Order of Nine Angles

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Symbol of the ONA

The Order of Nine Angles (ONA; O9A) is a Satanic organisation based in the United Kingdom that first attracted public attention during the 1980s and 1990s after being mentioned in books detailing fascist Satanism.[1][2][3] Presently, the ONA is organized around clandestine cells (which it calls "traditional nexions")[4][5] and around what it calls "sinister tribes".[6][7]

According to the Order's own account, it was established in the Welsh Marches of Western England during the late 1960s by a woman who had previously been involved in a secretive pre-Christian tradition surviving in the region. This account also states that in 1973 a man named 'Anton Long' was initiated into the group, subsequently becoming its Grand Master. Several academic commentators to have studied the ONA express the view that Long is probably the pseudonym of the British Neo-Nazi activist David Myatt, although Myatt has denied that this is the case. From the late 1970s onward, Long authored a number of books and articles propagating the Order's ideas, and in 1988 it began production of its own journal, Fenrir. The development of the internet aided the group's propagation of its literature, and it developed links with other Neo-Nazi Satanist groups around the world.

The ONA describes its beliefs as belonging to "a sinisterly-numinous tradition.[8] The ONA promotes the idea that human history can be divided into a series of Aeons, each of which contain a corresponding human civilization. It expresses the view that the current Aeonic civilization is that of the Western, but claims that the evolution of this society is threatened by the "Magian/Nazarene" influence of Judeo-Christian religion, which the Order seeks to combat in order to establish a militaristic new social order, termed the "Imperium". It advocates a spiritual path in which the practitioner is required to break societal taboos by isolating themselves from society, committing crimes, embracing political extremism and violence, and carrying out an act of human sacrifice.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The ONA state that some of their aural traditions recount certain myths and legends and practices of an ancient pre-Christian tradition that survived in the county of Shropshire (pictured)

Academics have found it difficult to ascertain "exact and verifiable information" about the ONA's origins given the secrecy with which the group shields itself.[9] As with many other occult organisations, the group shrouds its history in "mystery and legend", creating a "mythical narrative" for its origins and development.[9] The Order claims to be the descendant of pre-Christian traditions which survived the country's Christianisation and which were passed down from the Middle Ages onward in small groups or "temples" based in the Welsh Marches – a border area between England and Wales – each led by a Grand Master or Grand Mistress.[10] According to the Order, in the late 1960s a Grand Mistress of one such group united three of these temples – Camlad, the Temple of the Sun, and The Noctulians – to form the ONA,[11][12] before welcoming outsiders into the tradition.[13]

According to the Order's account, one of those initiated into the group in this manner was "Anton Long". Long claimed that he had been interested in occultism for several years, having contacted a coven based in Fenland in 1968, before moving to London and joining groups practicing ceremonial magic in the style of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and Aleister Crowley.[9] According to the Order's account, Long joined the ONA in 1973 – the first to have done so in five years – and became the Grand Mistress' heir.[14] He recalled that at the time the group held rituals at henges and stone circles around the solstices and equinoxes.[9] When the Order's Grand Mistress then migrated to Australia, Long took over as the Grand Master of the ONA.[11] The group claimed that Long "implemented the next stage of Sinister Strategy – to make the teachings known on a large scale".[15] From the late 1970s onward, Long would encourage the establishment of new ONA temples.[16] From 1976 onward Long authored an array of texts for the tradition, codifying and extending its teachings.[11] Goodrick-Clarke stated that in these writings, Long "evokes a world of witches, outlaw peasant sorcerers, orgies and blood sacrifices at lonely cottages in the woods and valleys of this area [Shropshire and Herefordshire] where he has lived since the early 1980s".[17]

David Myatt (pictured, 2007) is often cited as the central ideologue in the ONA

Author Nick Ryan has asserted that "Anton Long" is a pseudonym of David Myatt, a prominent figure in the British Neo-Nazi movement.[18] Born in the early 1950s, Myatt had been involved in various Neo-Nazi groups, initially serving as a bodyguard for Colin Jordan of the British Movement before joining Combat 18 and becoming a founding member of the National Socialist Movement.[19] His text on A Practical Guide to Aryan Revolution, in which he advocated violent militancy for the Neo-Nazi cause, was cited as an influence on the nail bomber David Copeland.[20] He subsequently underwent a professed conversion to Islam, being involved in the religion for eight years, in which time he encouraged violent jihad against Zionism and the West.[21]

The scholar of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke supported the idea that Myatt was Long,[22] while Jacob C. Senholt further presented additional evidence that he believed confirmed Myatt's identity as Long.[23] Senholt believed that Myatt's embrace of National Socialism and radical Islamism represented "insight roles" which he had adopted as part of the ONA's "sinister strategy" to undermine Western society,[24] a view endorsed by scholar of Satanism Per Faxneld.[25] However, Myatt has repeatedly denied allegations about involvement with Satanism,[1] the ONA,[24] and using the pseudonym Anton Long, and repeatedly challenged anyone to provide any evidence of such allegations.[26][27][28] Jeffrey Kaplan, a specialist in the far right, has suggested that Myatt and Long are separate people, with "Long" being a friend of Myatt's during the 1970s and 1980s.[29]

