|23rd Jain Tirthankara|
India, deccan, jina parshvanatha, 1100-1300
|Kalyanaka / Important Events|
|Chyavana date||Falgun Vad 4|
|Birth date||Pausha Vad 10, 877 BCE|
|Diksha date||Pausha Vad 11|
|Kevalgyan date||Falgun Vad 4|
|Moksha date||Shravan Sud 8, 777 BCE|
|Height||9 cubits (13.5 feet)|
|Aarti||Jai Paras Deva|
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Parshvanatha (Pārśvanātha), also known as Parshva (Pārśva) was the twenty-third Tirthankara of Jainism. He is the earliest Jain leader (c. 877–777 BCE) for whom there is reasonable evidence of having been a historical figure.
Bhagvan Parshvanath was born in Varanasi, on the tenth day of the dark half of the month of Paush. Pārśva was the son of King Aśvasena and Queen Vāmā of Varanasi. He belonged to the Ikshvaku dynasty.
Prabhavati was the daughter of King Prasenjit of Kushasthal. She wanted to marry Parshvanatha. Yavan, a powerful ruler of Kalinga, wanted to marry Prabhavati. So he attacked Kushasthal but was defeated by Parshvanath. King Prasenjit, then, offered Prabhavati's hand for marriage to Parshva in reward.
He lived as formal prince of Varanasi and at the age of thirty, he renounced the world to become a monk. He meditated for eighty-four days before attaining Kevala Jnana. He achieved mokṣa at the age of one hundred atop Shikharji, which is known today as "the Parasnath Hills" after him. Pārśva was called purisādāṇīya "beloved of men", a name which shows that he must have been a genial personality. He remains beloved among Jains.
When he was a prince he saved two snakes that had been trapped in a log in an Kamath’s fire. Later, the snakes were reborn as Dharnendra, the lord of the underworld kingdom of the nāgas, and Padmavati. Dharnendra and Padmavati sheltered Pārśva from a storm sent by a Meghmali (Kamath reborn).
According to the Kalpasutra, Pārśva had 164,000 male and 327,000 female lay followers and 16,000 men and 38,000 female monks. He had eight chief disciples known as ganadharas. They were Śubhadatta, Āryaghoṣa, Vasiṣṭha, Brahmacāri, Soma, Śrīdhara, Vīrabhadra and Yaśas. After his death, the gandhara Śubhadatta became the head of the monastic order. He was then succeeded by Haridatta, Āryasamudra and Keśī.
Keśī is believed to have been born about 166 to 250 years after the death of Pārśva. He met the ganadhara of Mahavira, Indrabhuti Gautama. Their discussion about the apparent differences between the teachings of the two tirthankaras is recorded in Jain texts.
Pārśva is the most popular object of Jain devotion. He is closely associated with compassion, although he is free from the world of rebirth like all tirthankaras and therefore unable to aid his devotees personally.
Famous Temples dedicated to Parshvanatha
Parsvanath Temple, Khajuraho
Parshvanatha temple in Ranakpur
Mandapa of the Parshvanâtha's temple in Jaisalmer
- Sammed Shikharji (Sammet Sikhar) in Jharkand
- Shri Amijhara Parshavanath
- Shri Andheshwar Parshvanath near Banswara (Raj.)
- Shri Kalikund Parshvanath
- Shri Chintamani Parshvanath in Navsari
- Shri Avanti Parshvanath in Ujjain
Parvantha image, Government museum, Mathura
Tirthankara Parsvanatha, Government Museum, Mathura
Statue of Pārśva at Lodrawa
Parsvanatha image, Badami caves, Karnataka
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