Political status of Crimea

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politics and government of Crimea
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Republic of Crimea (within Russia) since 2014

Autonomous Republic of Crimea (within Ukraine)

See also
Political status of Crimea
Politics of Russia
Politics of Ukraine

The political status of Crimea has been a subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia. Russia annexed Crimea in 2014 following a referendum, and administers it as two federal subjects of Russia, and 'fully integrated' it in July 2015.[1] Ukraine and the majority of international governments continue to regard Crimea as an integral part of Ukraine.

The dispute came into being after the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, contrary to Ukrainian law, held a referendum on rejoining Russia and then, when official results showed overwhelming support for the proposal, unilaterally declared their independence from Ukraine as a single united state under the name of Republic of Crimea. These two entities (Crimea and Sevastopol) were then annexed by Russia, where the Crimean Autonomous Republic became the "Republic of Crimea" as a Russian republic and Sevastopol became a Russian federal city. However, Ukraine and the majority of the international community do not consider the merge, the independence, the referendum, nor the annexation legitimate and still consider both entities as parts of Ukraine. Despite international opinion however, the currency, tax and legal system are all operational under Russian jurisdiction. Ukraine has applied for multiple litigations through international crime, water resources, European Union and other courts.

In 1920, immediately after the RSFSR recognized the independence of the Ukrainian SSR (The "Workers' and Peasants Union Treaty between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic" signed 28 December 1920),[2] the responsibility for all Crimean administration was reassigned directly to the Kremlin.[by whom?] In 1994 Russia signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, which states that it would "Respect Belarusian, Kazakh and Ukrainian independence, sovereignty, and the existing borders".

Background[edit]

Evolution of status of the Crimean Peninsula within independent Ukraine[edit]

Crimean ASSR and Republic of Crimea[edit]

After the Crimean referendum of 1991, which asked whether Crimea should be elevated to a signatory of the New Union Treaty (that is, became a union republic on its own), the Ukrainian SSR restored Crimea's autonomous status (Crimean Autonomous SSR), but confirmed that autonomy restored as a part of the Ukrainian SSR. The Crimean Oblast council became Supreme Council of Crimea and, on 4 September 1991, passed the Declaration of state sovereignty of Crimea.[3]

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the autonomy renamed itself the Republic of Crimea.[4] The Ukrainian government initially accepted its name, but not its claims to be a state. According to Ukrainian law "On status of the autonomous Republic of Crimea", passed on 29 April 1992, "Republic of Crimea is an autonomous part of Ukraine and independently decides on matters, which are delegated to it by the Constitution and laws of the Ukraine" (art. 1).[5] The Regional Supreme Council, on the contrary, insisted that "Republic of Crimea is a legal democratic state", which "has supremacy in respect to natural, material, cultural and spiritual heritage" and "exercises its sovereign rights and full power" on its territory (art. 1 of the May 1992 Constitution), but also a "part of the Ukraine and establishes relations in it on a basis of the treaty and agreements" (art. 9).[6] Both Ukrainian law on autonomy status[7] and the 1992 Constitution of Crimea[8] were amended later that year, putting the Republic's status in between what was proposed in the initial revision of the 1992 Constitution and what was proposed in April 1992 Ukrainian law on the status of the Republic.

On 21 May 1992 the Supreme Soviet of Russia declared 1954 transfer of Crimea as having "no legal force", because it was adopted "in violation of the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian SFSR and legislative process", but because subsequent legislation and the 1990 Russo-Ukrainian treaty constituted that fact, parliament considered it necessary to resolve the Crimean question in negotiations between Ukraine and Russia and on the basis of the popular will of the inhabitants of Crimea.[9] A similar resolution was adopted for Sevastopol a year later. Both moves were condemned by Ukraine[10][11][12] and resulted in no changes to the Russian Constitution (neither 1978 nor 1993 documents enumerated Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects).

In 1994, after parliamentary and presidential elections in the Republic, the Supreme Council and the executive became dominated by the Russian Bloc (which had won 57 seats in the Supreme Council of Crimea and Presidency for its member, Yuri Meshkov).[13] Following a referendum, held in same year, the Supreme Council of Crimea restored the 1992 Constitution to its original revision,.[14]

Autonomous Republic of Crimea[edit]

A year later this 1992 Crimean constitution, along with the presidency and regional citizenship, was declared null and void by the Ukrainian Parliament, which by that time, had renamed the autonomy from "Republic of Crimea" to Autonomous Republic of Crimea.[15] Another Constitution was passed by Crimean parliament in 1995,[16] but many parts of it were rejected by the Ukrainian parliament; among them were Republic's name (which was to remain "Republic of Crimea") and citizenship.[17] Meanwhile, during drafting of the new Ukrainian Constitution, the question of autonomy was much debated: some legislators proposed abolishing it altogether (downgrading back to oblast status or to autonomy but not autonomous republic),[18][19] while other legislators proposed legalising the 1992 Constitution of Crimea provisions (original May revision) in the new Ukrainian Constitution.[18] Ultimately, the new Constitution of Ukraine adopted neither extreme and reiterated the autonomous status of the republic, while downgrading some of its powers (such as the regional Supreme Council's powers to enact legislation in form of laws ("zakoni")). The Republic was declared to be the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".[20] A new Crimean constitution, complying with provisions of the Ukrainian one, was adopted in 1998.

