States and union territories of India

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States and union territories of India
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Created byConstitution of India
Created
  • 26 January 1950
Number28 States
8 Union territories (as of 2024)
PopulationsStates: Sikkim – 610,577 (lowest)
Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341 (highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep – 64,473 (lowest)
Delhi – 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: Goa – 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) (smallest)
Rajasthan – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) (largest)
Union territories: Lakshadweep – 32 km2 (12 sq mi) (smallest)
Ladakh – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) (largest)
Government
Subdivisions

India is a federal republic comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

The states are self-governing administrative divisions, each having a state government. The governing powers of the states are shared between the state government and the union government. The union territories are directly governed by the union government though some of the union territories have their own territorial government with certain autonomy.

The framework for the states and union territories were established by the Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950. As per the Indian Constitution, the power to demarcate states and union territories in India is solely reserved with the Parliament of India, which can form new states/union territories, separate/merge territories from/to an existing state or convert states to union territories or vice versa.

History[edit]

British Raj: before 1947[edit]

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British Crown took over the administration of India from the rule of the British East India Company through the Government of India Act 1858.[1] During the British Raj, India was a complex political entity consisting of various imperial divisions and states and territories of varying autonomy. It was made up of two types of territory: British India and native Princely States.[2] Apart from the provinces directly ruled territories of the Crown, there were 584 constituent states with suzerainty over 175 princely states was exercised by the central government of British India under the viceroy in the name of the British Crown and the remaining states were dependents of the provincial governments of British India under a governor, lieutenant-governor, or chief commissioner.[3] In 1907, there were seven major and three minor provinces within the boundaries of present-day India, which were ruled by a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or a Chief Commissioner on behalf of the Emperor of India.[a][3]

Provinces of British India (1907)
Province Area (km2) Population in million (1901) Chief Administrator Map
Major Provinces Administrative divisions of the British Indian Empire in 1909
Assam Province 130000 6 Chief Commissioner
Bengal Presidency[b] 390000 75 Lieutenant-Governor
Bombay Presidency 320000 19 Governor-in-Council
Central Provinces and Berar 270000 13 Chief Commissioner
Madras Presidency 370000 38 Governor-in-Council
Punjab[c] 250000 20 Lieutenant-Governor
United Provinces 280000 48 Lieutenant-Governor
Minor Provinces
Ajmer-Merwara 7000 477 ex officio Chief Commissioner
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 78000 25 Chief Commissioner
Coorg Province 4100 181 ex officio Chief Commissioner
  1. ^ There were a total of eight major and five minor provinces of which, one major province is part of present-day Myanmar an two minor provinces are part of present-day Pakistan
  2. ^ Bengal included parts of present-day Bangladesh; During the partition of Bengal (1905-13), East Bengal was created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal and were divided into the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
  3. ^ Punjab included parts of present-day Pakistan

In addition, there were two semi-autonomous imperial structures called agencies, Rajputana and Central India, which had an Agent to the Governor-General (AGG) functioning as the Emperor's representative to all the states in the agency.[3] The states of Baroda, Kashmir and Jammu, Nizamate of Hyderabad and Kingdom of Mysore were neither part of a province nor an agency and had direct relations with the Crown through the Governor General of India.[3] In 1911, the capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, which resulted in the creation of a special province of Delhi from the existing Punjab province, administered by a special commissioner.[4] In March 1912, Bihar and Orissa was split as a new province from Bengal.[5]

In 1919, the fourth Government of India was enacted by the British Parliament.[6] The act introduced provision for majority of the members to the legislatures of the provinces to be democratically elected. All provinces were elevated to governorship and there were eight governor's provinces apart from the three chief commissioner's provinces of Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg and Delhi.[6] The Chamber of Princes was established by Emperor George V in 1920 as a consequence of the act, thus creating more agencies with representative members who could voice out their opinions to the Viceroy of India directly.[7] Additional imperial agencies were established in the subsequent years: Punjab States, Madras States, Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency, Western India and Gujarat States Agency and Baroda Residency, Eastern States and Gwalior Residency.[8]

In 1935, the British Parliament enacted the Government of India Act which granted more autonomy to the Indian provinces.[9] The act introduced provisions for the provincial legislatures to propagate its own laws in certain subjects without the ascent of the governor-general.[9] The act also created the office of a Premier in each province who functioned as the new head of government and was responsible to the provincial legislature.[9] Bengal, Madras and Bombay presidencies were officially styled as provinces and new provinces of Orissa and Sind were created from Bihar and Bombay respectively.[9]

