ISO/IEC 646

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ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.[1][2] Since its first edition in 1967[3] it has specified a 7-bit character code from which several national standards are derived.

ISO/IEC 646 was also ratified by ECMA as ECMA-6. The first version of ECMA-6 had been published in 1965,[4] based on work the ECMA's Technical Committee TC1 had carried out since December 1960.[4]

Characters in the ISO/IEC 646 Basic Character Set are invariant characters.[5] Since that portion of ISO/IEC 646, that is the invariant character set shared by all countries, specified only those letters used in the ISO basic Latin alphabet, countries using additional letters needed to create national variants of ISO 646 to be able to use their native scripts. Since universal acceptance of the 8-bit byte did not exist at that time, the national characters had to be made to fit within the constraints of 7 bits, meaning that some characters that appear in ASCII do not appear in other national variants of ISO 646.

History[edit]

ISO/IEC 646 and its predecessor ASCII (ASA X3.4) largely endorsed existing practice regarding character encodings in the telecommunications industry.

As ASCII did not provide a number of characters needed for languages other than English, a number of national variants were made that substituted some less-used characters with needed ones. Due to the incompatibility of the various national variants, an International Reference Version (IRV) of ISO/IEC 646 was introduced, in an attempt to at least restrict the replaced set to the same characters in all variants. The original version (ISO 646 IRV) differed from ASCII only in that in code point 0x24, ASCII's dollar sign ($) was replaced by the international currency symbol (¤). The final 1991 version of the code ISO 646:1991 is also known as ITU T.50, International Reference Alphabet or IRA, formerly International Alphabet No. 5 (IA5). This standard allows users to exercise the 12 variable characters (i.e., two alternative graphic characters and 10 national defined characters). Among these exercises, ISO 646:1991 IRV (International Reference Version) is explicitly defined and identical to ASCII.[6]

The ISO 8859 series of standards governing 8-bit character encodings supersede the ISO 646 international standard and its national variants, by providing 96 additional characters with the additional bit and thus avoiding any substitution of ASCII codes. The ISO 10646 standard, directly related to Unicode, supersedes all of the ISO 646 and ISO 8859 sets with one unified set of character encodings using a larger 21-bit value.

A legacy of ISO/IEC 646 is visible on Windows, where in many East Asian locales the backslash character used in filenames is rendered as ¥ or other characters such as . Despite the fact that a different code for ¥ was available even on the original IBM PC's code page 437, and a separate double-byte code for ¥ is available in Shift_JIS (although this often uses alternative mapping), so much text was created with the backslash code used for ¥ (due to Shift_JIS being officially based on ISO 646:JP, although Microsoft maps it as ASCII) that even modern Windows fonts have found it necessary to render the code that way. A similar situation exists with ₩ and EUC-KR. Another legacy is the existence of trigraphs in the C programming language.

Published standards[edit]

  • ISO/R646-1967[3]
  • ISO 646:1972[7]
  • ISO 646:1983[8]
  • ISO/IEC 646:1991[7][9]
  • ECMA-6 (1965-04-30), first edition[4]
  • ECMA-6 (1967-06), second edition[3][4]
  • ECMA-6 (1970-07), third edition[4][10]
  • ECMA-6 (1973-08), fourth edition[4][10]
  • ECMA-6 (1984-12, 1985-03), fifth edition[4]
  • ECMA-6 (1991-12, 1997-08), sixth edition[7]

Code page layout[edit]

The following table shows the ISO/IEC 646 character set. Each character is shown with the hex code of its Unicode equivalent and the decimal value of the ISO/IEC 646 code. Grey shaded cells indicate code points with character glyphs that vary from region to region. These are discussed in detail below.

