Je–Tupi–Carib languages

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Je–Tupi–Carib
(tentative)
Geographic
distribution
eastern South America, Caribbean
Linguistic classification Proposed language family
Subdivisions
Glottolog None
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Je–Tupi–Carib ("Katuje") is a proposed language family composed of the Macro-Je (or Macro-Gê), Tupian and Cariban languages of South America.

Rodrigues (2000) finds evidence relating Macro-Je to Tupian, and Eduardo Ribeiro of the University of Chicago, who has worked with Macro-Je and Tupian languages, has found further that these families share irregular morphology with each other and with Cariban. Shared grammatical irregularities are strong supporting evidence for putative language families, as they are unlikely to be borrowed or to be due to chance.

Comparison[edit]

In the following table the personal marks of different phylogenetic groups in the "Je-Tupí-Carib hypothesis" are shown:

GLOSA Macro-
Tupí
Macro-
Proto-
Carib
Panoan Takanan Mataco-
Guaicurú
1st
singular
wi-, o-, ɨ-
*a-, *sʲe- [TG]
*ʔi-, yo- *ɨwɨ (ind.)
*ʧi- (A)
ʔɨʔ-, e- i-, e- *y-
2nd
singular
*e- (A)
*né- [TG](O)
*ʔa-, gʷa- *m(ɨ)- (A)
*a(y)- (O)
mi- mi-, me- *a-
3rd
singular
*o- [TG](A)
*i-, *ts- [TG](O)
*i-, ɛ- *kiʧɨ- (A)
*k(i)- (O)
haa-, xa- *i-
1st
plural
*ku- *qo-
2nd
plural
*pe(ye)- *ka- *qa-
3rd
plural

In this table the forms marked with (A) refer to ergative/agentive case, and the forms marked with (O) are referred to absolutive/patient/experiencer case.

References[edit]