Status of Sevastopol[edit]

Before the 1954 transfer of Crimea, Sevastopol was elevated into a "city of republican subordination" of the Russian SFSR (a predecessor[21] of modern status of "city of federal importance"). Nevertheless, in practice it was still governed as a part of Crimean Oblast (for example, inhabitants of Sevastopol elected deputies into Crimean Oblast Council,[22][23] all its structures, such as local militsiya departments, etc., were subordinated to oblast structures[24]) and therefore was practically transferred too. The Ukrainian Constitution of 1978 listed Sevastopol as one of its "cities of republican subordination" (along with Kiev),[25] whilst the Russian constitution of the same year didn't list Sevastopol as such.[26] In 1993, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation issued a resolution, which "confirms Russian federal status of Sevastopol" and requested a parliamentary commission to prepare and present to Congress of People's Deputies of Russia corresponding constitutional amendments, but 1993 Russian constitutional crisis prevented that from happening and initial revisions of the Constitution of Russia, adopted on 12 December 1993, did not list Sevastopol as a federal subject. Three years later, the State Duma declared that Russia has a right to exercise sovereignty over Sevastopol,[27] but this resolution went without any actual effect. An agreement was concluded in 1997 by the Russian and Ukrainian governments, allowing the Black Sea Fleet to stay in Sevastopol until 2017 (later extended by another 25 years until 2042, with possible option to extend this period until 2047).

Crimean crisis and subsequent developments[edit]

Amidst rising tension in the region as part of the Crimean crisis, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol held an unconstitutional referendum to join the Russian Federation. The referendum took place on 16 March 2014 with 97% of voters choosing to leave Ukraine and join Russia, according to Crimean government results. For this purpose, the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol joined together as a single united nation under the name of Republic of Crimea. This nation then was annexed by Russia where it was converted into a federal district under the name of Crimean Federal District. However, the annexation divided the Autonomous Republic and the city of Sevastopol once again into two separate entities: the Autonomous Republic became the Republic of Crimea as a Russian republic while Sevastopol became a Russian federal city.

Regardless of all this, Ukraine and the vast majority of the international community has not recognized the validity of the referendum, and has not recognized the accession of this country into Russia.

Only Russia and a few other nations have recognized all these events. The lack of recognition from Ukraine and the international community is based primarily on the fact that the referendum included an option to join Russia while the region was considered to be under military occupation by Russia itself. The European Union, United States, Canada and several other nations condemned the decision to hold a referendum. In addition, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People—the unofficial political association of the Crimean Tatars—called for a boycott of the referendum.[28]

The UN General Assembly eventually adopted a non-binding resolution considering the referendum as invalid and reaffirming Ukraine's territorial integrity by a vote of 100 to 11 with 58 abstentions and 24 absent.[29][30]

The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally displaced persons (Ukrainian: Міністерство з питань тимчасово окупованих територій та внутрішньо переміщених осіб України) is a government ministry in Ukraine that was officially established on 20 April 2016 [31] to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.

Stances[edit]

Results of the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine.
  In favor   Against   Abstentions   Absent

Russia[edit]

Russia recognized the short-lived Republic of Crimea as a country shortly before concluding the aforementioned treaty of accession, which was approved by the Constitutional Court of Russia.

Russia claimed the Republic of Crimea (country) as a federal district, the Crimean Federal District, on the grounds of historical control of the area and the local population's right to self-determination reflected in the annexation vote.[32] On 28 July 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and Crimea was included in the Southern Federal District.

Ukraine[edit]

The Government of Ukraine did not recognize the Republic of Crimea's claim to sovereignty, nor the unification of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea with Sevastopol, nor the referendum that paved the way for Crimean secession.

The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally displaced persons (Ukrainian: Міністерство з питань тимчасово окупованих територій та внутрішньо переміщених осіб України) is a government ministry in Ukraine that was officially established on 20 April 2016 [31] to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.

Others[edit]

Pro Russian Support[edit]