Legend:

ISO/IEC 646(-INV)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
 
0_
 
NUL
0000
0
SOH
0001
1
STX
0002
2
ETX
0003
3
EOT
0004
4
ENQ
0005
5
ACK
0006
6
BEL
0007
7
BS
0008
8
HT
0009
9
LF
000A
10
VT
000B
11
FF
000C
12
CR
000D
13
SO
000E
14
SI
000F
15
 
1_
 
DLE
0010
16
DC1
0011
17
DC2
0012
18
DC3
0013
19
DC4
0014
20
NAK
0015
21
SYN
0016
22
ETB
0017
23
CAN
0018
24
EM
0019
25
SUB
001A
26
ESC
001B
27
FS
001C
28
GS
001D
29
RS
001E
30
US
001F
31
 
2_
 
SP
0020
32
!
0021
33
"
0022
34


35


36
%
0025
37
&
0026
38
'
0027
39
(
0028
40
)
0029
41
*
002A
42
+
002B
43
,
002C
44
-
002D
45
.
002E
46
/
002F
47
 
3_
 
0
0030
48
1
0031
49
2
0032
50
3
0033
51
4
0034
52
5
0035
53
6
0036
54
7
0037
55
8
0038
56
9
0039
57
:
003A
58
;
003B
59
<
003C
60
=
003D
61
>
003E
62
?
003F
63
 
4_
 


64
A
0041
65
B
0042
66
C
0043
67
D
0044
68
E
0045
69
F
0046
70
G
0047
71
H
0048
72
I
0049
73
J
004A
74
K
004B
75
L
004C
76
M
004D
77
N
004E
78
O
004F
79
 
5_
 
P
0050
80
Q
0051
81
R
0052
82
S
0053
83
T
0054
84
U
0055
85
V
0056
86
W
0057
87
X
0058
88
Y
0059
89
Z
005A
90


91


92


93


94
_
005F
95
 
6_
 


96
a
0061
97
b
0062
98
c
0063
99
d
0064
100
e
0065
101
f
0066
102
g
0067
103
h
0068
104
i
0069
105
j
006A
106
k
006B
107
l
006C
108
m
006D
109
n
006E
110
o
006F
111
 
7_
 
p
0070
112
q
0071
113
r
0072
114
s
0073
115
t
0074
116
u
0075
117
v
0076
118
w
0077
119
x
0078
120
y
0079
121
z
007A
122


123


124


125


126
DEL
007F
127

National variants[edit]

Variant list[edit]

ISO 646 national variants[edit]

Some national variants of ISO 646 are as follows:

Code ISO-IR ISO ESC Approved National Standard Description
CA 121 ESC 2/8 7/7 ISO 646 CSA Z243.4-1985-1 Canada (No. 1 alternative, with “î”)
(French, classical) (Code page 1020[11])
CA2 122 ESC 2/8 7/8 ISO 646 CSA Z243.4-1985-2 Canada (No. 2 alternative, with “É”)
(French, reformed orthography)
CN 57[12] ESC 2/8 5/4  ? GB/T 1988-80 People's Republic of China (Basic Latin)
CU 151 ESC 2/8 2/1 4/1 ISO 646 NC 99-10:81 / NC NC00-10:81 Cuba (Spanish)
DANO 9-1[13] ESC 2/8 4/5[13] SIS? NATS-DANO Norway and Denmark (journalistic texts). Invariant codepoint 0x22 is displayed as «, (compare " in the IRV). It is, however, still considered a double quotation mark.[14]
DE 21[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/11[13] ISO 646 DIN 66003 (de) Germany (German) (Code page 1011,[15] 20106[16][17][18])
DK  ? DS 2089[19][20] Denmark (Danish) (Code page 1017[21])
ES 17[13] ESC 2/8 5/10[13] ECMA Olivetti Spanish (international) (Code page 1023[22])
ES2 85[12] ESC 2/8 6/8 ECMA IBM Spain (Basque, Castilian, Catalan, Galician) (Code page 1014[23])
FI 10[12] ISO 646 SFS 4017 Finland (basic version) (Code page 1018[24])
FR 69[12] ESC 2/8 6/6 ISO 646 AFNOR NF Z 62010-1982 France (French) (Code page 1010[25])
FR1 25[13][12] ESC 2/8 5/2[13] ISO 646 AFNOR NF Z 62010-1973 France (obsolete since April 1985) (Code page 1104[26])
GB 4[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/1[13] ISO 646 BS 4730 United Kingdom (English) (Code page 1013[27])
HU 86 ESC 2/8 6/9 ISO 646 MSZ 7795/3 Hungary (Hungarian)
IE 207  ? NSAI 433:1996 Ireland (Irish)
INV 170 ESC 2/8 2/1 4/2 ISO 646 ISO 646:1983 Invariant subset
(IRV) 2[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/0[13] ISO 646 ISO 646:1973 International Reference Version. 0x7E as an overline (ISO-IR-002).[28]
 ?  ? ISO 646 ISO 646:1983 International Reference Version. 0x7E as a tilde (Code page 1009,[29] 20105[16][17][30]).
ISO 646:1991 International Reference Version matches the US variant (see below).
IS ?  ?  ? Iceland (Icelandic)
IT 15[13][12] ESC 2/8 5/9[13] ECMA UNI 0204-70 / Olivetti? Italian (Code page 1012[31])
JP 14[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/10[13] ISO 646 JIS C 6220:1969-ro Japan (Romaji) (Code page 895[32])
JP-OCR-B 92 ESC 2/8 6/14 ISO 646 JIS C 6229-1984-b Japan (OCR-B)
KR  ? KS C 5636-1989 South Korea
MT  ?  ? Malta (Maltese, English)
NL ECMA IBM Netherlands (Dutch) (Code page 1019[33])
NO 60[12] ESC 2/8 6/0 ISO 646 NS 4551 version 1[12] Norway (Code page 1016[34])
NO2 61[12] ESC 2/8 6/1 ISO 646 NS 4551 version 2[12] Norway (obsolete since June 1987) (Code page 20108[16][17][35])
pl BN-74/3101-01 Poland (Polish has 18 letters with diacritical marks, but only 9 lowercase letters are normalized due to code space reasons.
PT 16[12] ESC 2/8 4/12 ECMA Olivetti Portuguese (international)
PT2 84[12] ESC 2/8 6/7 ECMA IBM Portugal (Portuguese, Spanish) (Code page 1015[36]
SE 10[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/7[13] ISO 646 SEN 850200 Annex B, SIS 63 61 27 Sweden (basic Swedish) (Code page 1018,[24] D47)
SE2 11[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/8[13] ISO 646 SEN 850200 Annex C, SIS 63 61 27 Sweden (extended Swedish for names) (Code page 20107,[16][17][37] E47)
SEFI 8-1[13] ESC 2/8 4/3[13] SIS NATS-SEFI Sweden and Finland (journalistic texts)
T.61 102 ESC 2/8 7/5  ? ITU/CCITT T.61 Recommendation International (Teletex)
TW  ? CNS 5205-1996 Republic of China (Taiwan)
US / (IRV) 6[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/2[13] ISO 646 ANSI X3.4-1968 and ISO 646:1983 (also IRV in ISO/IEC 646:1991) United States (ASCII, Code page 367,[38] 20127[16][17][39])
YU 141 ESC 2/8 7/10 ISO 646 JUS I.B1.002 (YUSCII) former Yugoslavia (Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Bosnian)
INIS 49 ESC 2/8 5/7 IAEA INIS ISO 646 IRV subset

ISO 646 national derivatives[edit]

Some national character sets also exist which are based on ISO 646 but do not strictly follow its invariant set (see also § Variants of ASCII that are not ISO 646):

Character set ISO-IR ISO ESC Approved National Standard Description
BS_viewdata 47 ESC 2/8 5/6 British Post Office Viewdata and Teletext. Viewdata square (⌗) substituted for normally invariant underscore (_) which cannot be displayed on the target hardware.[40]
GR / greek7 88 ESC 2/8 6/10  ? HOS ELOT 927 Greece (withdrawn in November 1986). Uses Greek letters in place of Roman ones[41] and hence is not strictly speaking an ISO 646 variant.
greek7-old 18 ESC 2/8 5/11 ECMA  ? Greek graphic set. Similar in concept to greek7, but uses a different mapping of letters. Also, the upper case follows the lower case.
latin-greek 19 ESC 2/8 5/12 ECMA  ? Latin-Greek combined graphics (capitals only). Follows greek7-old, but includes Latin capitals without modification, and Greek capitals over the Latin lower case.
Latin-greek-1 27[13] ESC 2/8 5/5[13] ECMA Honeywell-Bull Latin-Greek mixed graphics (Greek capitals only).[13] Visually unifies Greek capitals with Latin capitals where possible, and adds the remaining Greek capitals. Unlike the other Greek versions, all Basic Latin letters remain intact. Replaces invariant punctuation as well as national characters, however,[42] and hence is still not strictly speaking an ISO 646 variant.
swi ECMA Olivetti Switzerland (French, German) (Code page 1021[43]) Invariant codepoint 0x5F is changed from _ to è. Is technically a DEC NRCS variant, but lacks a direct ISO 646 equivalent and is closely related to ISO 646.

