ISO/IEC 646

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This article is about a character encoding standard. For the ISO C header file, see iso646.h.

ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.[1][2] Since its first edition in 1967[3] it has specified a 7-bit character code from which several national standards are derived. ISO/IEC 646 was also ratified by ECMA as ECMA-6, which was first published in 1965 already.[4]

Characters in the ISO/IEC 646 Basic Character Set are invariant characters.[5] Since that portion of ISO/IEC 646, that is the invariant character set shared by all countries, specified only those letters used in the ISO basic Latin alphabet, countries using additional letters needed to create national variants of ISO 646 to be able to use their native scripts. Since universal acceptance of the 8-bit byte did not exist at that time, the national characters had to be made to fit within the constraints of 7 bits, meaning that some characters that appear in ASCII do not appear in other national variants of ISO 646.

History[edit]

ISO/IEC 646 and its predecessor ASCII (ANSI X3.4) largely endorsed existing practice regarding character encodings in the telecommunications industry.

As ASCII did not provide a number of characters needed for languages other than English, a number of national variants were made that substituted some less-used characters with needed ones. Due to the incompatibility of the various national variants, an International Reference Version (IRV) of ISO/IEC 646 was introduced, in an attempt to at least restrict the replaced set to the same characters in all variants. The original version (ISO 646 IRV) differed from ASCII only in that in code point 0x24, ASCII's dollar sign ($) was replaced by the international currency symbol (¤). The final 1991 version of the code ISO 646:1991 is also known as ITU T.50, International Reference Alphabet or IRA, formerly International Alphabet No. 5 (IA5). This standard allows users to exercise the 12 variable characters (i.e., two alternative graphic characters and 10 national defined characters). Among these exercises, ISO 646:1991 IRV (International Reference Version) is explicitly defined and identical to ASCII.[6]

The ISO 8859 series of standards governing 8-bit character encodings supersede the ISO 646 international standard and its national variants, by providing 96 additional characters with the additional bit and thus avoiding any substitution of ASCII codes. The ISO 10646 standard, directly related to Unicode, supersedes all of the ISO 646 and ISO 8859 sets with one unified set of character encodings using a larger 21-bit value.

A legacy of ISO/IEC 646 is visible on Windows, where in many East Asian locales the backslash character used in filenames is rendered as ¥ or other characters such as . Despite the fact that a different code for ¥ was available even on the original IBM PC's code page 437, so much text was created with the backslash code used for ¥ that even modern Windows fonts have found it necessary to render the code that way. Another legacy is the existence of trigraphs in the C programming language.

Published standards[edit]

  • ISO/R646-1967[3]
  • ISO 646:1972[7]
  • ISO 646:1983[8]
  • ISO/IEC 646:1991[7][9]
  • ECMA-6 (1965-04-30), first edition[4]
  • ECMA-6 (1967-06), second edition[3][4]
  • ECMA-6 (1970-07), third edition[4][10]
  • ECMA-6 (1973-08), fourth edition[4][10]
  • ECMA-6 (1984-12, 1985-03), fifth edition[4]
  • ECMA-6 (1991-12, 1997-08), sixth edition[7]

Code page layout[edit]

The following table shows the ISO/IEC 646 character set. Each character is shown with the hex code of its Unicode equivalent and the decimal value of the ISO/IEC 646 code. Grey shaded cells indicate code points with character glyphs that vary from region to region. These are discussed in detail below.

