Lymphotoxin beta

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For the snowboard company, see LTB (company). For lateral torsional buckling, see Buckling § Lateral-torsional_buckling.
LTB
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases LTB, TNFC, TNFSF3, p33, Lymphotoxin beta, TNLG1C
External IDs MGI: 104796 HomoloGene: 1752 GeneCards: LTB
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LTB 207339 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_009588
NM_002341

NM_008518

RefSeq (protein)

NP_002332
NP_033666

NP_032544.1
NP_032544

Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 31.58 – 31.58 Mb Chr 17: 35.19 – 35.2 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) also known as tumor necrosis factor C (TNF-C) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTB gene.[3][4][5]

Function[edit]

Lymphotoxin beta is a type II membrane protein of the TNF family. It anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface through heterotrimer formation. The predominant form on the lymphocyte surface is the lymphotoxin-alpha 1/beta 2 complex (e.g. 1 molecule alpha/2 molecules beta) and this complex is the primary ligand for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor. The minor complex is lymphotoxin-alpha 2/beta 1. LTB is an inducer of the inflammatory response system and involved in normal development of lymphoid tissue. Lymphotoxin-beta isoform b is unable to complex with lymphotoxin-alpha suggesting a function for lymphotoxin-beta which is independent of lymphotoxin-alpha. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[5]

Pro-tumorigenic function of membrane LT is clearly established: mice with overexpression of LTα or LTβ showed increased tumor growth and metastasis in several models of cancer. However, these studies utilized mice with complete LTα gene deficiency that did not allow to distinguish effects of soluble versus membrane-associated LT.[6]

Interactions[edit]