Control characters[edit]

All the variants listed above above are solely graphical character sets, and are to be used with a C0 control character set such as listed in the following table:

ISO-IR ISO ESC Approved Description
1[13] ESC 2/1 4/0[13] ISO 646 ISO 646 controls[13] ("ASCII controls")
7[13] ESC 2/1 4/1[13] ISO 646 Scandinavian newspaper (NATS) controls[13]
26[13] ESC 2/1 4/3[13] ISO 646 IPTC controls[13]

Associated supplementary character sets[edit]

The following table lists supplementary graphical character sets defined by the same standard as specific ISO 646 variants. These would be selected by using a mechanism such as shift out or the NATS super shift (single shift),[44] or by setting the eighth bit in environments where one was available:

ISO-IR ISO ESC National Standard Description
8-2[13] ESC 2/8 4/4[13] NATS-SEFI-ADD Supplementary code used with NATS-SEFI.
9-2[13] ESC 2/8 4/6[13] NATS-DANO-ADD Supplementary code used with NATS-DANO.
13[13][12] ESC 2/8 4/9[13] JIS C 6220:1969-jp Katakana, used as a supplementary code with ISO-646-JP.

Variant comparison chart[edit]

The specifics of the changes for some of these variants are given in the following table. Some variants of DEC's National Replacement Character Set, closely related to ISO 646, in addition to a small number of additional encodings based on ISO 646 but not strictly conforming to its invariant set, are included for comparison. Individual code charts are linked from the second column.