The following members of the United Nations have taken Pro Russian stances on Crimea from making official statements of support to support at the United Nations:[33][34][35][36][37].
Rank State Notes
1  Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai said, "we respect the decision the people of Crimea took through a recent referendum that considers Crimea as part of the Russian Federation." [38]
2  Armenia[39][40] On 7 March, President Serzh Sargsyan stated at the European People's Party session in Dublin that the "Ukrainian events are a matter of serious concern to all of us". He called "to take all possible measures in order to ease the tension and find reasonable solutions by the means of a dialogue."[41] During a phone conversation with Putin on March 19 President Serzh Sargsyan said the referendum in Crimea was an exercise of peoples' right to self-determination via free expression of will.[42][43]
3  Belarus The position of Belarus is vague. It includes comments by Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko, who on the one hand said "Ukraine should remain an integral, indivisible, non-aligned state" and "As for Crimea, I do not like it when the integrity and independence of a country are broken", and on the other hand said "Whether Crimea will be recognized as a region of the Russian Federation de-jure does not really matter" and "Today Crimea is part of the Russian Federation. No matter whether you recognize it or not, the fact remains."[44] President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko answers questions of mass media representatives on 23 March 2014. president.gov.by. 23 March 2014. However, in 2017, Belarus voted against a resolution pertaining to the peninsula.[40]
4  Bolivia[39][40] Bolivia voted against the resolution pertaining to Ukraine's territorial integrity and voted against the resolution reaffirming non recognition of Russia's annexation in 2017.[40] In 2016, President Evo Morales declared his support for Russia on Crimea.[45]
5  Burundi[40][46]
6  Cambodia[40]
7  China[40]
8  Cuba[39][40] Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez condemned what he called "the hypocrisy, the double standards and the aggression" of Washington and NATO over the ouster of Yanukovich and warned against any attempt to extend NATO's reach to Russia's borders which he considered to be a flagrant violation of international law and the UN Charter and a threat to peace, security and global stability.[47]
9  Eritrea[40]
10  India[40]
11  Iran[40][46]
12  Kazakhstan[40][46]
13  Kyrgyzstan[40] The Kyrgyz Republic recognizes the Crimean status referendum, 2014[48]
14  Myanmar[40][46]
15  Nicaragua[39][40] On 27 March, Nicaragua officially recognized Crimea as a part of Russia.[49][50]
16  North Korea[39][40] On March 15, North Korean ambassador to Russia Kim Yong-jae expressed support for Russia's position.[51]
17  Philippines The Philippines initially supported the territorial integrity of Ukraine and voted for United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262, however the position changed to voting against in 2017.[40]
18  Serbia[40]
19  South Africa South Africa abstained from the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine because it believes the crisis did not start with the Crimean referendum. Spokesperson Clayson Monyela told SABC News that the initiative fails to encourage dialogue and therefore viewed the UN vote as counterproductive.[52][53]. However, in 2017, South Africa voted against a resolution pretaining towards Crimea.[40]
20  Sudan[39][40] Nadir Yusuf Babiker, the Sudanese ambassador to Russia, announced recognition of the Crimea as part of the Russian Federation. According to him, Sudan believes that the Crimean referendum complies with international law. The ambassador added that representatives of his country's business circles are planning to take part in the upcoming Yalta Economic Forum.[54]
21  Syria[39][40] President Bashar al Assad expressed support for Putin's efforts to "restore security and stability in the friendly country of Ukraine."[55]
22  Tajikistan[40]
23  Uganda[40]
24  Uzbekistan Uzbekistan's reaction towards the annexation was initially condemning the actions of Russia.[56][57] However in 2017, Uzbekistan voted against a resolution pretaining to Crimea.[40]
25  Venezuela[39][40] On March 7, the Foreign Ministry released a statement which said President Nicolas Maduro "condemns the coup perpetrated by extremist groups in Ukraine following an attrition strategy promoted from abroad by the government of the United States and its NATO allies." It further stated, "the installation in Kiev of de facto authorities not only threatens Ukraine's national unity, but the stability of the entire region as it places in danger Ukrainian citizens of Russian origin and the Russian Federation's own sovereignty."[58][59]
26  Zimbabwe[39][40] On 22 December 2014 Zimbabwe's as Minister of the Environment Saviour Kasukuwere became the first non-Russian politician to visit Crimea since its March 2014 annexation "to offer advice on how to deal with international sanctions".[60] Zimbabwe had also voted against the March 2014 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 aimed at recognizing Crimea within Ukraine's borders and underscored the invalidity of the 2014 Crimean referendum.[60]

The following non-members of the United Nations have made statements about their recognition of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia:

Rank State Notes
1  Abkhazia[61] The President of Abkhazia Alexander Ankvab said, "This is a classic example of when the will of the people is above to all" and "Abkhazia respects the will of Crimeans, [we] support and recognize their fateful choice [and] a nationwide solution is based not only on the historical past but on the modern political realities."[62][63]
2  Artsakh[64]
3  South Ossetia[65] On 5 March, Minister of Foreign Affairs David G. Sanakoyev released a statement blaming the unrest on the coup in Kiev carried out by "extremists" and U.S. interference. He further noted: "This unrest raised discontent of predominantly Russian speaking population of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Eastern regions of Ukraine who did not want to have the same scenario in the places of their residence. People of South Ossetia understand what is happening in Ukraine more than anybody else. South Ossetia suffered consequences of Georgian nationalism in August 2008, supported by clearly fascist Ukrainian organizations such as UNA-UNSO. It should be said that we express full solidarity with Russian Federation in support of the compatriots in Ukraine to prevent escalation and bloodshed."[66]
4  Transnistria[67] Transnistria's government asked the Russian government to make Transnistria become a part of Russia. Irina Kubanskikh, a spokeswoman for the Transnistrian parliament, said that the region's public bodies had "appealed to the Russian Federation leadership to examine the possibility of extending to Trans-Dniester the legislation, currently under discussion in the State Duma, on granting Russian citizenship and admitting new subjects into Russia."[68]

Pro Ukranian Support[edit]

The following member states have taken Pro Ukranian stance from Sanctions against Russia to Giving support to ukraine to voting for Ukraine's territorial integrity:

Rank State Notes
1  Albania[39][40] On 3 March, in a statement, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the military intervention of the Russian Federation in Ukraine, in defiance of the norms of international law and in violation of territorial sovereignty and integrity of the country.[69]
2  Andorra[39][40]
3  Antigua and Barbuda[40]
4  Argentina  Argentina had abstained from the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine referring to some governments' lack of coherence on similar questions.[70] President Cristina Fernández criticized what she called a double standard allowing the Falklands residents to hold a vote on their future, while condemning the Crimean referendum on union with Russia.[71][72]
5  Australia[39][40] On 2 March, Prime Minister Tony Abbott said that Russia's actions in Ukraine were "not the kind ... of a friend and neighbour and I think Russia should back off".[73] The Prime Minister told the Australian House of Representatives on 3 March that "Russia should back off, it should withdraw its forces from the Ukraine and people of the Ukraine ought to be able to determine their future themselves" with the Australian Government cancelling a planned visit to Russia by the Trade Minister Andrew Robb.[74]
6  Austria[39][40]
7  Azerbaijan[39] Azerbaijani ambassador to Ukraine, Eynulla Madatli, expressed public support on 3 March for Ukraine's territorial integrity.[75]
8  Bahamas[39]
9  Bahrain[39]
10  Barbados[39][40]
11  Belize[40]
12  Belgium[39][40]
13  Benin[39]
14  Bhutan[39][40]
15  Bulgaria[39][40] On 1 March, President Rosen Plevneliev said in a statement that "Bulgaria is for preserving the sovereignty, the territorial integrity and the democratic future of Ukraine". The President further said that the presence of foreign forces and their unauthorized activity within the territory of a sovereign state "raises serious concern" and called for an end to any provocative actions that could lead to "irreparable consequences not only for the region, but also for the international order".[76] In a later statement that day, following the Russia's Parliament decree allowing the usage of Russian armed forces in Crimea, President Plevneliev reiterated that "the only lasting solution may be achieved by peaceful means and if the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine is guaranteed" and that "[t]he usage of military force to occupy foreign territories is violation of the rules of international law". The President also called on the UN Security Council and the countries-guarantors to the Budapest Memorandum to ensure a peaceful solution to the problem and to avoid a further escalation of the tension. In conclusion, President Plevneliev stated that "[t]he people of Ukraine should alone decide what their future should be in a democratic way".[77]
17  Cameroon[39]
18  Canada[39][40] On Feb. 28 Foreign Minister Baird "congratulated the new government and emphasized the need to honour the 1994 Budapest Declaration's commitment to Ukraine's territorial sovereignty and national unity at this critical time."[78] On a March 1 phone call President Obama and Prime Minister Harper "affirmed the importance of unity within the international community in support of international law, and the future of Ukraine and its democracy.'[79] On the same day, Harper condemned Russia's military intervention in Ukraine; he announced that Canada had both recalled its ambassador to Russia and withdrew from preparations for the 40th G8 summit, which is to be chaired by Russia.[80] On March 3, the Canadian House of Commons passed unanimous motion condemning Russia's intervention in Crimea.[81] This was followed by Prime Minister Harper calling Russia's actions an "invasion and occupation" and Foreign Minister Baird comparing them to Nazi Germany's occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938.[82] Canada then suspended all military cooperation with Russia and the flag of Ukraine was flown on Parliament Hill in Ottawa on March 4.[83][84] On March 7, 2014 Canada requested any Russian military servicemen (at least nine) to leave its territory in 24 hours.[85]
19  Cape Verde[39]
20  Chad[39] 15 March the Chadian representative to the UN Security Council, Mamet Zene Cherif voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the March 16 referendum. He elaborated that his Government had consistently supported Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and had voted in favour of the resolution out of a commitment to such principles. Concerned about the continued escalation of the crisis, despite the Council's appeals for restraint and calm, he said it was still possible for the parties to open the way for national reconciliation and maintenance of territorial integrity by engaging in dialogue. With that, he reiterated the importance of upholding the principles of territorial integrity, non-use of force and peaceful settlement of disputes, in line with the Charter.[86]
21  Central African Republic[39]
22  Chile[39] 15 March the Chilean representative to the UN Security Council, Octavio Errazuriz voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the March 16 referendum. He elaborated that "as it was an appropriate response to the crisis in Ukraine. The Budapest Memorandum required the parties to observe Ukraine's independence and current borders, and to refrain from military measures. The planned referendum was not in line with Ukraine's Constitution, he said, emphasizing the fundamental importance of ensuring that the rule of law was observed, nationally and internationally. Indeed, it was for Ukrainians to choose their future through a democratic process that respected minority rights. The crisis must be resolved peacefully through dialogue, and Chile regretted the Council's inability to support the resolution due to the use of the veto. The Council had not fulfilled its responsibility." [86]
23  Colombia[39] The Foreign Ministry, on behalf of the government, released a press release stating "deep concern about the situation in Ukraine" while also deploring the "acts of violence that have taken place in the last couple of days". In the same press statement, Colombia urged the Government of Ukraine to "guarantee security, human rights, and the fundamental liberties of its citizens".[87]
24  Costa Rica[39][40]
25  Cyprus[39][40]
26  Czech Republic[39][40] Foreign Minister Lubomír Zaorálek said on March 1, "I unambiguously reject and condemn the steps taken by the Russian Federation over the recent days. ... Russia has committed, not only to respect Ukraine´s territorial integrity and sovereignty, but also to guarantee them." He also said it reminded him of the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.[88] On April 6, 2014, president of the Czech Republic, Miloš Zeman said in an interview for Czech radio that the EU should impose the toughest sanctions on Russia as "at the moment Russia would decide to widen its territorial expansion to the Ukrainian east, this will become really serious as this would trigger a chain reaction". But he also expressed an opinion that Crimea will not be returned to Ukraine in the foreseeable future.[89]Czech President Zeman also said: "Even though I understand the interests of Crimea's Russian-speaking majority, which was annexed to Ukraine by Khrushchev, we have our experience with the 1968 Russian military invasion."[90]
27  Denmark[39][40] Foreign Minister Martin Lidegaard stated on March 2 that, "This is a partial invasion of Ukraine by Russia". He made it clear that Denmark is working closely with the rest of EU and is preparing a condemning statement. He also called for Russia to respect international law.[91]
28  Democratic Republic of the Congo[39]
29  Djibouti[46]
30  Dominican Republic[39]
31  Ecuador[46]
32  Estonia[39][40] Foreign Minister Urmas Paet stated on March 1 that, "The Russian parliament's decision to authorise the use of troops in Ukraine is a clear threat to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity," and that Russia's "... military threats and actions against Ukraine must stop." He called for the Ukrainian leadership to pursue all actions to reduce tensions and restore societal unity.[92] Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves stated that the annexation was "done too quickly and professionally not to have been planned far in advance" and said that the failure of the Budapest Memorandum "may have far-reaching implications for generations. I don't know what country in the future would ever give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for a security guarantee."[93]