Of Anton Long, Monette writes "[having] fluency in the classical languages (Greek and Latin), as well as Arabic and possibly Persian, [and] possessed of a gifted intellect and apparently a polymath, his works include not only the public mystical teachings of the Order, but also several thousand pages of text on ethics, honor, and several novellas of 'sinister' fiction. While Long writes primarily in English, it is clear that he draws inspiration from not only British but also international sources; not infrequently, his texts include passages of Classical Greek, as well as Sanskrit and Arabic spiritual terms." [12]

Public emergence[edit]

An issue of the ONA's original Fenrir magazine

The ONA arose to public attention in the early 1980s.[30] During the 1980s and 1990s it spread its message through the publication of books such as The Black Book of Satan,[31] and Naos,[32] through a number of magazines,[15] including Stephen Sennitt's Nox,[33] and, in 1988, by publishing its own in-house journal titled Fenrir.[34] In 2000, the ONA established a presence on the internet, using it as a medium to communicate with others and to distribute its writings.[15] The ONA established links with other Nazi Satanist groups: its international distributor was Kerry Bolton, the founder of the Black Order,[35] and it has access to a private library of occult and far right material owned by the Order of the Jarls of Bælder.[36] According to Monette, the group now have associates, and groups, in the United States, Europe, Brazil, Egypt, Australia, and Russia.[12] One such group is, as documented by Monette,[12] the American based Tempel ov Blood.

Beliefs and structure[edit]

The ONA is a secretive organisation.[37] Among written material that it has publicly issued have been philosophical tracts, ritual instruction, letters, poetry, and gothic fiction.[38] Its core ritual text is titled the Black Book of Satan.[39] It has also issued its own music, painted tarot set known as the Sinister Tarot, and a three-dimensional board game known as the Star Game.[37]

Faxneld described the ONA as "a dangerous and extreme form of Satanism".[25] Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg characterised it as a "National Socialist-oriented Satanist group",[40] while Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke similarly deemed it to be a "Satanic Nazi cult" which "combine[d] paganism with praise for Hitler".[41] He added that the ONA "celebrated the dark, destructive side of life through anti-Christian, elitist and Social Darwinist doctrines."[22] Considering the manner in which the ONA had syncretized both Satanism and Heathenry, the historian of religion Mattias Gardell described its spiritual perspective as "a heathen satanic path".[42] For the ONA, Satanism is not simply a religion but an entire way of life.[30]

Traditional Satanism[edit]

The ONA describe their occultism both as "Traditional Satanism",[43][a] and as a "mystical sinisterly-numinous tradition".[8] The Order present "a recognizable new interpretation of Satanism and the Left Hand Path",[46] and postulate Satanism as an arduous individual achievement of self-mastery and Nietzschean self-overcoming, with an emphasis on individual growth through practical acts of risk, prowess and endurance.[47] Therefore, "[t]he goal of the Satanism of the ONA is to create a new individual through direct experience, practice and self-development [with] the grades of the ONA system being highly individual, based on the initiates' own practical and real-life acts, instead of merely performing certain ceremonial rituals".[5] Thus Satanism, the ONA assert, requires venturing into the realm of the forbidden and illegal, in order to make contact with the "sphere of acausal, sinister forces of the cosmos".[48]

"[Long] rejects the quasi-religious organization and ceremonial antics of the Church of Satan, the Temple of Set and other satanic groups. He believes that traditional satanism goes far beyond the gratification of the pleasure-principle and involves the arduous achievement of self-mastery, self-overcoming in a Nietzschean sense, and ultimately cosmic wisdom. His conception of satanism is practical, with an emphasis on individual growth into realms of darkness and danger through practical acts of prowess, endurance and the risk of life."

— Scholar of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke.[47]

The ONA are strongly critical of larger Satanic groups like the Church of Satan and the Temple of Set,[49] whom they deem to be "sham-Satanic" because they embrace the "glamour associated with Satanism" but are "afraid to experience its realness within and external to them".[30] In addition, "one of the things that sets the ONA apart from other existing Left Hand Path groups relates to their idea of Aeons which naturally leads to long-term goals (meaning about 3-500 years), that go beyond the acts and lifespan of a single individual".[5] Hence the ONA claims that its sinister tribes are an important part of its Aeonic strategy to build a new, tribal-based, more sinister way of life, and to disrupt and eventually overthrow the societies of what it calls "the mundanes".[6]