LTB has been shown to interact with Lymphotoxin alpha.[7][8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Browning JL, Ngam-ek A, Lawton P, DeMarinis J, Tizard R, Chow EP, Hession C, O'Brine-Greco B, Foley SF, Ware CF (Mar 1993). "Lymphotoxin beta, a novel member of the TNF family that forms a heteromeric complex with lymphotoxin on the cell surface". Cell. 72 (6): 847–56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90574-A. PMID 7916655. 
  4. ^ Browning JL, Androlewicz MJ, Ware CF (Aug 1991). "Lymphotoxin and an associated 33-kDa glycoprotein are expressed on the surface of an activated human T cell hybridoma". Journal of Immunology. 147 (4): 1230–7. PMID 1714477. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: LTB lymphotoxin beta (TNF superfamily, member 3)". 
  6. ^ Korneev, KV; Atretkhany, KN; Drutskaya, MS; Grivennikov, SI; Kuprash, DV; Nedospasov, SA (January 2017). "TLR-signaling and proinflammatory cytokines as drivers of tumorigenesis.". Cytokine. 89: 127–135. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.021. PMID 26854213. 
  7. ^ Williams-Abbott L, Walter BN, Cheung TC, Goh CR, Porter AG, Ware CF (Aug 1997). "The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha) subunit is essential for the assembly, but not for the receptor specificity, of the membrane-anchored LTalpha1beta2 heterotrimeric ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (31): 19451–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19451. PMID 9235946. 
  8. ^ Browning JL, Sizing ID, Lawton P, Bourdon PR, Rennert PD, Majeau GR, Ambrose CM, Hession C, Miatkowski K, Griffiths DA, Ngam-ek A, Meier W, Benjamin CD, Hochman PS (Oct 1997). "Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 159 (7): 3288–98. PMID 9317127. 
  9. ^ Browning JL, Dougas I, Ngam-ek A, Bourdon PR, Ehrenfels BN, Miatkowski K, Zafari M, Yampaglia AM, Lawton P, Meier W (Jan 1995). "Characterization of surface lymphotoxin forms. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors". Journal of Immunology. 154 (1): 33–46. PMID 7995952. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Messer G, Spengler U, Jung MC, Honold G, Blömer K, Pape GR, Riethmüller G, Weiss EH (Jan 1991). "Polymorphic structure of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus: an NcoI polymorphism in the first intron of the human TNF-beta gene correlates with a variant amino acid in position 26 and a reduced level of TNF-beta production". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 173 (1): 209–19. doi:10.1084/jem.173.1.209. PMC 2118757Freely accessible. PMID 1670638. 
  • Abraham LJ, Du DC, Zahedi K, Dawkins RL, Whitehead AS (1991). "Haplotypic polymorphisms of the TNFB gene". Immunogenetics. 33 (1): 50–3. doi:10.1007/BF00211695. PMID 1671667. 
  • Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, Pennica D, Goeddel DV, Gray PW (Sep 1985). "Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (17): 6361–73. doi:10.1093/nar/13.17.6361. PMC 321958Freely accessible. PMID 2995927. 
  • Holzinger I, de Baey A, Messer G, Kick G, Zwierzina H, Weiss EH (1995). "Cloning and genomic characterization of LST1: a new gene in the human TNF region". Immunogenetics. 42 (5): 315–22. doi:10.1007/BF00179392. PMID 7590964. 
  • Peelman LJ, Chardon P, Nunes M, Renard C, Geffrotin C, Vaiman M, Van Zeveren A, Coppieters W, van de Weghe A, Bouquet Y (Mar 1995). "The BAT1 gene in the MHC encodes an evolutionarily conserved putative nuclear RNA helicase of the DEAD family". Genomics. 26 (2): 210–8. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80203-X. PMID 7601445. 
  • Browning JL, Dougas I, Ngam-ek A, Bourdon PR, Ehrenfels BN, Miatkowski K, Zafari M, Yampaglia AM, Lawton P, Meier W (Jan 1995). "Characterization of surface lymphotoxin forms. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors". Journal of Immunology. 154 (1): 33–46. PMID 7995952. 
  • Albertella MR, Campbell RD (May 1994). "Characterization of a novel gene in the human major histocompatibility complex that encodes a potential new member of the I kappa B family of proteins". Human Molecular Genetics. 3 (5): 793–9. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.5.793. PMID 8081366. 
  • Iris FJ, Bougueleret L, Prieur S, Caterina D, Primas G, Perrot V, Jurka J, Rodriguez-Tome P, Claverie JM, Dausset J (Feb 1993). "Dense Alu clustering and a potential new member of the NF kappa B family within a 90 kilobase HLA class III segment". Nature Genetics. 3 (2): 137–45. doi:10.1038/ng0293-137. PMID 8499947. 
  • Nakamura T, Tashiro K, Nazarea M, Nakano T, Sasayama S, Honjo T (Nov 1995). "The murine lymphotoxin-beta receptor cDNA: isolation by the signal sequence trap and chromosomal mapping". Genomics. 30 (2): 312–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9872. PMID 8586432. 
  • Utans U, Quist WC, McManus BM, Wilson JE, Arceci RJ, Wallace AF, Russell ME (May 1996). "Allograft inflammatory factory-1. A cytokine-responsive macrophage molecule expressed in transplanted human hearts". Transplantation. 61 (9): 1387–92. doi:10.1097/00007890-199605150-00018. PMID 8629302. 
  • Nalabolu SR, Shukla H, Nallur G, Parimoo S, Weissman SM (Jan 1996). "Genes in a 220-kb region spanning the TNF cluster in human MHC". Genomics. 31 (2): 215–22. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0034. PMID 8824804. 
  • Laham N, Van Dunné F, Abraham LJ, Farrugia W, Bendtzen K, Brennecke SP, Rice GE (Apr 1997). "Tumor necrosis factor-beta in human pregnancy and labor". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 33 (1): 53–69. doi:10.1016/S0165-0378(97)01012-7. PMID 9185077. 
  • Warzocha K, Renard N, Charlot C, Bienvenu J, Coiffier B, Salles G (Sep 1997). "Identification of two lymphotoxin beta isoforms expressed in human lymphoid cell lines and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 238 (2): 273–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7277. PMID 9299492. 
  • Browning JL, Sizing ID, Lawton P, Bourdon PR, Rennert PD, Majeau GR, Ambrose CM, Hession C, Miatkowski K, Griffiths DA, Ngam-ek A, Meier W, Benjamin CD, Hochman PS (Oct 1997). "Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 159 (7): 3288–98. PMID 9317127. 
  • de Baey A, Fellerhoff B, Maier S, Martinozzi S, Weidle U, Weiss EH (Nov 1997). "Complex expression pattern of the TNF region gene LST1 through differential regulation, initiation, and alternative splicing". Genomics. 45 (3): 591–600. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4963. PMID 9367684. 
  • Shiina T, Tamiya G, Oka A, Yamagata T, Yamagata N, Kikkawa E, Goto K, Mizuki N, Watanabe K, Fukuzumi Y, Taguchi S, Sugawara C, Ono A, Chen L, Yamazaki M, Tashiro H, Ando A, Ikemura T, Kimura M, Inoko H (Feb 1998). "Nucleotide sequencing analysis of the 146-kilobase segment around the IkBL and MICA genes at the centromeric end of the HLA class I region". Genomics. 47 (3): 372–82. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5114. PMID 9480751. 
  • Bodor J, Habener JF (Apr 1998). "Role of transcriptional repressor ICER in cyclic AMP-mediated attenuation of cytokine gene expression in human thymocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (16): 9544–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.16.9544. PMID 9545284. 
  • Neville MJ, Campbell RD (Apr 1999). "A new member of the Ig superfamily and a V-ATPase G subunit are among the predicted products of novel genes close to the TNF locus in the human MHC". Journal of Immunology. 162 (8): 4745–54. PMID 10202016.