33  Finland[39][40] Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja stated on March 1, that Russia is implementing a military takeover of Crimean territory and by doing so Russia is violating several international treaties and laws.[94]
34  France[39][40] The representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Romain Nadal, expressed his concerns on events in Crimea and reminded the foreign minister Laurent Fabius repeatedly called upon to preserve the unity and integrity of Ukraine.[95]
35  Georgia[39][40] On 1 March, President Giorgi Margvelashvili called on the international community "not to allow new conflict in Europe and to use all the available means in order to avert possible aggression and to preserve sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[96]
On 11 March the President further stated that "The failure of the international community to punish Russia for its 2008 invasion of Georgia has let Moscow think it can get away with seizing Ukraine's Crimea region".[97]
On 6 March, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the resolution on supporting sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine and strongly condemned forceful actions against sovereign Ukraine by the Russian Federation as well as all other actions carried out in violation of basic principles of international law. The resolution emphasized that "the recent aggressive acts of the Russian Federation against the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, including the use of military units on the territory of Ukraine in violation of provisions of the bilateral agreements and the threat of large scale military aggression, pose a serious threat not only to friendly Ukraine, but also to Georgia and the entire Europe."[98]
36  Germany[39][40] Chancellor Angela Merkel called Russia's actions "unacceptable" and their doings would break international law. Merkel reminded that Russia accepted the independence of Ukraine in 1994 and is now not honoring the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances.[99][100] In a policy statement delivered to the Bundestag, she stated that "Ukraine's territorial integrity is not negotiable".[101] She was reported saying that Putin "lives in a different world" while talking with Barack Obama via phone.[102] Chancellor Merkel also stated "The so-called referendum…, the declaration of independence …, and the absorption into the Russian Federation (were), in our firm opinion,…against international law"[103] and that it was "shameful" for Russia to compare the independence of Kosovo with the referendum on the Russian annexation of Crimea.[104] In March 2015, after talks with Petro Poroshenko, Angela Merkel remarked that the annexation was in violation of international law, and therefore it's Germany's goal to restore the Crimean peninsula to Ukraine.
37  Greece[39][40]
38  Guatemala[39][40]
39  Guinea[39]
40  Guyana[46]
41  Haiti[39][40]
42  Honduras[39][40]
43  Hungary[39][40] In a statement issued 1 March, Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed concern about the situation on the Crimean Peninsula. The Ministry noted that the Visegrád Four Foreign Ministers had asked both the Kiev government leaders and the Donetsk region's political leaders to abstain from provocative steps that may heighten tension and lead to violence.[105] Hungarian government's reaction was criticized at home for being soft on Russia because of a recent deal PM Viktor Orbán had made with Russia to expand Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, Foreign Minister János Martonyi reassured ethnic Hungarians in Ukraine that Hungary would protect their interests.[106]
44  Iceland[39][40] Iceland condemned the actions of the Russian Federation regarding Crimea and expressed its full support to the Ukrainian people, Icelandic Minister for Foreign Affairs Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson told reporters in Kyiv on Saturday, 22 March 2014.[107]
45  Indonesia[39] The Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa, issued a statement expressing Indonesia's deep concern to the situation in Ukraine. He described the situation in Ukraine as "an international crisis which threatens not only the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, but also risks raising tensions in the relations between the affected countries." Indonesia respects the sovereignty of Ukraine and has called for all parties to resolve the issue through peaceful means. Indonesia also calls the UN Security Council, including Permanent Members "to shoulder its responsibility in accordance to the Charter of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security in responding to the crisis in Ukraine." The statement also suggests that the United Nations to send a special envoy to the Secretary General to the affected areas.[108]
46  Ireland[39][40] Tánaiste and Minister for Foreign Affairs Eamon Gilmore expressed concern regarding the developments in Ukraine. He called on the Russian Federation to abide by international law and to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and independence, called on all parties "to work to ensure that, through dialogue, all legitimate concerns can be addressed", and stressed the need for all sides to "avoid any provocation",[109] the latter expression echoing language used by both Russia Today and the European Parliament in relation to Kiev's abolition of the regional status of minority languages, including Russian,[110][111] as well as a recent attack on the headquarters of the Communist Party of Ukraine.[111]
47  Israel The Foreign Ministry's March 5 statement said, "Israel is following with great concern the events in Ukraine, is anxious for peace for all its citizens, and hopes that the situation will not escalate to a loss of human life. Israel hopes the crisis in Ukraine will be handled through diplomatic means and will be resolved peacefully."[112]However, Israel voted for a resolution against Crimea in 2017.[40]
48  Italy Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi accused Putin of having committed "an unacceptable violation".[113][114] On 19 March, during a speech in the Chamber of Deputies, Renzi stated that the Crimean status referendum was illegal and that the G8 countries must start cooperating to solve the crisis and prevent a return to the Cold War.[115] The Foreign Ministry's statement said, "Italy and its European partners strongly condemn the violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity and call on Russia to immediately withdraw its armed forces. They view the political-diplomatic channel as the only way to resolve the crisis."[116] In July 2018, the newly appointed interior minister of Italy Matteo Salvini, declared that the annexation of Crimea by Russia was legitimate, thus no official statement was made. [117]
49  Jamaica[46]
50  Japan[39][40] The Foreign Ministry issued a statement in which it said that the authorisation on Saturday "for use of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in Ukraine heightens the tension in the region and would harm the peace and stability of the international community," as well that "In this regard, Japan expresses grave anxiety and concern over the decision. ... Japan strongly expects that the situation in Ukraine will be settled in a peaceful manner and strongly urges all the parties concerned to behave with maximum self-restraint and responsibility, to fully observe the relevant international laws," it concluded.[118]
51  Jordan On March 15, Jordan voted for the resolution condemning the March 16 referendum. The Jordanian ambassador, Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein stating he had voted in favour of the resolution out of respect for Ukraine's sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, as well as for the principle of non-interference in internal affairs. Underlining the importance of adherence to the United Nations Charter, especially Article 1 on peaceful dispute settlement, he said Crimea was under Ukrainian sovereignty.[86]
52  Kiribati[39][40]
53  Kuwait[39]