Although conceiving of itself as having pre-Christian origins and describing Satanism as "militant paganism", the ONA does not advocate the re-establishment of pre-Christian belief systems, with one ONA tract stating that "all past gods of the various Western Traditions are rendered obsolete by the forces which Satanism alone is unleashing".[30] However, Goodrick-Clarke noted that the group's "ideas and rituals" draw upon "a native tradition", with references to the pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon concept of wyrd, an emphasis on ceremonies performed at equinoxes, and the construction of incense using indigenous trees, thus suggesting the idea of "rootedness in English nature".[50] Practitioners undergo "black pilgrimages" to prehistoric ceremonial sites in the area around Shropshire and Herefordshire in the English Midlands.[17] Furthermore, Monette writes that "a critical examination of the ONA's key texts suggests that the satanic overtones could be cosmetic, and that its core mythos and cosmology are genuinely hermetic, with pagan influences." [12]

Thus the O9A is "particularly interesting in that it is both the most robustly Satanic in moral terms and also explicitly spiritual." [51]

Aeonic Cosmology and Nazism[edit]

The ONA states that cosmic evolution is guided by a "sinister dialectics" of alternating Aeonic energies.[52] It divides history into a series of Aeons, believing that each was dominated by a human civilization that emerged, evolved, and then died.[53] It states that each Aeon lasts for approximately 2000 years, with its respective dominating human civilization developing within the latter 1500 years of that period.[54] It holds that after 800 years of growth, each civilization faces problems, resulting in a "Time of Troubles" that lasts from between 398 to 400 years. In each civilization's final stage is a period that lasts for approximately 390 years, in which it is controlled by a strong military and imperial regime, after which the civilization falls.[17] The ONA claims that humanity has lived through five such Aeons, each with an associated civilization: the Primal, Hyperborean, Sumerian, Hellenic, and Western.[55] Both Goodrick-Clarke and Senholt have stated that this system of Aeons is inspired by the work of Arnold Toynbee,[56] with Senholt suggesting that it might also have been influenced by Crowley's ideas regarding Thelemic Aeons.[54]

"Adolf Hitler was sent by our gods
To guide us to greatness
We believe in the inequality of races
And in the right of the Aryan to live
According to the laws of the folk.
We acknowledge that the story of the Jewish "holocaust"
Is a lie to keep our race in chains
And express our desire to see the truth revealed.
We believe in justice for our oppressed comrades
And seek an end to the world-wide
Persecution of National-Socialists."

— The ONA's "Mass of Heresy".[57]

The ONA claim that our current Western civilization has a Faustian ethos and that it has recently undergone its Time of Troubles, with its final stage, an "Imperium" of militaristic governance, due to commence at some point in 1990–2011 and last until 2390.[17] This will be followed by a period of chaos from which will be established a sixth Aeon, the Aeon of Fire, which will be represented by the Galactic civilization in which Aryan society shall colonize the Milky Way galaxy.[58] However, the Order holds that unlike previous Aeonic civilizations, the Western has been infected with the "Magian/Nazarene" distorion, which they associate with Judeo-Christian religion.[59] The group's writings state that while Western civilization had once been "a pioneering entity, imbued with elitist values and exalting the way of the warrior", under the impact of the Magian/Nazarene ethos it has become "essentially neurotic, inward-looking and obsessed", embracing humanism, capitalism, communism, as well as "the sham of democracy" and "the dogma of racial equality".[17] They believe that these Magian/Nazarene forces represent a counter-evolutionary trend which threaten to prevent the emergence of the Western Imperium and thus the evolution of humanity, opining that this cosmic enemy must be overcome through the force of will.[59] Goodrick-Clarke notes that these ideas regarding the "Magian soul" and "cultural distortion" brought about by Jews were derived from the work of Oswald Spengler and Francis Parker Yockey.[17]

The ONA praise Nazi Germany as "a practical expression of Satanic spirit... a burst of Luciferian light – of zest and power – in an otherwise Nazarene, pacified, and boring world."[60] Embracing Holocaust denial, [61] they claim that the Holocaust was a myth constructed by the Magian/Nazarene establishment in order to denigrate the Nazi administration following the Second World War and erase its achievements from "the psyche of the West".[60] The group believe that a Neo-Nazi revolution is necessary to overthrow the Magian-Nazarene domination of Western society and to establish the Imperium, ultimately allowing humanity to enter the Galactic civilization of the future.[62] Accordingly, positive references to Nazism and Neo-Nazism can be found within the group's written material,[57] and it evokes the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler as a positive force in its Black Mass.[63] However, ONA texts stress that members should promote Neo-Nazism not out of a genuine belief in Nazi ideology, but rather as part of a "sinister strategy" to advance Aeonic evolution.[52] The Order is thus far more overtly political extreme in its aims than other Satanic and Left Hand Path organisations, seeking to infiltrate and destabilise modern society through both magickal and practical means.[64]

Initiation and the Seven Fold Way[edit]

The ONA's core system is known as the "Seven Fold Way", and it is reflected in the group's initiatory system, which has seven grades through which the member can gradually progress.[65] The seven grades are: (1) Neophyte, (2) Initiate, (3) External Adept, (4) Internal Adept, (5) Master/Mistress, (6) Grand Master/Mousa and (7) Immortal.[66][12] The group has revealed that very few of its members raise to the fifth and sixth degrees,[67] and in a 1989 article the ONA stated that at that point there were only four individuals who had reached the stage of Master.[67] Newcomers are expected to take on a magical partner of the opposite sex [50] or of the same sex if they incline that way. [68]

