Proinflammatory cytokine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.

Examples include IL-1[1] and TNF alpha.[2] As well as other pro-inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin 1 (IL), IL 6 and IL 8, and IFNγ (interferon gamma)


Due to their proinflammatory action, they tend to make a disease worse by producing fever, inflammation, tissue destruction, and in some cases, even shock and death.[1]

Clinical implications[edit]

Reducing the biological activities of proinflammatory cytokines can reduce the brunt of attack of diseases mediated by proinflammatory cytokines.[1] Blocking IL-1 or TNF has been highly successful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease,[3] or graft-vs-host disease.[1] However, the strategy has not been successful in humans with sepsis.[1] The therapeutic effects of acupuncture may be related to its ability to suppress a range of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL1B, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d e Dinarello CA (Aug 2000). "Proinflammatory cytokines". Chest 118 (2): 503–8. doi:10.1378/chest.118.2.503. PMID 10936147. 
  2. ^ Cheung CY, Poon LL, Lau AS, Luk W, Lau YL, Shortridge KF, Gordon S, Guan Y, Peiris JS (Dec 2002). "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease?". Lancet 360 (9348): 1831–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11772-7. PMID 12480361. 
  3. ^ Strober W, Fuss IJ (May 2011). "Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases". Gastroenterology 140 (6): 1756–67. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.02.016. PMID 21530742. 
  4. ^ Wang XM, Walitt B, Saligan L, Tiwari AF, Cheung CW, Zhang ZJ (Mar 2015). "Chemobrain: a critical review and causal hypothesis of link between cytokines and epigenetic reprogramming associated with chemotherapy". Cytokine 72 (1): 86–96. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.12.006. PMID 25573802. Even acupuncture may have therapeutic potential considering its effects on suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10