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Location of Pabna in Bangladesh
|Pubna District,Bengal Presidency,British India||1832|
|• Jatiyô Shôngshôd Constituencies||Pabna-1, Pabna-2, Pabna-3, Pabna-4, Pabna-5 (Awami League)|
|• Total||2,371.50 km2 (915.64 sq mi)|
|flood plain and marsh land|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|Population (2016 census)|
|• Density||1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (BST)|
Pabna District (Bengali: পাবনা জেলা Pabna Zila) is a district in north-central Bangladesh. It is one of the most valuable district of Bangladesh . Its administrative capital is eponymous Pabna town.
Archeologist Cunningham conjectured that the name Pabna might be derived from Pundra or Poondrobordhon civilisation, whose capital was Mahasthangarh, the oldest city of Bangladesh, in neighbouring Bogra. But this hypothesis has not received general acceptance among scholars.
In 1859–61 the district was one of the major areas involved in the Indigo revolt. Beginning in Yusufshahi period in 1873 the serfs resisted excessive demands of increased rents by feudal lords (zamindar), led by the nouveau riches Banerjees and Dwijendranath Tagore, by forming an Agrarian League. This largely peaceful movement found the support of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal George Campbell, who antagonised the absentee feudal lords. These protests are generally referred to as Pabna disturbances. In the following year the district was one of the worst hit by famine. The peasant's demands were finally partially met with the Rent Law Act of 1885.
In 1875, Raaygonj was transferred back to Pabna from Bogra, and in 1879, a separate judgeship for the districts of Pabna and Bogra was created. The History of Pabna was written by Advocate Chowdhury Mohammad Badruduzza.
Pabna forms the south-east boundary of Rajshahi Division. Sirajganj District is on the north-east, while the Padma River, main stream of the holy river Ganges, in the south separates it from Rajbari District and Kushtia District. The Jamuna River runs along its eastern border separating it from Manikgonj District; and on the north-west it has a common boundary with the Natore District. Average maximum temperature 36.8 °C, minimum 9.6 °C; annual rainfall 1872 mm. Characteristically the soil of the district is divided into four, viz flood plains of the Ganges, Karatoya, Jamuna and Barind Tract. Main rivers are Ganges, Ichamati, Gumani, Baral and Hurasagar.
|Climate data for Pabna|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.4
|Average low °C (°F)||9.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19
|Average relative humidity (%)||45||36||39||44||59||73||74||76||72||68||52||49||57|
|Source: National newspapers|
The district is intersected by rivers of varying magnitude. But in fact, the river system is constituted by the Padma and the Jamuna with their interlacing offshoots and tributaries.
Besides these flowing streams, the interior is visited by the abandoned beds of old rivers, most of which are dry except in the rains.
The general trend of the drainage of the Serajganj subdivision is from north-west to south-east, the rivers entering it from the north-west flow into the Jamuna after a tortuous course. In the Sadar subdivision, however, the general slope of the country is from west to east, and the main rivers fall into Hurasagar, an offshoot of the Jamuna.
The following rivers flow through Pabna District:
- Padma River
- Ichhamati River
- Baral River
- Atrai River
- Chiknai River
- Jamuna River
- Kazipur River
- Karatoya River
- Hurasgar River
- Gumany River
- Rotnai River
- Badai river
- kageshari river
- sutikhali river
- Komla river
- chondraboti river
- barnai river
Of the 2.1 million inhabitants, 51.17% are male. 90.12% are Muslims, 9.50% Hindu, 0.22% Christian and others 0.16%. There are 2353 mosques, 420 Hindu temples, and 11 Churches. There is no Buddhist pagoda in Pabna. Thakur Anukulchandra Aasrom (missionary) beside Mental Hospital, Pabna at Hemayetpur has the largest Hindu temple in Pabna.
- Main occupations: Agriculture 34%, agricultural farm-hands 22.77%, wage labourer 4.46%, transport 2.18%, weavers 2.85%, commerce 13.27%, service 7.26% and others 13.21%.
- Land control: Among the peasants 29% are landless peasants, 49% small, 18% intermediate and 4% rich.
- Value of land: The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk 15500 per 0.01 acre.
- Crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane, oil seeds, onion, garlic, betel leaf (paan), pulses.
- Extinct or nearly extinct crops: Indigo, sesame, linseed, cereals like kaaun and cheena, and orhor pulses.
- Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, banana, lychee (lichu), coconut, guava, pomelo and papaya.
- Fisheries, dairies & poultries: Dairies 1069, fisheries 88, poultry 714, hatcheries 37.