54  Latvia President of Latvia, Speaker of the parliament, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister issued a joint statement stating that "Latvia strongly stands for the territorial integrity of Ukraine and is of the opinion that any measures aimed at splitting Ukrainian society and questioning the territorial integrity of the country must be condemned in the strongest terms possible.".[119]
Foreign Minister Edgars Rinkēvičs said, "The Crimea scenario resembles the occupation of the Baltic states by the USSR in 1940. History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce."[120]
55  Liberia[39][40]
56  Libya[39]
57  Liechtenstein[39][40] On March 5 Foreign Minister Aurelia Frick in the name of the Liechtenstein Government expressed hope for peaceful solution of the Crimean conflict and called for all parties to support the sovereignty of Ukraine.[121]
58  Lithuania The Foreign Ministry announced that it had called the Russian Ambassador to Lithuania to discuss the situation in Ukraine.[122]
President Dalia Grybauskaitė said that Russia was dangerous. "After Ukraine will be Moldova, and after Moldova will be different countries. They are trying to rewrite the borders after the Second World War in Europe."[120]
59  Luxembourg[39][40]
60  Macedonia[39][40] The Foreign Ministry issued a statement expressing its growing concern over the escalation of violence in Ukraine. It called for undertaking of all necessary measures for urgent easing of tensions, while underscoring the need for establishing political dialogue about all problems citizens of Ukraine face, the resolution of which necessitates involvement of all stakeholders. It also called for moderation and responsibility.[123]
61  Madagascar[39]
62  Malawi[39]
63  Maldives[39]
64  Malaysia[39] Malaysia through its Minister of Foreign Affairs views with deep concern the developments in Ukraine, particularly the situation in the Crimean peninsula. Given Malaysia's friendly relations with Russia and Ukraine, the country urge both to work towards a peaceful resolution of the issues between them. Malaysia also hopes that both sides would adopt a moderate approach and find a mutually acceptable solution. The interest, welfare and security of the people of Ukraine must be given top-most priority while taking into account the implications on the overall stability and peace in the region. Malaysia also supports all peaceful efforts including international diplomatic initiatives aimed at resolving the crisis situation in Ukraine. All parties involved must respect the rule of law, act responsibly and aim towards finding a peaceful settlement.[124]
65  Malta[39][40]
66  Marshall Islands[39][40]
67  Mauritius[39]
68  Mexico[39] On March 4, 2014, The foreign ministry issued a press release expressing Mexico's deep concern at the deteriorating situation in Ukraine and its support of calls for respect for Ukraine's national unity and territorial integrity, in accordance with the UN Charter and international law.[125]
69  Micronesia[39][40]
70  Moldova[39][40] On March 2, 2014, President Nicolae Timofti stated "Moldova underlines the importance to observe Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity and not to allow violation of the international law principles.[126]
71  Monaco[39][40]
72  Montenegro[39][40] On March 5, 2014, Government of Montenegro issued a statement condemning "blatant violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine and the aggression of Russian armed forces".[127]
73  Netherlands[39][40]
74  New Zealand[39][40] On March 3, 2014, Prime Minister of New Zealand John Key speaking on the morning news and talk show Breakfast, referred to the rising tensions in Ukraine as "deeply concerning". The Prime Minister further stated that while Russia has very real interests in Ukraine and Crimea specifically, he agreed with the United States condemnation of Russia's actions, stressing that it would, "...be a disaster if there was a major problem in the Ukraine," including that the use of force was in nobody's interests.[128]
75  Niger[39]
76  Nigeria[39] U. Joy Ogwo, Nigeria's representative on the UN Security Council, voted in favor of the US-backed resolution condemning 16 March referendum; she had voted in favour because the text embodied principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which obliged member states to settle disputes through peaceful means. Pointing out that the draft resolution was not a country-specific text, she said the pacific settlement of the territorial dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon through the International Court of Justice should serve as a beacon. Nigeria opposed unilateral actions aimed at altering a country's configuration.[86]
77  Norway[39][40] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the Russian military escalation in the Crimea together with the NATO countries. "The Russian authorities must immediately meet the Ukrainian request for dialogue to resolve the crisis without violence," said the Norwegian Foreign Minister Børge Brende.[129]
78  Palau[39][40]
79  Panama[39][40]
80  Papua New Guinea[39]
81  Peru[39]
82  Poland[39][40] On 1 March 2014, Poland "strongly appeal[ed] for respecting Ukraine's territorial integrity, and observing international law, including fundamental principles of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe...We urge states-signatories to the Budapest Memorandum of December 1994, which gives Ukraine security assurances, to respect and fulfil their commitments," said the MFA statement.[130]
On 6 March 2014, Poland's Minister of Defence Tomasz Siemoniak announced the arrival of 12 American F-16 fighter jets with 300 personnel per Poland's request at NATO, which was granted by the Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel. The situation in Ukraine, he said at a press conference, is extremely serious. The changing of guaranteed borders is not acceptable, neither is the blocking of the OBWE observers in Crimea. The F-16 aviation detachment AvDet is scheduled to station at the Air Force bases in Łask and Powidz.[131] Poland's President Bronisław Komorowski visited the Air Force base in Łask with Siemoniak on Tuesday 11 March 2014 and pronounced the urgent necessity for further military spending on the multi-purpose F-16 programme.[132] Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk called for change in EU energy policy as Germany's dependence on Russian gas poses risks for Europe.[133] On 11 March 2014 Tusk announced that the current situation in Crimea is only a phase in an ongoing crisis, but Poland cannot accept the territorial disintegration of sovereign Ukraine.[134] On August 29 Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially recognized "offensive action of the Russian armed forces in the southern regions of Donetsk oblast, in particular in the vicinity of the town of Nowoazowsk" as an aggression by international law.[135]
83  Portugal[39][40]
84  Qatar[39][40]
85  Romania[39][40] On 2 March, President Traian Basescu said that any Russian military presence in Ukraine, without Ukraine's approval and beyond the limits of bilateral accords, would be seen as an act of aggression.[136] On 6 March, the Romanian president took a stronger stance, declaring that 'what Russia has done in Ukraine is an aggression against that country.".[137] He further stated that Romania which has the largest minority in Ukraine aside from Russia (cca. 400.000 Romanian speaking Ukrainian citizens) should play an active role and do more in supporting US and European negotiations with Russia.[138]
86  Rwanda On 15 March, Rwandan ambassador Eugène-Richard Gasana voted a resolution in the UN Security Council condemning the March 16 referendum. He said the timing of action on the draft resolution was not productive. Now was the time for frank dialogue, rather than rhetoric that would isolate a country. The situations in Ukraine and Crimea had unfolded rapidly, and the pressure exerted by some countries had diverted attention away from careful analysis of their root causes. While Rwanda had still voted in favour of the text, which embodied important principles such as sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, it urged Ukraine to launch an inclusive national dialogue, and the international community to help avoid further deterioration of the situation.[86]
87  Samoa[39][40]