According to Monette, "The Seven Fold Way is essentially a hermetic system that defines itself as being deeply rooted in Western occultism, and provides a path to ascension that is exceptionally difficult in physical and psychic terms... Yet unlike other degree-based systems, the ONA does not offer initiation to its students; rather, the students must initiate themselves through personal grade rituals and challenges [...] Grade rituals (meaning the rituals of passage) for the fourth stage (Internal Adept) involve living in complete isolation for at least one season, as well as being able to cycle, run, and hike considerable distances. Each grade thereafter requires increasingly difficult challenges, culminating in the 5th grade (Master) with the mystic having to undertake physical challenges comparable to a triathlon, as well as having developed/learned several esoteric skills along the way. One of the most challenging aspects of the Seven Fold Way is the insistence on learning through adversity, known in Greek as pathei-mathos."[12]

The ONA encourages its members to adopt "insight roles" in anarchist, Neo-Nazi, and Islamist groups in order to disrupt modern Western society

The ONA requires that initiates be in a good physical condition, and recommends a training regimen for prospective members to follow.[37] Most of the ordeals that allow the initiate to proceed to the next stage are publicly revealed by the Order in its introductory material, as it is believed that the true initiatory element lies in the experience itself and can only be attained through performing them.[66] For instance, part of the ritual to became an External Adept involves an ordeal in which the prospective member is to find a lonely spot and to lay there, still, for an entire night without moving or sleeping.[69] The initiatory process for the role of Internal Adept entails the practitioner withdrawing from human society for three months, from an equinox to a solstice, or (more usually) for six months, [70] during which time they must live in the wild without modern conveniences or contact with civilisation.[71] The next stage - the Ritual of the Abyss - involves the candidate living alone in a dark isolated cavern for a lunar month. [72] According to Jeffrey Kaplan, an academic specialist of the far right, these physically and mentally challenging initiatory tasks reflect "the ONA's conception of itself as a vanguard organization composed of a tiny coterie of Nietzschean elites."[57]

Within the initiatory system of the ONA, there is an emphasis on practitioners adopting "insight roles" in which they work undercover among a politically extreme group for a period of six to eighteen months, thus gaining experience in something different from their normal life.[73] Among the groups that the ONA suggests its members adopt "insight roles" within are anarchism, Neo-Nazism, and Islamism, stating that aside from the personal benefits of such an involvement, membership of these groups has the benefit of undermining the Magian-Nazarene socio-political system of the West and thus helping to bring about the instability from which a new order, the Imperium, can emerge.[73] Therefore, "through the practice of 'insight roles', the order advocates continuous transgression of established norms, roles, and comfort zones in the development of the initiate [...] This extreme application of ideas further amplifies the ambiguity of satanic and Left Hand Path practices of antinomianism, making it almost impossible to penetrate the layers of subversion, play and counter-dichotomy inherent in the sinister dialectics."[74] Senholt suggested that Myatt's involvement with both Neo-Nazism and Islamism represent such "insight roles" in his own life.[75]

Magick[edit]

Believing in the existence of magic - which the group spell "magick" following the example of Elias Ashmole in his Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, published in 1652,[76] - the ONA distinguish between external, internal, and aeonic magick.[39] External magic itself is divided into two categories: ceremonial magick, which is performed by more than two people to achieve a specific goal,[77] and hermetic magick, which is performed either solitarily or in a pair and which is often sexual in nature.[39] Internal magick is designed to produce an altered state of consciousness in the participant, in order to result in a process of "individuation" which bestows adepthood.[39] The most advanced form of magick in the ONA system is aeonic magick, the practice of which is restricted to those who are already perceived to have mastered external and internal magick and attained the grade of master.[39] The purpose of aeonic magick is to influence large numbers of people over a lengthy period of time, thus affecting the development of future aeons.[78] In particular it is employed with the intent of disrupting the current socio-political system of the Western world, which the ONA believe has been corrupted by Judeo-Christian religion.[79]

The ONA utilises two methods in its performance of aeonic magick. The first entails rites and chants with the intent of opening a gateway – known as a "nexion" – to the "acausal realm" in order to manifest energies in the "causal realm" that will influence the existing aeon in the practitioner's desired direction.[80] The second method involves playing an advanced form of a board game known as the Star Game; the game was devised by the group, with the game pieces representing different aeons. The group believes that when an initiate plays the game they can become a "living nexion" and thus a channel for acausal energies to enter the causal realm and effect aeonic change.[79][81][82] An advanced form of the game is used as part of the training for the grade of Internal Adept.[50] According to Myatt, he invented the game in 1975. [83]

Human sacrifice[edit]