Legend:

ISO/IEC 646(-INV)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
 
0_
 
NUL
0000
0
SOH
0001
1
STX
0002
2
ETX
0003
3
EOT
0004
4
ENQ
0005
5
ACK
0006
6
BEL
0007
7
BS
0008
8
HT
0009
9
LF
000A
10
VT
000B
11
FF
000C
12
CR
000D
13
SO
000E
14
SI
000F
15
 
1_
 
DLE
0010
16
DC1
0011
17
DC2
0012
18
DC3
0013
19
DC4
0014
20
NAK
0015
21
SYN
0016
22
ETB
0017
23
CAN
0018
24
EM
0019
25
SUB
001A
26
ESC
001B
27
FS
001C
28
GS
001D
29
RS
001E
30
US
001F
31
 
2_
 
SP
0020
32
!
0021
33
"
0022
34


35


36
%
0025
37
&
0026
38
'
0027
39
(
0028
40
)
0029
41
*
002A
42
+
002B
43
,
002C
44
-
002D
45
.
002E
46
/
002F
47
 
3_
 
0
0030
48
1
0031
49
2
0032
50
3
0033
51
4
0034
52
5
0035
53
6
0036
54
7
0037
55
8
0038
56
9
0039
57
:
003A
58
;
003B
59
<
003C
60
=
003D
61
>
003E
62
?
003F
63
 
4_
 


64
A
0041
65
B
0042
66
C
0043
67
D
0044
68
E
0045
69
F
0046
70
G
0047
71
H
0048
72
I
0049
73
J
004A
74
K
004B
75
L
004C
76
M
004D
77
N
004E
78
O
004F
79
 
5_
 
P
0050
80
Q
0051
81
R
0052
82
S
0053
83
T
0054
84
U
0055
85
V
0056
86
W
0057
87
X
0058
88
Y
0059
89
Z
005A
90


91


92


93


94
_
005F
95
 
6_
 


96
a
0061
97
b
0062
98
c
0063
99
d
0064
100
e
0065
101
f
0066
102
g
0067
103
h
0068
104
i
0069
105
j
006A
106
k
006B
107
l
006C
108
m
006D
109
n
006E
110
o
006F
111
 
7_
 
p
0070
112
q
0071
113
r
0072
114
s
0073
115
t
0074
116
u
0075
117
v
0076
118
w
0077
119
x
0078
120
y
0079
121
z
007A
122


123


124


125


126
DEL
007F
127

National variants[edit]

Some national variants of ISO 646 are:

Code ISO-IR ISO ESC Approved National Standard Description
CA 121 ESC 2/8 7/7 ISO 646 CSA Z243.4-1985-1 Canada (No. 1 alternative, with “î”)
(French, classical) (Code page 1020[11])
CA2 122 ESC 2/8 7/8 ISO 646 CSA Z243.4-1985-2 Canada (No. 2 alternative, with “É”)
(French, reformed orthography)
CN 57 ESC 2/8 5/4  ? GB/T 1988-80 People's Republic of China (Basic Latin)
CU 151 ESC 2/8 2/1 4/1 ISO 646 NC 99-10:81 / NC NC00-10:81 Cuba (Spanish)
DE 21 ESC 2/8 4/11 ISO 646 DIN 66003 (de) Germany (German) (Code page 1011,[12] 20106[13][14][15])
DK  ? DS 2089[16][17] Denmark (Danish) (Code page 1017[18])
FI 10 ISO 646 SFS 4017 Finland (basic version) (Code page 1018[19])
FR 69 ESC 2/8 6/6 ISO 646 AFNOR NF Z 62010-1982 France (French) (Code page 1010[20])
FR1 25 ESC 2/8 5/2 ISO 646 AFNOR NF Z 62010-1973 France (obsolete since April 1985) (Code page 1104[21])
GB 4 ESC 2/8 4/1 ISO 646 BS 4730 United Kingdom (English) (Code page 1013[22])
GR 88 ESC 2/8 6/10  ? HOS ELOT Greece (withdrawn in November 1986)
HU 86 ESC 2/8 6/9 ISO 646 MSZ 7795/3 Hungary (Hungarian)
IE 207  ? NSAI 433:1996 Ireland (Irish)
INV 170 ESC 2/8 2/1 4/2 ISO 646 ISO 646:1983 Invariant subset
(IRV) 2 ESC 2/8 4/0 ISO 646 ISO 646:1983 (but not in ISO/IEC 646:1991) International Reference Version (Code page 1009,[23] 20105[13][14][24])
JP 14 ESC 2/8 4/10 ISO 646 JIS C 6220-1969-ro Japan (Romaji) (Code page 895[25])
JP-OCR-B 92 ESC 2/8 6/14 ISO 646 JIS C 6229-1984-b Japan (OCR-B)
KR  ? KS C 5636-1989 South Korea
MT  ?  ? Malta (Maltese, English)
NO 60 ESC 2/8 6/0 ISO 646 NS 4551 version 1 Norway (Code page 1016[26])
NO2 61 ESC 2/8 6/1 ISO 646 NS 4551 version 2 Norway (obsolete since June 1987) (Code page 20108[13][14][27])
SE 10 ESC 2/8 4/7 ISO 646 SEN 850200 Annex B Sweden (basic Swedish) (Code page 1018[19])
SE2 11 ESC 2/8 4/8 ISO 646 SEN 850200 Annex C Sweden (extended Swedish for names) (Code page 20107[13][14][28])
T.61 102 ESC 2/8 7/5  ? ITU/CCITT T.61 Recommendation International (Teletex)
TW  ? CNS 5205-1996 Republic of China (Taiwan)
US / (IRV) 6 ESC 2/8 4/2 ISO 646 ANSI X3.4-1968 and ISO 646:1983 (also IRV in ISO/IEC 646:1991) United States (ASCII, Code page 367,[29] 20127[13][14][30])
YU 141 ESC 2/8 7/10 ISO 646 JUS I.B1.002 (YUSCII) former Yugoslavia (Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Bosnian)