88  San Marino[39][40]
89  Saudi Arabia[39]
90  Seychelles[39][40]
91  Sierra Leone[39]
92  Singapore[39] On 5 March, Foreign Minister K Shanmugam spoke in parliament outlining Singapores official position: "We strongly object to any unprovoked invasion of a sovereign country under any pretext or excuse. Russian troops should not be in Ukraine in breach of international law. The sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine must be respected. International law must be respected. There can be no qualifications to this."[139]
93  Slovakia[39][40]
94  Slovenia[39][40] Prime Minister Alenka Bratušek said that all has to be done to prevent a military conflict to occur in Ukraine, while ministry of foreign affairs has offered to become a mediator for the EU.[140]
95  Solomon Islands[39][40]
96  Somalia[39]
97  South Korea[39] On 15 March, the representative of the Republic of Korea to the UN Security Council, Oh Joon voted in favor of a US sponsored resolution condemning the March 16 referendum. He elaborated that he "had voted in favour of the text, which embodied important principles such as sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity. Those principles should be respected. Today's failure to adopt the text would not close the window to a diplomatic solution, he emphasized."[86]
98  Spain[39][40] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation released a statement in support of the new Ukrainian government, saying the following: "The Spanish government is concerned about the situation in Ukraine, which remains uncertain and unstable. The current tension in Crimea is especially concerning". The government also expressed its "full support for the territorial integrity of Ukraine", and urged all actors to "cooperate in finding a solution, while dismissing any use of force".[141]
99  Sweden[39][40] Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt said March 2 in an interview on Sveriges Radio:"It's somewhat understandable that Russia is acting on concerns about the Russian minority of Crimea and eastern Ukraine, but not in the way they're doing it. There are of course methods for talking to the Ukrainian government and calm down the situation in that way."[142] In an interview on 19 March, he said that the Russian leadership "are making as many errors as they can, breaking international law and the collective security structure we have built since the end of the Cold War. We ought to feel very worried about that."[143] Foreign Minister Carl Bildt tweeted on March 1, "Russian military intervention in Ukraine is clearly against international law and principles of European security."[144] He added in an interview in the evening the same day, "There is no doubt that what is happening now is a scarcely camouflaged Russian takeover of Crimea"[145]
100   Switzerland[39][40]
101  Thailand[39]
102  Togo[39]
103  Trinidad and Tobago[39]
104  Tunisia[39]
105  Turkey[39][40] Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu stated on 28 February that "Turkey attaches importance to democracy and democracy-based political stability in Ukraine's future" and that "Crimea is important for Turkey as it is Turkey's door to Ukraine and it is also important for our Tatar compatriots."[146] Turkish President Abdullah Gül stated on 5 March that the problems must be solved within international law and with respect to Ukraine's political union and borders.[147] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said: "Unfortunately, throughout history, the right of the Crimean Tatar people to live in dignity in their own homeland was undermined with collective deportations and repression. Today we are witnessing the illegal annexation of the Crimea and other regrettable events," after meeting with Crimean leaders, International Business Times reported Monday, August 3.[148]
106  Turkmenistan[39] Turkmenistan was absent from the UN voting, but President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow supported Ukraine's territorial integrity in 2015.[149]
107  Tuvalu[40]
108  United Kingdom[39][40] The Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was "deeply concerned" at the escalation of tensions and the decision of the Russian parliament to authorise military action. He also said "This action is a potentially grave threat to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine. We condemn any act of aggression against Ukraine".[150]
On 2 March 2014, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that government officials were planning to boycott the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi in response to the situation in Crimea, while Prince Edward cancelled plans to travel to Sochi for the Games "on the advice of government." These decisions will not affect Great Britain's participation in the Games.[151] Cameron also said "No amount of sham and perverse democratic process or skewed historical references can make up for the fact that this is an incursion into a sovereign state and a land grab of part of its territory with no respect for the law of that country or for international law."[152]
109  United States[39][40] On 28 February, President Barack Obama's statement was released warning Russia not to intervene in Crimea. The statement said that President Obama is "deeply concerned by reports of military movements taken by the Russian Federation inside of Ukraine." It added that "any violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity would be deeply destabilizing, which is not in the interest of Ukraine, Russia, or Europe" and that it would be "a clear violation of Russia's commitment to respect the independence and sovereignty and borders of Ukraine, and of international laws."[153]
On 1 March, Obama held a phone conversation with Putin and said that the Russian invasion was a "violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity ... [and a] breach of international law." He warned of "greater political and economic isolation" and threatened to withdraw the United States from the 40th G8 summit chaired by Russia.[154]
Secretary of State John Kerry then labeled and condemned Russia's "invasion" of Ukraine on March 2 in an interview for Face the Nation. He called it an "incredible act of aggression," and said that "you just don't in the 21st century behave in 19th century fashion by invading another country on completely trumped up pretext."[155]
On 3 March, National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden announced that the United States would not send a presidential delegation to the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi (which was to be led by Tammy Duckworth), "in addition to other measures we are taking in response to the situation in Ukraine." As with the British boycott effort, it will not affect the country's participation in the Games themselves.[156]
On 6 March, Obama signed Executive Order 13660, Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, authorizing sanctions against persons who, being determined by the Secretary of the Treasury in consultation with the Secretary of State, have violated or assisted in the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[157][158]
On 17 March, Obama signed Executive Order 13661, Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, which expanded the scope of the previous sanctions imposed by EO 13660, to include the freezing of certain Russian government officials' assets in the US and blocking their entry into the US.[159]
The 113th United States Congress considered several different pieces of legislation that would offer the Ukraine different levels of loan guarantees, aid, and apply sanctions "against anyone deemed by the president to have undermined Ukraine's security or independence, or to have engaged in corruption in Ukraine or Russia."[160] Those bills included the bill To provide for the costs of loan guarantees for Ukraine (H.R. 4152; 113th Congress), the Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (S. 2124; 113th Congress), and the Ukraine Support Act (H.R. 4278; 113th Congress).[161][162][163] All three bills were introduced and considered in March 2014.
On 3 April, the United States Department of Energy informed the Russian state-run nuclear corporation Rosatom on suspension of several peaceful nuclear cooperation projects.[164]
110  Uruguay[46]
111  Vanuatu[40]
112  Yemen[40]