The ONA's writings condone and encourage human sacrifice,[84][18] referring to their victims as opfers.[50] The ONA outline their views on human sacrifice in a number of documents: "A Gift for the Prince – A Guide to Human Sacrifice", "Culling – A Guide to Sacrifice II", "Victims – A Sinister Exposé", and "Guidelines for the Testing of Opfers".[85] According to the ONA's beliefs, the killer must allow their victim to "self-select" themselves; this is achieved through testing the victim to see if they expose perceived character faults. If this proves to be the case, the victim is believed to have shown that they are worthy of death, and the sacrifice can commence.[57] Those deemed ideal for sacrifice by the group include individuals perceived as being of low character, members of what they deem "sham-Satanic groups" like the Church of Satan and Temple of Set, as well as "zealous, interfering Nazarenes", and journalists, business figures and political activists who disrupt the group's operations.[86] The ONA explains that because of the need for such "self-selection", children must never be victims of sacrifice.[57] Similarly, the ONA "despise animal sacrifice, maintaining that it is much better to sacrifice suitable mundanes given the abundance of human dross".[87] The sacrifice is then carried out through either physical or magical means, at which point the killer is believed to absorb power from the body and spirit of the victim, thus entering a new level of "sinister" consciousness.[88] As well as strengthening the character of the killer by heightening their connection with the acausal forces of death and destruction,[89] such sacrifices are also viewed as having wider benefits by the ONA, because they remove from society individuals whom the group deems to be worthless human beings.[30]

The ONA believe that there are historical precedents to their practice of human sacrifice, expressing belief in a prehistoric tradition in which humans were sacrificed to a goddess named Baphomet at the spring equinox and to the Arcturus star in the autumn.[50] However, the ONA's advocacy of human sacrifice has drawn strong criticism from other Satanist groups like the Temple of Set, who seek to make Satanism more socially acceptable.[50][18]

The term nine angles[edit]

According to the O9A, they use the term 'nine angles' in reference to not only the nine emanations, and transformations, of the three basic alchemical substances (mercury, sulfur, salt) as occurs in their occult and mystical use of Myatt's Star Game,[83][90] but also in reference to their hermetic anados with its seven spheres and its two acausal aspects.[91]

Furthermore, Professor Monette writes that: "it refers to nine emanations of the divine, as recorded in medieval Sufi texts. It is equally likely that the Order [ONA] has borrowed from classical Indian tradition that arranges the solar system into nine planets, and the world itself has nine corners; or perhaps from the Sanskrit srivatsa, a special mark with nine angles that indicates the supernatural or the heroic. On the nine angled srivatsa, Gonda states that: 'This [mystical] figure has nine angles: the number nine often occurs in connection with auspicious objects, powers and ceremonies related to material welfare' [...] The Indian belief that the world has nine corners is attested even in medieval European sources, e.g. Father Emanual de Veiga (1549-1605), writing from Chandagiri in 1599 who states Alii dicebant terram novem constare angulis, quibus celo innititur."[12]

Thus, according to Monette, "It is clear despite claims that the term 'nine angles' was introduced in the twentieth century, the term is centuries older, especially in esoteric or cosmological discourse. See Pingree, D. The Latin Version of the Ghayat al-Hakim, Studies of the Warburg Institute, University of London (1986); Ritter, H. ed. Ghāyat Al-Hakīm Wa-Ahaqq Al-Natījatayn Bi-Altaqdīm (Leipzig : B.G. Teubner, 1933); al Buni, Shams al-Ma’arif (Birmingham: Antioch Gate, 2007)."[12]

Membership[edit]

In a 1994 interview, an ONA member, Richard Moult, using the pseudonym Christos Beest and describing himself as the 'outer representative' of the ONA,[12] claimed that the order then contained ten members and a few other associated individuals.[55] In 1998, Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg stated that the ONA's membership was "infinitesmally small", with the group acting primarily as a "mail-order ministry".[40] However, in respect of membership, Anton Long, in a letter to Michael Aquino of the Temple of Set dated October 1990, wrote that "once the techniques and the essence [of the ONA] are more widely available then membership as such is irrelevant, since everything is available and accessible [...] with the individual taking responsibility for their own development, their own experiences." [92]

Furthermore, in 2013, Senholt noted that because the group has no official membership, it is "difficult, if not impossible, to estimate the number of ONA members".[93] Senholt suggested that a "rough estimate" of the "total number" of individuals involved with the ONA in some capacity from 1980 to 2009 was "a few thousand"; he had come to this conclusion from an examination of the number of magazines and journals about the subject circulated and the number of members of online discussion groups devoted to the ONA.[93] At the same time he thought that the number of "longtime adherents is much smaller."[93]

In addition, Monette, also in 2013, wrote that "the very nature of the ONA makes data gathering difficult, as the movement is secretive by definition. Further, the ONA has carefully avoided a central administration with hard data on its membership, preferring to operate as a network or 'kollective' of nexions instead. Likewise, the ONA does not require its members to pay dues or register themselves either locally or centrally. There is no membership charter, no admission requirements; it is not a structured lodge or temple, but rather a movement, a subculture or perhaps metaculture that its adherents choose to embody or identify with [...] As of 2013 it is likely that the global total is over two thousand associates of the Order." [12]