Other proprietary standards approved later for international use by some standard committees:

Code ISO-IR ISO ESC Approved Origin Description
ES 17 ESC 2/8 5/10 ECMA Olivetti Spanish (international) (Code page 1023[31])
ES2 85 ESC 2/8 6/8 ECMA IBM Spain (Basque, Castilian, Catalan, Galician) (Code page 1014[32])
IS ?  ?  ? Iceland (Icelandic)
IT 15 ESC 2/8 5/9 ECMA UNI 0204-70 / Olivetti? Italian (Code page 1012[33])
NL ECMA IBM Netherlands (Dutch) (Code page 1019[34])
PT 16 ESC 2/8 4/12 ECMA Olivetti Portuguese (international)
PT2 84 ESC 2/8 6/7 ECMA IBM Portugal (Portuguese, Spanish) (Code page 1015[35]
DANO 9-1 ESC 2/8 4/5 SIS? NATS, main set Norway and Denmark (journalistic texts)
SEFI 8-1 ESC 2/8 4/3 SIS NATS, main set Sweden and Finland (journalistic texts)
swi ECMA Olivetti Switzerland (French, German) (Code page 1021[36])
pl BN-74/3101-01 Poland (Polish has 18 letters with diacritical marks, but only 9 lowercase letters are normalized due to code space reasons.
 ? 27 ESC 2/8 5/5 ECMA Honeywell-Bull Latin-Greek
 ? 47 ESC 2/8 5/6 British Post Office Viewdata and Teletext
 ? 49 ESC 2/8 5/7 IAEA INIS ISO 646 IRV subset

The specifics of the changes for some of these variants are given in this table:

Codes Characters for each ISO 646 compatible charset
Binary Oct Dec Hex INV T.61 US / IRV (1991) JP JP-​OCR-​B KR CN TW IRV (1983) GB DK NO NO2 FI / SE SE2 DE HU FR FR1 CA CA2 IE IS IT PT PT2 ES ES2 CU MT YU NL SEFI DANO swi pl
170 102 6 14 92 --- 57 --- 2 4 60 61 10 11 21 86 69 25 121 122 207 15 16 84 17 85 151 --- 141 --- 8-1 9-1 ---
010 0010 042 34 22 " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " « " "
010 0011 043 35 23   # # # # # # # # £ # # § # # # # £ £ # # £ # £ # # # # # # # # #  » ù #
010 0100 044 36 24   ¤ $ $ $ $ ¥ $ ¤ $ ¤ $ $ ¤ ¤ $ ¤ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ¤ $ $ $ $ $ $
010 1001 047 39 27 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
010 1100 054 44 2C , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
100 0000 100 64 40   @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ É § Á à à à à Ó Ð § § ´ § · @ @ Ž @     à ę
101 1011 133 91 5B   [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ Æ Æ Æ Ä Ä Ä É ° ° â â É Þ ° Ã Ã ¡ ¡ ¡ ġ Š [ Ä Æ é ź
101 1100 134 92 5C     \ ¥ ¥ \ \ \ \ Ø Ø Ø Ö Ö Ö Ö ç ç ç ç Í \ ç Ç Ç Ñ Ñ Ñ ż Đ \ Ö Ø ç \
101 1101 135 93 5D   ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Å Å Å Å Å Ü Ü § § ê ê Ú Æ é Õ Õ ¿ Ç ] ħ Ć ] Å Å ê ń
101 1110 136 94 5E     ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ˆ ˆ Ü ˆ ˆ ˆ Ü ˆ ˆ ^ ˆ î É Á Ö ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ¿ ¿ ˆ Č ˆ î ś
101 1111 137 95 5F _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ è _
110 0000 140 96 60     ` `   ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` é ` á µ µ ô ô ó ð ù ` ` ` ` ` ċ ž `     ô ą
111 1011 173 123 7B     { { { { { { { { æ æ æ ä ä ä é é é é é é þ à ã ã ° ´ ´ Ġ š { ä æ ä ó
111 1100 174 124 7C   | | | | | | | | | ø ø ø ö ö ö ö ù ù ù ù í | ò ç ç ñ ñ ñ Ż đ | ö ø ö ł
111 1101 175 125 7D     } } } } } } } } å å å å å ü ü è è è è ú æ è õ õ ç ç [ Ħ ć } å å ü ż
111 1110 176 126 7E     ~   ˜ ü ¯ | ¯ ü ß ˝ ¨ ¨ û û á ö ì ° ˜ ˜ ¨ ¨ Ċ č ¯ û ć

In the table above, the cells with non-white background emphasize the differences from the US variant used in the Basic Latin subset of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode.

The characters displayed in cells with red background could be used as combining characters, when preceded or followed with a backspace C0 control. This encoding method may be considered deprecated.

Later, when wider character sets gained more acceptance, ISO 8859, vendor-specific character sets and eventually Unicode became the preferred methods of coding most of these variants.

Variants of ASCII that are not ISO 646[edit]

There are also some 7-bit character sets that are not officially part of the ISO 646 standard. Examples include:

  • 7-bit Greek, ELOT 927. The Greek alphabet is mapped to positions 0x61–0x71 and 0x73–0x79, on top of the Latin lowercase letters.
  • 7-bit Cyrillic, KOI-7 or Short KOI. The Cyrillic characters are mapped to positions 0x60–0x7E, on top of the Latin lowercase letters. Superseded by the KOI-8 variants.
  • 7-bit Hebrew, SI 960. The Hebrew alphabet is mapped to positions 0x60–0x7A, on top of the lowercase Latin letters (and grave accent for aleph). 7-bit Hebrew was always stored in visual order. This mapping with the high bit set, i.e. with the Hebrew letters in 0xE0–0xFA, is ISO 8859-8.
  • 7-bit Arabic, ASMO 449. The Arabic alphabet is mapped to positions 0x41–0x5A and 0x60–0x6A, on top of both uppercase and lowercase Latin letters. This mapping with the high bit set is ISO 8859-6.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mullendore, Ralph Elvin (1964) [1963]. Ptak, John F., ed. "On the Early Development of ASCII - The History of ASCII". JF Ptak Science Books (published March 2012). Archived from the original on 2016-05-26. Retrieved 2016-05-26. 
  2. ^ 6 and 7 Bit Coded Character Sets for Information Processing Interchange (draft), International Organization for Standardization, July 1964  (NB. 21 pages. With cover letter for the members of the X3.2 and Task Groups from Eric Clamons.)
  3. ^ a b c Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History and Development. The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.) (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.). pp. 7, 9, 412. ISBN 0-201-14460-3. LCCN 77-90165. ISBN 978-0-201-14460-4. Retrieved 2016-05-22.  [1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit Coded Character Set (PDF) (5th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). March 1985. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  5. ^ Bodfish, John; Wilson, Mark; Gregory, Stephen; Nye, Julie Blume. Bodfish, John, ed. "Invariant Character Handling". NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol. Colorado Department of Education, USA: NCIP Standing Committee (NCIP-SC). Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  6. ^ Demchenko, Yuri (2000) [1997]. "International Standardization of 7-Bit Codes, ISO 646". TERENA. 4. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  7. ^ a b c Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit coded Character Set (PDF) (6th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). August 1997 [December 1991]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  8. ^ "Information processing -- ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange". 1983-07-01. ISO 646:1983. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  9. ^ "Information technology -- ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange" (3rd ed.). 1991-12-16. ISO/IEC 646:1991. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30. 
  10. ^ a b Standard ECMA-6: 7-Bit Input/Output Coded Character Set (PDF) (4th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: European Computer Manufacturers Association (Ecma). August 1973. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 
  11. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01020 / Name: Canadian (French) Variant". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  12. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01011 / Name: 7-Bit Germany F.R.". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "Code Page Identifiers". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-06-19. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Web Encodings - Internet Explorer - Encodings". WHATWG Wiki. 2012-10-23. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  15. ^ Foller, Antonin (2014) [2011]. "German (IA5) encoding - Windows charsets". WUtils.com - Online web utility and help. Motobit Software. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  16. ^ Danish Standard DS 2089: Application of ISO 7-bit coded character set. February 1974. UDC 681.3:003.62. 
  17. ^ Stroustrup, Bjarne (1994-03-29). Design and Evolution of C++ (1st ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-54330-3. 
  18. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01017 / Name: 7-Bit Denmark". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  19. ^ a b "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01018 / Name: 7-Bit Finland/Sweden". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  20. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01010 / Name: 7-Bit France". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  21. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01104 / Name: French NRC Set". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-21. 
  22. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01013 / Name: 7-Bit United Kingdom". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  23. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01009 / Name: ISO IRV". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1990-04-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  24. ^ Foller, Antonin (2014) [2011]. "Western European (IA5) encoding - Windows charsets". WUtils.com - Online web utility and help. Motobit Software. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  25. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 00895 / Name: Japan 7-Bit Latin". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1986-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-18. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  26. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01016 / Name: 7-Bit Norway". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  27. ^ Foller, Antonin (2014) [2011]. "Norwegian (IA5) encoding - Windows charsets". WUtils.com - Online web utility and help. Motobit Software. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  28. ^ Foller, Antonin (2014) [2011]. "Swedish (IA5) encoding - Windows charsets". WUtils.com - Online web utility and help. Motobit Software. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  29. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 00367 / Name: ASCII". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1978-01-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  30. ^ Foller, Antonin (2014) [2011]. "US-ASCII encoding - Windows charsets". WUtils.com - Online web utility and help. Motobit Software. Archived from the original on 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  31. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01023 / Name: Spain Variant". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  32. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01014 / Name: 7-Bit Spain". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  33. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01012 / Name: 7-Bit Italy". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  34. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01019 / Name: 7-Bit Netherlands". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  35. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01015 / Name: 7-Bit Portugal". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1987-08-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  36. ^ "SBCS code page information - CPGID: 01021 / Name: Switzerland Variant". IBM Software: Globalization: Coded character sets and related resources: Code pages by CPGID: Code page identifiers. 1. IBM. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 

External links[edit]