After Independence: 1947–50[edit]

After the Indian Independence Act in 1947, the Indian Empire was dissolved along with the Imperial Legislative Council and the Chamber of Princes and the Union of India was consequently established when the provinces of erstwhile British Raj and princely states were integrated into the Indian Union. The old provinces largely remained the same with the princely states who acceded mostly absorbed into the existing provinces of the union while a few were organized into separate provinces.[10] In 1950, after the adoption of the Constitution of India, these became part of the Republic of India with the constitution classifying the states into four categories.[11]

Administrative divisions of India in 1949
Administrative divisions of India in 1950 (former name in brackets)
Classification Description Count Constituents
Part A Former governors' provinces ruled by a governor and elected state legislature 9 Assam (Assam Province), Bihar (Bihar Province), Bombay (Bombay Province), East Punjab (Punjab Province), Madhya Pradesh (Central Provinces and Berar), Madras (Madras Province), Orissa (Orissa Province), Uttar Pradesh (United Provinces), West Bengal (Bengal Province)
Part B Former princely state(s) governed by a rajpramukh, appointed by the President of India and an elected legislature 8 Hyderabad (Hyderabad State), Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir Princely State), Madhya Bharat (Central India Agency), Mysore (Mysore Princely State), Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan (Rajputana Agency), Saurashtra (Baroda, Western India and Gujarat States Agency), Travancore–Cochin (Travancore Princely State and Cochin Princely State)
Part C Former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India 10 Ajmer (Ajmer-Merwara Province, Bhopal (Bhopal Princely State), Bilaspur (Bilaspur Princely State), Coorg (Coorg Province), Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch (Cutch Princely State), Manipur (Manipur Princely State), Tripura (Tripura Princely State), Vindhya Pradesh (Central India Agency)
Part D Administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the union government 1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Republic and states re-organization: 1950–59[edit]

On 1 July 1954, Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh and Chandernagore, a former enclave of French India was incorporated into West Bengal in 1955.[12] In 1953, Andhra state was created from the northern districts of Madras state, following the Andhra movement demanding a separate state for the Telugus.[13] In July 1954, Portuguese exclave of Dadra and Nagar Haveli was taken over by pro-India forces and became the Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli state.[14] In November 1954, the French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé were transferred to India.[15]

Political map of India after re-organisation in 1956

In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act was passed, which re-organized the country into 14 states and six union territories.[16] As a result of the act:

Later years: 1960–present[edit]

Political map of India (2011)

Following the Mahagujarat movement, Bombay state was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[17] Goa, Daman and Diu was established as a union territory, following the liberation of Goa and Daman and Diu and from Portuguese and accession of Daman and Diu in 1961.[12] Pondicherry was formed as a union territory following the de-jure transfer of French enclaves in India in 1962.[12] On 1 December 1963, Nagaland was divided as a new state from Assam.[18] The Punjabi Suba movement, which sought a separate Punjabi-speaking state, resulted in the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966, which created the state of Haryana and the union territory of Chandigarh with the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[19][20][21]

Madras state was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.[22] Himachal Pradesh was elevated to statehood in 1970.[12] The north-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were established in January 1972.[23] Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973. On 26 April 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state after the 1975 Sikkimese monarchy referendum which resulted in the Kingdom of Sikkim acceding to India.[24] In February 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram were established as new states.[23] In May 1987, Goa achieved statehood with the northern exclaves of Daman and Diu becoming a separate union territory.[12]

In 2000, three new states were created: Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from north-western Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand from southern Bihar with the enactment of Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000, Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 and Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 respectively.[12] In 2006, Pondicherry was renamed as Puducherry and Uttaranchal became Uttarakhand followed by Orissa being renamed as Odisha in 2011.[12] In June 2014, Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh as the 29th state of the union, through the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, following the Telangana movement.[25] On 31 October 2019, the state of Jammu and Kashmir was split into two new union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh as a result of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019.[26] On 26 January 2020, the Union Territory of Daman and Diu and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli were merged into a single union territory of Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.[27]

Current proposals[edit]

Powers and functions[edit]

