Foreign relations of Peru

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politics and government of

Peru is an important second-tier state in South America,[1] Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Latin America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Chile See Chile–Peru relations

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute. Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[4] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[5]
 Guyana 1971
 Mexico 1823
Main article: Mexico-Peru relations

Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archaeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations.



Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1992.
 Bulgaria 1969 See Bulgaria–Peru relations
 Croatia 1993-01-12
 Cyprus 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[13]
  • Cyprus is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.[14]
 Finland 1963-01-25
 Greece 1966 See Greece–Peru relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[17]
  • In 1992, Greece opened an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Athens.
 Italy 1874-12-23 See Italy–Peru relations
 Serbia 1967
 Spain 1879 See Peru–Spain relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is represented in Peru, through its embassy in Santiago, Chile. Sweden has a consulate in Lima.
 United Kingdom

Rest of World[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

Australia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. Australia is Peru's APEC ally.

 North Korea See Foreign relations of North Korea
 Palestine 2011-01-24
  • Peru recognized Palestine on 24 January 2011.[28]
 South Korea 1 April 1963[29]
 United States
  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.

Illicit drugs[edit]

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km2 at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 [1]
  2. ^ "Embajada de la República Argentina en República del Perú | Embassy of Argentina in Lima (in Spanish)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  3. ^ Embassy of Peru in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)
  4. ^ "Perú exportará energía eléctrica a Ecuador hasta abril de 2010". Archived from the original on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Lima (in Spanish)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  8. ^ "Consulado General del Perú | Embassy of Peru in Mexico City (in Spanish)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  9. ^ Paraguayan embassy in Lima (in Spanish only)
  10. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  11. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)". Archived from the original on 2002-02-10. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  12. ^ "Министерство на външните работи | Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  13. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
  14. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Bilateral Relations | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  15. ^ "Embassy". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ "Greece's Bilateral Relations | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  18. ^ "Embajada de Italia en Lima | Embassy of Italy in Lima (in Italian and Spanish)". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  19. ^ Embassy of Peru in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)
  20. ^ "Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: directions of Serbian embassy in Lima". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  21. ^ Embassy of Peru in Madrid
  22. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lima
  23. ^ Canadian embassy in Lima
  24. ^ "Inicio Embajada del Perú en Canadá | Peruvian embassy in Ottawa". Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  25. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  26. ^ Israeli embassy in Lima (in Hebrew and Spanish only)
  27. ^ Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations: direction of the Peruvian embassy in Tel Aviv
  28. ^ Government of Peru (24 January 2011). "Perú reconoce al Estado Palestino" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  29. ^ a b "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Latin America and Caribbean". Retrieved 2016-06-13.