The following Non Member states have also voiced support for Ukraine's territorial integrity:

Rank State Notes
1  Kosovo The Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned what it termed the "occupation of Ukrainian territory, and the violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity in full contravention of Russia's obligations under the UN Charter, the Helsinki Final Act and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum."[165]
2  Taiwan On 4 March, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement that read: "The ROC government calls on all parties concerned to respect Ukraine's sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and democracy. We urge parties to begin negotiations as soon as possible, so as to peacefully resolve disputes in accordance with international law, prevent tensions from rising further, and work together to advance peace and stability in the region."[166]

Neutral positions[edit]

 Bosnia and Herzegovina On 2 March, Foreign Minister Zlatko Lagumdžija called for "Immediate calming of tensions as a key prerequisite for the maintenance of peace, security, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine as a full member of the UN" and said that "Sovereign Ukraine and its people have the right to define their own future, peacefully and through democratic dialogue, which guarantees stability and the international community has a duty and an obligation to support this".[167]. However, president of the autonomous region of Srpska, Milorad Dodik voiced support for Crimea, stating "The will of the people must be respected".[168]

 Palestine, Palestinian Ambassador to Russia Abdel Hafiz Nofal made a statement in an interview with the media, noting that the people of Crimea "have the right to self-determination," and Palestine itself "supports Russia's actions on this issue." However, soon the Palestinian diplomatic service refuted the ambassador’s words, stating that Nofal did not make any statements on the status of the Crimea.[169]

 Serbia, On November 5th, the Foreign Ministry issued a statement that it was "it once again wishes to reiterate that Serbia supports the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine."[170] The statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs says that Serbia also supports the continuation of the peace process, with firm belief that only dialogue can lead to a solution in accordance with international law and with the respect for the UN Charter. In 2017, however, Serbia voted against a resolution that called Russia an occupier of Crimea. Later President Vucic reiterated support for Ukrainian territorial integrity.[171]

 Vietnam, on March 5 Le Hai Binh, a spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of Vietnam, stated, "We hope that stability will soon be restored in Ukraine and that all issues will be resolved by law, for the sake of Ukrainian people, and of peace and development in the region and the world over."[172]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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