, Tourism Management, Business Management, Education, Jyotish, karmakand and other traditional courses.
Noted scholar of English Literature and an authority on Lord Byron & Thomas Hardy, Dr.K.S.Misra, M.A.,Ph.D.,D.Litt. served M.B.(P.G.) College, Haldwani(Nainital) during 1967-70 as Professor & Head of the Department of English.
Well connected with the Indo-Gangetic plain by road (to New Delhi, Dehradun and Lucknow) and rail (New Delhi, DehraDun, Lucknow and Kolkata), Haldwani is an important commercial hub. It is home to one of the largest vegetable, fruit and foodgrain markets in Kumaon. Being the gateway to most of Kumaon and parts of Garhwal, it is an important revenue center of Uttarakhand based on its advantageous location as a base depot for goods in transit to the hills. The Gaula river is exploited for a large quantity of boulders, sand and gravels every year, and forms an important revenue source for both the government and local business.
Government and Politics
Haldwani is a municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The municipal area is divided into 60 territorial constituencies known as wards. The Municipal Corporation is made up of a Wards Committee, where each ward has one seat. Members, known as Councillors, are elected to the Wards Committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years, as provisioned by the 74th Amendment of the Indian Constitution relating to urban local governments. The 'Nagar Nigam Haldwani' is a unicameral legislative body, comprising forty Councillors, who elect the Mayor. In addition to the elected Councillors, the committee also includes thirteen Councillors nominated by the state government and two additional members; the MLA(s) and MP from the city.
The Town Act was implemented in Haldwani in 1885 after which, it was declared a municipality on February 1, 1897. The Municipality of Haldwani was soon disestablished and Haldwani was constituted as a 'notified area' in 1904. In 1907, it got the status of town area. The Haldwani-Kathgodam Municipal Council was established on 21 September 1942, and was upgraded to a Municipal corporation on 21 May 2011. Currently it is the third largest Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttarakhand after Dehradun and Haridwar.
The city is represented in the Lok Sabha by a representative elected from the Nainital-Udhamsingh Nagar Constituency. Bhagat Singh Koshyari, from BJP, is the current Member of Parliament from Nainital-Udhamsingh Nagar. He won the 2014 Lok Sabha elections by 2.84 lakh votes against K.C. Singh Baba from the Congress, who was the sitting MP from the seat. Generally considered a Congress Stronghold, the Congress has registered a victory from Nainital-Udham Singh Nagar eight times since 1951. While BJP won this seat two times, other political parties had managed three victories. The city elects three members to the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly, from the 'Haldwani Vidhansabha constituency' comprising wards no 1 to 37, 'Kaladhungi Vidhan Sabha Constituency' (partially) comprising wards no 38 to 56 and 'Lalkuan' Vidhan Sabha constituency (Partially) comprising wards no 57 to 60. http://newstodaynetwork.com/nagar-nigam-haldwani/
Haldwani is known as the Gateway to Kumaon. The most commonly used forms of transport in Haldwani include government owned services such as railways and buses. Complementing these government services are bus routes operated by KMOU (Kumaon Motor Owner's Union), as well as privately operated taxis and auto rickshaws.
NH 109 cuts through Haldwani; other major roads are the Bareilly-Bageshwar highway, Rampur Road, Haldwani-Kaladhungi-Ramnagar Road and the Kathgodam-Sitarganj Road. Haldwani is well connected to the country's capital Delhi via buses run by Uttarakhand Transport Corporation. All the buses leave from the Haldwani Bus Station for Delhi's Anand Vihar ISBT. The connectivity to state capital Dehradun is also good. There are a number of buses for Dehradun-Haldwani route. Apart from Delhi and Dehradun, regular buses are available for several hill cities like Nainital, Almora, Ranikhet, Bageshwar and Pithoragarh.
A new ISBT is under construction in the Gaulapar region. The ISBT would be spread over 8 Acres, and has been termed the 'Largest ISBT in north India' by The Times of India. The foundation stone was laid in 2016. The construction work started in 2014, but was halted in May 2017, when a large number of human skeletons were discovered at the construction site by workers.
There are direct rail links to many parts both in and outside the state to all major junctions. All trains start from Kathgodam railway station which is a terminal of North Eastern Railway's Izzatnagar Division and then reach Haldwani Railway Station and proceed towards Lalkuan Junction Railway Station. In 1883–84, the railway track was laid between Bareilly and Kathgodam. The first train arrived at Haldwani from Lucknow on 24 April 1884. Later, the railway line was extended to Kathgodam. Indian Railways is planning shorter rail track via Ramnagar-Kotdwar-Haridwar instead of the present track via Rampur-Moradabad.
The air gateway to Haldwani is the Pantnagar Airport located at Pantnagar, which is about 28 km (17 mi) south of Haldwani city, and handles the domestic flights. The Pantnagar Airport provides direct connectivity to New Delhi, the Capital of India.
Massive development plans for the city are on final Stage, owing to its importance in the state there are various other project in pipeline.
- This include building of additional infrastructure like International stadium, flyover, bus terminus, Asia's biggest Zoo and industrial complex.Greater Haldwani is carved out in Golapar region of Haldwani which will be future Smart Sub city alike Dwarka in Delhi.
- Haldwani is said to be a fast-growing educational hub of Uttarakhand. Many new institutions are open in lower Haldwani areas.
- Since, the success of 108 mobile medical van services across the province, the Govt. is planning to expand this service in a better way for the more populated Haldwani city. Haldwani's forests which bear the best timber (cite?) anywhere in India and South Asia, are for now in a motion of significant demand because of their best quality.Government is also planning to keep the forestry as green as it was.
- ISBT and International Zoo are also multi crore infrastructure projects that are underway and due for completion by 2017.
- According to market experts Haldwani is future city of Uttarakhand which has high business potential due to Friendly business atmosphere and safety provided to Entrepreneurs and Businessmen. One Can also have Aerial view of Nearby tourist destination Nanital by chopper services available from Greater Haldwani Stadium in Golapar.
Indira Gandhi International Sports Stadium is located in Haldwani. The stadium, having a capacity of 25000 people, was inaugurated on 18 December 2016 by Harish Rawat, the then Chief Minister of Uttarakhand. It is spread over an area of 70 acres and has Cricket and Football grounds, a track for 800-metre race, a hockey field, Badminton courts, a lawn tennis court, a Boxing ring and a swimming pool.
Haldwani will host the 38th National Games in 2018. The city also hosted a state-level football championship, and the first edition of CWE (Continental Wrestling Entertainment) pro-wrestling series, in 2016. Haldwani will be the second city after Delhi in northern India to have more than one international stadium.
Haldwani is home to the 'Kumaon offRoaders Club' that organizes rallies and other motor sports in the region. The club organized the first Offroad motor event on 3 October 2016 to promote adventure tourism in Haldwani.
Media and Communications
Haldwani, along with other areas of the Kumaon division, is served by the Almora station of the All India Radio. The first relay centre of Akashwani FM will be set up in Haldwani city on 1,560 sqm of land. The relay centre will broadcast FM radio programmes of the All India Radio round the clock within a range of 70 km. Internet Services are provided by BSNL, Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Idea Cellular and Reliance jio.
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