- Industries: Ishwardi EPZ;Pakshey paper mill, sugar mill, cotton mill, jute press, edible oil mill, Square Pharmaceuticals, biscuit factory, most prominent rice industry is Purbasha Automatic Rice mills Ltd. in Ishwardi and flour mill (Rouf and sons Flour Mill), ice factory, welding, saw mill, cold storage. The SQUARE group established several factories in the district, namely pharmaceuticals, spices, food, toiletries and textile, and converting the agricultural economy of Pabna to an industrial society.
- Cottage industries: Hand loom, bamboo and caneworks, blacksmith, goldsmith, potteries, woodworks and tailoring.
- Main exports: Rice, jute, betel leaf, hosiery goods, cotton, cotton fabrics.
- Active NGOs are: BRAC, CARE, ASA, Grameen Bank, Caritas, Proshika, Shomota, Thengamaara Mohila Shobuj Shongho (TMSS) and Polli Progoti, ASEAB, BOSS.
Points of interest
Pakshey is a popular green area. The railway colony of Paksey, divisional headquarters of Bangladesh Railway, has many old trees, and is beside the river Padma and the Hardinge Bridge. An export processing zone (EPZ) and the newly built Lalon Shah Bridge are situated here.
Idyllic Poddar Par (the bank of the Padma) at Shilaaidoho Ghaat is 5 km south of town's old Technical Institute, where people can enjoy a river cruise. A river crossing (ghaat) here connects to Shilaaidoho of Kumarkhali Upazila of Kushtia District. Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore had a Koothibari (villa) at Shilaaidoho, where his birth anniversary is celebrated regularly.
Bangladesh mental Hospital, Pabna is a popular Hospital in Bangladesh beside Pabna main town. There is only one mental hospital in Bangladesh. Mental Patient from anywhere in Bangladesh goes there and get treatment.
There is a marshy area, Chalan Beel, in the north.
The district comprises eleven upazilas:
- Atgharia Upazila
- Bera Upazila
- Bhangura Upazila
- Chatmohar Upazila
- Faridpur Upazila (Formerly Bonwareenogor)
- Ishwardi Upazila
- Pabna Sadar Upazila
- Santhia Upazila
- Sujanagar Upazila
- Aminpur Thana
- Ataikula Thana
- Zila Parishad chairman: Rezaur Rahim Laal
- Deputy Commissioner (DC): MD Jasim Uddin
There is a General Hospital and a Mental Hospital at Pabna. The eleven thanas of the district hold a Upazila health complex each. Each Upazila health complex has qualified doctors who got appointment through Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) commission. For better treatment people need to go to medical college and other tertiary hospitals in Rajshahi or Dhaka. There is a 250-bed government general hospital here and a 450-bed mental hospital, second oldest in Indian subcontinent, only after Ranchi Mental Hospital, Jharkhand, India. Recently government owned Pabna Medical College and Hospital has been set up. There are around 15 health clinics.
Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP) has started its 10th sub center at Pabna in the name of “CRP- Pabna Diabetic Shamity” from January 2017 with the collaboration of Pabna Diabetic Shamity to provide rehabilitation services such as Physiotherapy, Occupational therapy, Speech & language therapy, awareness raising program regarding disability & rehabilitation, scarf injury prevention and also provide assistive devices to the persons with disabilities.
There are roads, waterways, railways and one airport. The traditional paalkee (sedans), tomtom (horse carriages) and gorur gaari (bullock carts) are now going out of the fashion. The Nosimon and Korimon, locally made mechanical hauler using irrigation pumps as main engine, are mainly used for transporting agricultural goods and rural folks. Inexpensive Chinese electric and petrol autobikes (tricycle) are getting popularity as urban transport. Dhaka is about five hours by road. Hardinge Bridge and Lalon Shah Bridge over the Padma linked Pabna with Kushtia District as well as Khulna Division and the southern Bangladesh. Before the Partition of India, it was a major stoppage for trains from Kolkata to Assam and Darjeeling.The Hardinge Bridge already passed a glorious and historical hundred years. Pabna is also connected to Dhaka by the age old roadway through the Jamuna River crossing at Nogorbari, opposite to the river crossing of Aricha at Manikgonj District. It is also very well communicated with Dhaka by modern roads through Jamuna Bridge. There is a new rail link established to Pabna town.
Pabna Railway Station situated in near Pabna Central Bus Terminal. Nearby rail stations are situated in Tebunia, Chatmohar Upazila and Ishwardi Upazila. Ishwardi Upazila is one of the important railway junctions of the North Bengal as well as in Bangladesh. There are nine rail stations in this district: Ishwardi, Ishwardi Bypass, Pakshi, Muladuli, Chatmohar, Bhangura, Baral Bridge, Sharat Nagar, Dilpashar and Guakhara. Pabna is well connected by road, rail, river or air to the rest of the country.