The framework for the states and union territories were established by the Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950. As per the Indian Constitution, the power to demarcate states and union territories in India is solely reserved with the Parliament of India, which can form new states/union territories, separate/merge territories from/to an existing state or convert states to union territories or vice versa.[11] The constitution distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any state between the union government and that of the state.[11] Article 73 states that the executive power of the union government shall extend to the matters with respect to which parliament has power to make laws even if it affects the states while Article 162 defines that the executive power of a state shall extend to the matters with respect to which the state legislature has power to make laws.[11] The union territories are directly governed by the union government though some of the union territories have their own territorial government with certain autonomy.[11]

States and union territories[edit]

States[edit]

State[28] ISO[29] Vehicle
code
[30]
Zone[31] Capital[28] Largest city[32] Established[12] Population
(2011)[33][34]
Area
(km2)[35]
Official
languages[36]
Additional official
languages[36]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu Urdu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,438 Assamese, Boro[37] Bengali[37]
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CG CG Central Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi Chhattisgarhi[38]
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi[39]
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati, Hindi[40]
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi English, Punjabi[41]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[42]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[43]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 79,714 Hindi 16 languages[a][44]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English[45]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,327 Manipuri English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,429 English
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 Mizo, English, Hindi
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OD OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,707 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,239 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha, English[46] 8 languages[b][46]
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TS TS Southern Hyderabad 2 June 2014 35,193,978 112,077 Telugu Urdu
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,491 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 240,928 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UK UK Central Dehradun (Winter)
Bhararisain (Summer)[47]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[48]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, English Nepali[c] and 10 other languages[d][49]
  1. ^ Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu
  2. ^ Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
  3. ^ Nepali is one of the official languages in the Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district
  4. ^ Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu, Kamatapuri, Rajbanshi, Kurmali, Kurukh

Union territories[edit]

State[50] ISO[51] Vehicle
code
[52]
Zone[53] Capital[50] Largest city[54] Established[55] Population
(2011)[56]
Area
(km2)[57]
Official
languages[58]
Additional official
languages[58]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Southern Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 Hindi, English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Northern Chandigarh 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DH DD Western Daman Silvassa 26 January 2020 587,106 603 Hindi, English Gujarati
Delhi IN-DL DL Northern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,484 Hindi, English Urdu, Punjabi[59]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)[60]
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 42,241 Dogri, English, Hindi, Kashmiri, Urdu
Ladakh IN-LA LA Northern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[61]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 59,146 Hindi, English
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Southern Kavaratti Andrott 1 November 1956 64,473 32 Hindi, English Malayalam
Puducherry IN-PY PY Southern Pondicherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 479 Tamil, French, English Telugu, Malayalam

Former states and union territories[edit]

Former states[edit]

Former states of India[12][11]
State Capital Span Successor(s) Map
Ajmer State Ajmer 1950–56 Rajasthan
Andhra State Kurnool 1953–56 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad 1956-2014 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–56 Madhya Pradesh
Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1950–54 Himachal Pradesh
Bombay State Bombay 1950–60 Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka
Coorg State Madikeri 1950–56 Karnataka
East Punjab Shimla (1947–53)
Chandigarh (1953–66)
1947–66 Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh
Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–56 Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1952–2019 Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh
Kutch State Bhuj 1947–56 Gujarat
Madhya Bharat Indore (summer)
Gwalior (winter)
1948–56 Madhya Pradesh
Madras State Madras 1947–53 Andhra State, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala
Mysore State Bangalore 1947–73 Karnataka
Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–56 Punjab, Haryana
Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–56 Gujarat
Travancore–Cochin Trivandrum 1949–56 Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–56 Madhya Pradesh

Former union territories[edit]

Former union territories of India[55][62]
Name Zone Capital Area Begin End Successor(s) Map
Arunachal Pradesh North-Eastern Itanagar 83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Western Silvassa 491 km2 (190 sq mi) 11 August 1961 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)
Daman and Diu Western Daman 112 km2 (43 sq mi) 30 May 1987 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)
Goa, Daman and Diu Western Panaji 3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi) 19 December 1961 30 May 1987 Goa (state), Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)
Himachal Northern Shimla 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi) 1 November 1956 25 January 1971 As an Indian state
Manipur North-Eastern Imphal 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state
Mizoram North-Eastern Aizawl 21,081 km2 (8,139 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state
Nagaland North-Eastern Kohima 16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi) 29 November 1957 1 December 1963 As an Indian state
Tripura North-Eastern Agartala 10,491 km2 (4,051 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]