Variant Code Code Chart Characters for each ISO 646 / NRCS compatible or derived charset
US / IRV (1991) ISO-IR-006 ! " # $ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | } ~
Transnational
INV ISO-IR-170 ! "     & : ?           _          
INV (NRCS)[a] --- ! "   $ & : ?                      
INIS Subset[a] ISO-IR-049 $ : [ ] |
T.61 ISO-IR-102 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ [   ]   _     |    
IRV (1973) ISO-IR-002 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
IRV (1983) CP01009 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | } ~
East Asian
JP ISO-IR-014 ! " # $ & : ? @ [ ¥ ] ^ _ ` { | }
JP-​OCR-​B ISO-IR-092 ! " # $ & : ? @ [ ¥ ] ^ _   { | }  
KR --- ! " # $ & : ? @ [ ] ^ _ ` { | }
CN ISO-IR-057 ! " # ¥ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
TW --- ! " # $ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
British and Irish
GB ISO-IR-004 ! " £ $ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
GB (NRCS) CP01101 ! " £ $ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | } ~
Viewdata[b] ISO-IR-047 ! " £ $ & : ? @ ½ ¼ ¾ ÷
IE ISO-IR-207 ! " £ $ & : ? Ó É Í Ú Á _ ó é í ú á
Francophone
FR ISO-IR-069 ! " £ $ & : ? à ° ç § ^ _ µ é ù è ¨
FR1[c] ISO-IR-025 ! " £ $ & : ? à ° ç § ^ _ ` é ù è ¨
CA[c] ISO-IR-121 ! " # $ & : ? à â ç ê î _ ô é ù è û
CA2 ISO-IR-122 ! " # $ & : ? à â ç ê É _ ô é ù è û
Francophone-Germanophone
swi (NRCS)[b] CP01021 ! " ù $ & : ? à é ç ê î è ô ä ö ü û
Germanophone
DE[c] ISO-IR-021 ! " # $ & : ? § Ä Ö Ü ^ _ ` ä ö ü ß
Nordic
FI / SE ISO-IR-010 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ Ä Ö Å ^ _ ` ä ö å
SE2 ISO-IR-011 ! " # ¤ & : ? É Ä Ö Å Ü _ é ä ö å ü
SE (NRCS) CP01106 ! " # $ & : ? É Ä Ö Å Ü _ é ä ö å ü
FI (NRCS) CP01103 ! " # $ & : ? @ Ä Ö Å Ü _ é ä ö å ü
SEFI[d] ISO-IR-008-1 ! " # $ & : ?   Ä Ö Å _   ä ö å
DK CP01017 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ Æ Ø Å Ü _ ` æ ø å ü
DK/NO (NRCS) CP01105 ! " # $ & : ? Ä Æ Ø Å Ü _ ä æ ø å ü
DK/NO-alt (NRCS) CP01107 ! " # $ & : ? @ Æ Ø Å ^ _ ` æ ø å ~
NO ISO-IR-060 ! " # $ & : ? @ Æ Ø Å ^ _ ` æ ø å
NO2 ISO-IR-061 ! " § $ & : ? @ Æ Ø Å ^ _ ` æ ø å |
DANO[d][e] ISO-IR-009-1 ! « » $ & : ?   Æ Ø Å _   æ ø å
IS ! " # $ & : ? Ð Þ \ Æ Ö _ ð þ | æ ö
Hispanophone
ES ISO-IR-017 ! " # $ & : ? § ¡ Ñ ¿ ^ _ ` ° ñ ç ~
ES (NRCS) CP01023 ! " £ $ & : ? § ¡ Ñ ¿ ^ _ ` ° ñ ç ~
ES2 ISO-IR-085 ! " # $ & : ? · ¡ Ñ Ç ¿ _ ` ´ ñ ç ¨
CU ISO-IR-151 ! " # ¤ & : ? @ ¡ Ñ ] ¿ _ ` ´ ñ [ ¨
Lusophone
PT ISO-IR-016 ! " # $ & : ? § Ã Ç Õ ^ _ ` ã ç õ °
PT2 ISO-IR-084 ! " # $ & : ? ´ Ã Ç Õ ^ _ ` ã ç õ ~
PT (NRCS) --- ! " # $ & : ? @ Ã Ç Õ ^ _ ` ã ç õ ~
Greek
ISO-IR-088 (GR), ISO-IR-018 and ISO-IR-019 replace Roman letters with Greek letters and are beyond the scope of this chart.
Latin-GR mixed[b] ISO-IR-027 Ξ " Γ ¤ & Ψ Π Δ Ω Θ Φ Λ Σ ` { | }
Other
NL CP01019 ! " # $ & : ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | }
NL (NRCS) CP01102 ! " £ $ & : ? ¾ ij ½ | ^ _ ` ¨ ƒ ¼ ´
IT[c] ISO-IR-015 ! " £ $ & : ? § ° ç é ^ _ ù à ò è ì
HU ISO-IR-086 ! " # ¤ & : ? Á É Ö Ü ^ _ á é ö ü ˝
MT --- ! " # $ & : ? @ ġ ż ħ ^ _ ċ Ġ Ż Ħ Ċ
YU ISO-IR-141 ! " # $ & : ? Ž Š Đ Ć Č _ ž š đ ć č
pl ! " # & : ? ę ź \ ń ś _ ą ó ł ż ć
  1. ^ a b Is a subset of one of the International Reference Versions of ISO 646, but does not include all characters which are present in the invariant set. Included for comparison.
  2. ^ a b c Does not completely conform to the invariant set, but is a closely related derivative of ISO 646. Included here for comparison.
  3. ^ a b c d ISO 646 variant identical to NRCS variant.
  4. ^ a b The NATS charsets (e.g. NATS-SEFI) replace @ (0x40) and ` (0x60) with "Unit space A" (UA) and "Unit space B" (UB). The plain space (0x20) expands on justification. UA and UB are for fixed widths, UA must be at least as wide as UB. RFC 1345 maps UA and UB to ISO 10646 (UCS) code points U+E002 and U+E003, both in the Private Use Area, respectively.
  5. ^ Conformance to the ISO 646 invariant set is questionable, but it is a closely related derivative of ISO 646. Included here for comparison.

In the table above, the cells with non-white background emphasize the differences from the US variant used in the Basic Latin subset of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode.

Several characters could be used as combining characters, when preceded or followed with a backspace C0 control. This is attested in the code charts for IRV, GB, FR1, CA and CA2, which note that "',^ would behave as the diaeresis, acute accent, cedilla and circumflex (rather than quotation marks, a comma and an upward arrowhead) when preceeded or followed by a backspace. The tilde character (~) was similarly introduced as a diacritic (˜). This encoding method originated in the typewriter/teletype era when use of backspace would overstamp a glyph, and may be considered deprecated.