There is an airport at Ishwardi Upazila. Biman Bangladesh Airlines used to operate twice- weekly services to Ishwardi from Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, Dhaka. However, no airlines is operating to and from Ishwardi at the moment.
Several Dhaka bound private bus services are available: Pabna Express, Shyamoli Parbahan, Sarkar Travels, Raja Badshah, Ishurdi Express, Shahzadpur Travels, Baadol, Night Star, Kings, Esha, Mahanagar, Capital Service, Sakal Shandha, Uttara, B Nagar, Al Hamra etc. Government owned Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) provides bus services to Rajshahi and Bogra cities. Water transport is important as the Padma and other rivers, and Chalan Beel are situated in Pabna. In Pabna district ride by Nosimon, rickshawvan and Korimon are pleasure worthy.
Average literacy is male 71.8% and female 65.7% There is A renowned science and technology University named Pabna University of Science and Technology. There are 34 colleges, a cadet college, a law college, a government polytechnic institute, a government vocational training institute, a textiles college, a government commerce college, a teachers' training college, a primary teacher's training institute, a nursing training institute, a homoeopathic college, 202 high schools, 29 junior high schools, a Madrassa Aliya, 261 qaomi madrassa (seminary), 667 government primary schools, 445 non-government primary schools, 8 community schools, 29 kindergartens, 32 satellite schools, 299 NGO-operated schools, and a music college. Pabna Zilla School, Pabna Edward College and Banwarinagar C.B. Pilot High School this three Institution of this district is very old in these region.All these three institution has already passed a hundred glorious years.
Noted educational institutions are:
- Pabna Zilla School(1853)
- Pabna Govt. Girls High School(1883)
- Govt. Edward College,Pabna (founded 1898)
- Pabna University of Science and Technology (2008)
- Pabna Cadet College (1981)
- Pabna Medical College (2008)
- Pabna Textile Engineering College (2008)
- Pabna Polytechnic Institute(1891)
- Pabna Collectorate public school and college(2008)
- Jagir Hossain Academy, Pabna
- Al-hera Academy School and college (1987)
- Gopal Chandra Institution (GCI) (1894)
- Galaxy School & College Bera-Pabna (2001)
- Government Shahid Bulbul College
- Pabna City College
- Banwarinagar Cornation Bonomali Pilot High School (1912), (Faridpur)
- RM Academy (1899)
- Shahid Fazlul Haque Municipal High School (1967)
- Banglamotion Institute of Engineering & Technology (2012)
- Pabna Town Girls High School (1903)
- Madrassa Aliya (1925),
- MC Jubilee High School (1936)
- Pabna Cadet Collegiate School (1993)
- Online.net (IT School) (2000)
- Amina Monsoor Girls High School (2002)
- Ataikula High School (1938)
- Bhangura Union High School
- Bhangura Jarina Rahim Girls High School
- Haji Jamal Uddin Degree College
- Bhangura Alia Madrassa
- Hadol Madrassa, Debottor (Atgharia)
- Government Primary School (1880)
- Varenga (Bera) Academy (1835)
- Bera B B High School (1899)
- Bera High School (1906)
- Monjur kadir Mohila College, bera, Pabna.(1990)
- Dhobakhola Coronation High School (1906)
- Banwarinagar pilot girls high school(1972), Faridpur.
- Shara (Ishwardi) Marwari School (1917)
- Khalilpur (Shujanogor) High School (1901)
- Bhadurpur Government Primary School (1909)
- JotGoury Jalalpur Government Primary School (1943)
- Dulai High School (1967)
- Pabna Collectorate Public School and college (2009)
- Khan Pura High School (1918)
- Malifa Habibor Rahman Multilateral High School (1957)
- Masundia Bhabanipur K.J.B College
- Masundia Bhabanipur High School
- Pabna College, Pabna (1983)
- Nariagodai High School, Nariagodai, Santhia, Pabna (1963)
- Kashinathpur Abdul Latif High School, Pabna
- Sujanager Pilot Model High School And College (1956)
- Karanja Pre Cadet School & College (2005)
- Pakuria school and college(1907)
- Imam Hossain Academy, Santhia, Pabna (2001)
- Santhia Pilot High School, Santhia (1943)
- Chatmohar RCN & BSN high school & college(1861)
- Saint Rts. high school, mothurapur, chatmohar, pabna(1970)
- Chiknai High School,Mulgram, Chatmahor
- Chatmohar pilot girls high school(1970)
- Chatmohar government degree(hons) college(1970)
Locally published newspapers and periodicals:
- newspabna.com,Doinik Ichhamoti, Doinik Pabna Protidin,Doinik Uttor Jonota (Ishwardi); weekly: Gan Bikashini, Pabna Barta, Bibriti, weekly banshpatra.daily pabnar alo. Arshi; fortnightly: Jamuna, Charmohar Barta, Faridpur Barta, Junction, Jonodabi (Ishwardi); monthly: Gan Prova, Polli Dorpon, Manoshi, Amar Desh and Pabna, Tawhid (Bhangura), Chetona, Shocheton.