Outer representative[edit]

While several authors have mentioned a position within the O9A called 'outer representative' [5][12] - with Richard Moult being one of the people to have claimed the title [5] - according to Anton Long the 'outer representative' was "an interesting and instructive example of [the O9A's] Labyrinthos Mythologicus, [...] a ploy," [94] and which Labyrinthos Mythologicus was designed to "intrigue, select, test, confuse, annoy, mislead". [95] Furthermore, since "there is no central authority within the ONA," [12] no hierarchy to award such a position, [96] and since the O9A "upholds anarchism," [97] and "does not award titles," [67] such an 'official post' would be incompatible with the ethos, structure, and principles of the Order of Nine Angles, since, as described by Monette, the O9A is "a movement, a subculture" rather than a structured occult lodge, temple, or group.[12]

Legacy and influence[edit]

The ONA's main influence lies not with the group itself, but with its prolific release of written material.[38] These were initially distributed to other Satanist and Neo-Nazi groups, although with the development of the internet this was also used as a medium to propagate its writings.[37] Many of these writings were then reproduced by other groups.[40] Kaplan considered the ONA to be "an important source of Satanic ideology/theology" for "the occultist fringe of National Socialism", namely Neo-Nazi groups like the Black Order.[98] The group gained increased attention following the growth in public interest in Myatt's impact on terrorist groups during the War on Terror in the 2000s.[64] The historian of esotericism Dave Evans stated that the ONA were "worthy of an entire PhD thesis",[99] while Senholt expressed the view that it would be "potentially dangerous to ignore these fanatics, however limited their numbers might be."[100]