Later, when wider character sets gained more acceptance, ISO 8859, vendor-specific character sets and eventually Unicode became the preferred methods of coding most of these variants.

Variants of ASCII that are not ISO 646[edit]

There are also some 7-bit character sets that are derived from the ISO 646 standard, but are not officially part of it and do not follow its invariant code points strictly, often due to supporting differing alphabets which the set of national code points provide insufficient encoding space for. Examples include:

  • 7-bit Greek.
    • In ELOT 927 (ISO-IR-088),[45] the Greek alphabet is mapped to positions 0x61–0x71 and 0x73–0x79, on top of the Latin lowercase letters.
    • ISO-IR-018[46] maps the Greek alphabet over both letter cases using a different scheme, and ISO-IR-019[47] maps the Greek uppercase alphabet over the Latin lowercase letters using the same scheme as ISO-IR-018.
    • ISO-IR-027[48] (also detailed for comparison above) includes the Latin alphabet unchanged, but adds some Greek capital letters which cannot be represented with Latin homoglyphs; while it is explicitly based on ISO 646, some of these are mapped to codepoints which are invariant in ISO 646 (0x21, 0x3A and 0x3F), and it is therefore not a true ISO 646 variant.
    • The lower half of the Symbol font character encoding[49] uses its own scheme for mapping Greek letters of both cases over the ASCII Roman letters. It also replaces invariant code points 0x22 and 0x27 and five national code points with mathematical symbols.
  • 7-bit Cyrillic, KOI-7 or Short KOI. The Cyrillic characters are mapped to positions 0x60–0x7E, on top of the Latin lowercase letters. Superseded by the KOI-8 variants.
  • 7-bit Hebrew, SI 960. The Hebrew alphabet is mapped to positions 0x60–0x7A, on top of the lowercase Latin letters (and grave accent for aleph). 7-bit Hebrew was always stored in visual order. This mapping with the high bit set, i.e. with the Hebrew letters in 0xE0–0xFA, is ISO 8859-8.
  • 7-bit Arabic, ASMO 449. The Arabic alphabet is mapped to positions 0x41–0x5A and 0x60–0x6A, on top of both uppercase and lowercase Latin letters.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mullendore, Ralph Elvin (1964) [1963]. Ptak, John F., ed. "On the Early Development of ASCII - The History of ASCII". JF Ptak Science Books (published March 2012). Archived from the original on 2016-05-26. Retrieved 2016-05-26. 
  2. ^ 6 and 7 Bit Coded Character Sets for Information Processing Interchange (draft), International Organization for Standardization, July 1964  (NB. 21 pages. With cover letter for the members of the X3.2 and Task Groups from Eric Clamons.)
  3. ^ a b c Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History and Development. The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 7, 9, 412. ISBN 0-201-14460-3. LCCN 77-90165. ISBN 978-0-201-14460-4. Retrieved 2016-05-22.  [1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit Coded Character Set (PDF) (5th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). March 1985. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-29. The Technical Committee TC1 of ECMA met for the first time in December 1960 to prepare standard codes for Input/Output purposes. On April 30, 1965, Standard ECMA-6 was adopted by the General Assembly of ECMA. 
  5. ^ Bodfish, John; Wilson, Mark; Gregory, Stephen; Nye, Julie Blume. Bodfish, John, ed. "Invariant Character Handling". NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol. Colorado Department of Education, USA: NCIP Standing Committee (NCIP-SC). Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  6. ^ Demchenko, Yuri (2000) [1997]. "International Standardization of 7-Bit Codes, ISO 646". TERENA. 4. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  7. ^ a b c Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit coded Character Set (PDF) (6th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). August 1997 [December 1991]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  8. ^ "Information processing -- ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange". 1983-07-01. ISO 646:1983. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  9. ^ "Information technology -- ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange" (3rd ed.). 1991-12-16. ISO/IEC 646:1991. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  10. ^ a b Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit Input/Output Coded Character Set (PDF) (4th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). August 1973. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  11. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01020 / Name: Canadian (French) Variant". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "HP PCL/PJL Reference PCL 5 Comparison Guide" (PDF) (2 ed.). Hewlett-Packard Company, LP. June 2003. HP part-number 502-0378. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-10. 
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