Members of ninth Jatiyo Sangshad (2009 – )
- Pabna-1 (Santhia Upazila and part of Bera Upazila) Seat 68: Mohammad Shamsul Haque (Tuku) [from Awami League].
- Pabna-2 (Sujanagar Upazila and part of Bera Upazila) Seat 69: Air Vice Marshal (Rtd.) A. K. Khandker [from Awami League], Planning Minister and former Deputy Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Armed Forces during Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971
- Pabna-3 (Chatmohar Upazila, Bhangura Upazila and Faridpur Upazila) Seat 70: Mohammad Mokbul Hossain [from Awami League]
- Pabna-4 (Ishwardi Upazila and Atgharia Upazila) Seat 71: Shamsur Rahman Sherif (Dilu) [from Awami League]
- Pabna-5 (Pabna Sadar Upazila) Seat 72: Khondokar Golam Faruk (Prince) [from Awami League]
- Pramatha Chaudhuri, eminent writer.
- Thakur Anukulchandra, guru, physician and founder of Satsang Ashram.
- Suchitra Sen, actress of Kolkata film industry in the 1950s through 70s.
- Bonde Ali Miah, famous poet
- Amiya Bhushan Majumdar, major Indian novelist
- Amzad Hossain, MNA (Member of National Assembly of Pakistan), Organizer of Liberation War
- Air Vice Marshal (Rtd.) A. K. Khandker, first Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Air Force (1971–1975), and former Planning Minister
- Motiur Rahman Nizami, Ameer (chairman) of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, former Member of Jatiyo Sangshad (2001–2006), former Minister of Agriculture (2001–2003), and executed under trial for war crimes during the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.
- Samson H. Chawdhury, former chairman of Square Group.
- Group Captain (Rtd.) Saiful Azam, former pilot of Bangladesh Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Jordanian Air Force and Iraqi Air Force. He was a war hero of 1965 Indo-Pakistani War and 1967 Arab-Israeli War (Six-Day War).
- General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri OBE, former Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army.
- Mozid Mahmud : is a famous Bangladeshi poet and essayist. He is recognized as a major poet of the 1980s, with more than thirty books to his credit.
- Selina Banu-politician.
- Priyamvada Devi- writer.
- Shreemati Rasasundari- 19th century writer
- A. B. Mirza Azizul Islam Advisor of Bangladesh Caretaker Government 2007-2008
- Abu Muhammad Yunus Ali was elected Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) from Atgharia-Chatmohor-Faridpur constituency of Pabna district. He was nominated by Awami League in the United Front election in 1954. He was the founder leader of the Awami League party politics in that area, the main leader, a popular language soldier, and a close associate of Bangabandhu in the six-point demand movement. He was also a close friend of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, his only roommate in Baker Hostel in Kolkata, a classmate at Dhaka University and also a trusted political companion.
It is to be noted that Abu Muhammad Yunus Ali served as an organizer of the liberation war in Shahzadpur, Baghabari, Nagarbari and in the remote areas of Chalanbil of Greater Pabna district in 1971, and was wounded in a battlefield. At one stage, the members of Razakar-Al-Badr force tortured him in an inhuman manner, and even destroyed his ancestral homestead at Sartutia of Bhangura upazila. In 1972, after the government treatment of his injury under the supervision of Bangabandhu, he gained limited mobility after surgery. On February 14, 2005, the “People’s MLA Yunus” breathed his last in his house at Bhangura.
- Kalyan Kumar Sen Gupta; Pabna Disturbances and the Politics of Rent 1873–1885; New Delhi 1974
- Md. Shariful Alam (2012). "Pabna District". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Kalyan Kumar Sen Gupta; Pabna Disturbances and the Politics of Rent 1873–1885; New Delhi 1974
- দীর্ঘ ১৫ বছর বরে বদ্ধ ঈশ্বরদী বিমানবন্দর [Ishwardi Airport closed for 15 long years]. Jugantor (in Bengali). 28 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01.
- "Members of Parliament : All". Lcgbangladesh.org. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Ahmed Humayun Kabir Topu, Pabna (17 January 2012). "Poet Bonde Ali's 106th birth anniversary today". Thedailystar.net. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Banu, Selina - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- "Devi, Priyamvada - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
9. " Opinion on Care Taker Government and relevant issues (2011), Statement Submitted to Appellate Division of Bangladesh Supreme Court;
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