In the Jack Nightingale series of novels by Stephen Leather, a Satanic "Order of Nine Angles" are the leading antagonists.[101][102] Similarly, a fictionalised Satanic group named the "Order of Nine Angels" appear in Conrad Jones' 2013 novel Child for the Devil by Conrad Jones.[103] In another of his novels, Black Angel, [104] Conrad Jones included a page titled 'Additional Information' giving a warning about the Order of Nine Angles.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Since the establishment of the ONA, the term "Traditional Satanism" has also been adopted by Theistic Satanist groups like the Brotherhood of Satan.[44] Faxneld suggested that the Order's adoption of the word "traditional" possibly reflected a "conscious strategy to built legitimacy" by harking back to "arcane ancient wisdom" in a manner deliberately distinct from the way in which Anton LaVey sought to gain legitimacy for his Church of Satan by appealing to rationality, science, and his own personal charisma.[44] Elsewhere Faxneld suggested that the ONA's use of "Traditional Satanism" to differentiate themselves from the dominant forms of Satanism had comparisons with how those who describe themselves as practitioners of "Traditional Witchcraft" do so to distinguish their magico-religious practices from the dominant form of modern witchcraft, Wicca.[45]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ryan, Nick. Into a World of Hate. Routledge, 1994, p. 53.
  2. ^ Lewis, James R. Satanism Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion, Folklore, and Popular Culture. Abc-Clio Inc., 2001.
  3. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Black Sun: Aryan cults, esoteric Nazism, and the politics of identity, NYU Press, 2002, pp. 215-216.
  4. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About The Order of Nine Angles
  5. ^ a b c d e Senholt, Jacob C: Political Esotericism & the convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism and National Socialism in the Order of the Nine Angles. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Conference: Satanism in the Modern World, November 2009. [1]
  6. ^ a b George Sieg: Angular Momentum: From Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles. International Journal for the Study of New Religions, Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
  7. ^ Documents of The Inner ONA
  8. ^ a b O9A 101
  9. ^ a b c d Senholt 2013, p. 255.
  10. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 236; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218.
  11. ^ a b c Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218; Senholt 2013, p. 256.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Connell Monette. Mysticism in the 21st Century, Sirius Academic Press, 2013. pp. 85-122. ISBN 9781940964003
  13. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 236; Gardell 2003, p. 391.
  14. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 217; Senholt 2013, p. 256.
  15. ^ a b c Senholt 2013, p. 256.
  16. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, pp. 221–222.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 220.
  18. ^ a b c Ryan, Nick. Into a World of Hate. Routledge, 1994, p. 54.
  19. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, pp. 217, 222; Senholt 2013, pp. 263–264.
  20. ^ Senholt 2013, pp. 263–264.
  21. ^ Senholt 2013, pp. 265–267.
  22. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 216.
  23. ^ Senholt 2013, p. 268.
  24. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 267.
  25. ^ a b Faxneld 2013a, p. 207.
  26. ^ "David Myatt - A Matter of Honour". Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  27. ^ The National-Socialist (March 1998, Thormynd Press, York, England).
  28. ^ "The Ethos of Extremism". Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  29. ^ Professor Kaplan in his Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture, Northeastern University Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55553-331-0. This view is supported by Michael Newton who, in his Ku Klux Klan: History, Organization, Language, Influence – published 2007 by McFarland & Co (Jefferson, N.C) ISBN 978-0-7864-2787-1 - wrote that "David Myatt, a British neo-Nazi [only] collaborated with leaders of a Satanist sect, the Order of the Nine Angles".
  30. ^ a b c d e Gardell 2003, p. 293.
  31. ^ The Black Book of Satan. 1984, Thormynd Press, ISBN 094664604X. British Library General Reference Collection Cup.815/51, BNB GB8508400
  32. ^ Naos: A Practical Guide to Modern Magick. Coxland Press, 1990, ISBN 1872543006. British Library General Reference Collection YK.1993.a.13307, BNB GB9328754
  33. ^ The Infernal Texts: Nox & Liber Koth. Falcon Publications, 1997
  34. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218; Baddeley 2010, p. 155; Senholt 2013, p. 256.
  35. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 229.
  36. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 225.
  37. ^ a b c d Kaplan 2000, p. 236.
  38. ^ a b Kaplan 2000, p. 236; Gardell 2003, p. 293.
  39. ^ a b c d e Senholt 2013, p. 260.
  40. ^ a b c Kaplan & Weinberg 1998, p. 143.
  41. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 215.
  42. ^ Gardell 2003, p. 292.
  43. ^ Faxneld 2013a, p. 207; Faxneld 2013b, p. 88; Senholt 2013, p. 250.
  44. ^ a b Faxneld 2013b, p. 88.
  45. ^ Faxneld 2013a, pp. 207–208.
  46. ^ James R. Lewis and Jesper A. Petersen (editors). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press, 2014. p. 416. ISBN 9780199315314
  47. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218.
  48. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Black Sun, NYU Press, 2002, p. 218.
  49. ^ Gardell 2003, p. 293; Baddeley 2010, p. 155.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 219.
  51. ^ Sharp, Christopher Jon: Looking for Mr Wednesday: towards an Odian philosophical framework. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, 2013. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.614535
  52. ^ a b Gardell 2003, p. 294.
  53. ^ Gardell 2003, p. 294; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 220.
  54. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 261.
  55. ^ a b Gardell 2003, p. 391.
  56. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 220; Senholt 2013, p. 261.
  57. ^ a b c d e Kaplan 2000, p. 237.
  58. ^ Gardell 2003, pp. 294,391; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 221.
  59. ^ a b Gardell 2003, p. 294; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 220; Senholt 2013, p. 261.
  60. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 221.
  61. ^ See the ONA ritual entitled Mass of Heresy, their similar "Rite of Defiance", and the appendix entitled "The Theory of The Holocaust" in their Magian Occultism and The Sinister Way: A Collection of Heretical Texts from The Order of Nine Angles - which includes both the Mass of Heresy and the "Rite of Defiance" - and which is currently (September 2015) available at https://www.scribd.com/doc/59034592/Order-of-Nine-Angles-Magian-Occultism-and-the-Sinister-Way
  62. ^ Gardell 2003, p. 294; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 221.
  63. ^ Baddeley 2010, p. 155.
  64. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 251.
  65. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 219; Senholt 2013, p. 257.
  66. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 258.
  67. ^ a b c Senholt 2013, p. 259.
  68. ^ The Requisite ONA: A Practical Guide to The Sinister Sorcery of The Order of Nine Angles. Included in The Complete Guide To The O9A https://omega9alpha.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/complete-guide-o9a-v7.pdf
  69. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 236; Senholt 2013, p. 258.
  70. ^ Anton Long. The Place of Empathy in the Esoteric Tradition of the Order of Nine Angles. 122 Year of Fayen
  71. ^ Kaplan 2000, pp. 236–237; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 219; Senholt 2013, p. 258.
  72. ^ Enantiodromia - The Sinister Abyssal Nexion. Second Edition, 2013.
  73. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 269.
  74. ^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 15.
  75. ^ Senholt 2013, pp. 267, 269.
  76. ^ http://www.o9a.org/wp-content/uploads/o9a-hermetic-tradition-part2-v3.pdf
  77. ^ Anton Long. Ritual Magick - Dure and Sedue Ceremonial. 1990. The MS is included in Hostia, 3 vols, Thormynd Press, 1992.
  78. ^ Senholt 2013, pp. 260–261.
  79. ^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 262.
  80. ^ Senholt 2013, pp. 261–262.
  81. ^ James R. Lewis & Jasper Aagaard Petersen: The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of Satanism, Prometheus Books, 2008. p.625. ISBN 9781591023906
  82. ^ Jeffrey Kaplan & Tore Bjørgo: Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture. Northeastern University Press, 1998. p.116 ISBN 9781555533328
  83. ^ a b "The Star Game - History and Theory" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-08-30. 
  84. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, pp. 218–219; Baddeley 2010, p. 155.
  85. ^ Kaplan 2000, pp. 237–238.
  86. ^ Gardell 2003, pp. 293–294; Baddeley 2010, p. 155.
  87. ^ "Praxis and Theory of the Order of Nine Angles" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  88. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 237; Gardell 2003, p. 293.
  89. ^ Gardell 2003, p. 293; Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 219.
  90. ^ "The Star Game". Retrieved 2014-11-11. 
  91. ^ "Perusing The Seven Fold Way - Historical Origins Of The Septenary System Of The Order of Nine Angles". Retrieved 2014-11-11. 
  92. ^ The letter is reproduced in facsimile - together with facsimiles of several other letters exchanged between Anton Long and Aquino - in The Satanic Letters of Stephen Brown, two volumes, Thormynd Press, 1992.
  93. ^ a b c Senholt 2013, p. 257.
  94. ^ "Those Who Are Our Kind". Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  95. ^ "Towards Understanding Satanism" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  96. ^ Letters from Anton Long to Michael Aquino, dated 20th October 1990, and from Anton Long to Miss Stockton, dated 19th June 1991. The Satanic Letters of Stephen Brown, Thormynd Press, 1992.
  97. ^ Letter from Anton Long to Michael Aquino dated 7th September 1990. The Satanic Letters of Stephen Brown, Thormynd Press, 1992.
  98. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 235.
  99. ^ Evans 2007, p. 374.
  100. ^ Senholt 2013, p. 271.
  101. ^ "The Jack Nightingale Collection". Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  102. ^ "Stephen Leather - Lastnight". Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  103. ^ Conrad Jones. Child for the Devil. Thames River Press. 2013. ISBN 978-0857280077
  104. ^ Conrad Jones. Black Angel. 2013. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 9781783333349

Sources[edit]

Baddeley, Gavin (2010). Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship & Rock n' Roll (third ed.). London: Plexus. ISBN 978-0-85965-455-5. 
Evans, Dave (2007). The History of British Magick After Crowley. n.p.: Hidden Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9555237-0-0. 
Faxneld, Per (2013a). "Post-Satanism, Left-Hand Paths, and Beyond: Visiting the Margins". The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 205–208. ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6. 
Faxneld, Per (2013b). "Secret Lineages and De Facto Satanists: Anton LaVey's Use of Esoteric Tradition". Contemporary Esotericism. Egil Asprem and Kennet Granholm. Durham: Acumen. pp. 72–90. 
Faxneld, Per; Petersen, Jesper Aagaard (2013). "Introduction: At the Devil's Crossroads". The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–18. ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6. 
Gardell, Matthias (2003). Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Durham and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0822330714. 
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814731550. 
Kaplan, Jeffrey (2000). "Order of Nine Angles". Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right. Jeffrey Kaplan (editor). Lanham: AltaMira Press. pp. 235–238. 
Kaplan, Jeffrey; Weinberg, Leonard (1998). The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813525648. 
Monette, Connell (2013). Mysticism in the 21st Century. USA: Sirius Productions. ISBN 978-1940964003. 
Senholt, Jacob C. (2013). "Secret Identities in the Sinister Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism, and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles". The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 250–274. ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6. 
Sieg, George (2013). "Angular Momentum: From Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles". International Journal for the Study of New Religions 4 (2): 251–283. doi:10.1558/ijsnr.v4i2.251. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ankarloo, Bengt and Clark, Stuart. The Twentieth Century. U. Penn. Press, 1999.
  • Lewis, James R. "Who Serves Satan?" in Marburg Journal of Religion, Volume 6, No. 2 (June 2001).
  • Lewis, James R. Satanism Today : An Encyclopedia of Religion, Folklore, and Popular Culture, 2001, ISBN 1-57607-292-4
  • Long, Anton. Satanism: Introduction for Occultists. Thormynd Press, 1992, ISBN 0-946646-29-5
  • Monette, Connell. Mysticism in the 21st Century, Sirius Academic Press, 2013. pp. 85–122. ISBN 9781940964003
  • Order of Nine Angles. The Black Book of Satan. Thormynd Press, 1984, ISBN 0-946646-04-X
  • Order of Nine Angles. Naos. Coxland Press, 1990, ISBN 1-872543-00-6
  • Perlmutter, Dawn. "The Forensics of Sacrifice: A Symbolic Analysis of Ritualistic Crime", in Anthropoetics (The Journal of Generative Anthropology) Volume IX, number 2 (Fall 2003/Winter 2004) [2]
  • Perlmutter, Dawn. "Skandalon 2001: The Religious Practices of Modern Satanists and Terrorists", in Anthropoetics Volume VII, number 2 [3]
  • Reilly, John J. Apocalypse and Future. Xlibris Corporation, 2000, ISBN 0-7388-2356-2
  • Ryan, Nick. Homeland: Into A World of Hate. Mainstream Publishing Company Ltd., 2002, ISBN 1-84018-465-5
  • Wessinger, Catherine Lowman. Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence. pp. 317–318. Syracuse University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8156-0599-4

External links[edit]