Lymphotoxin alpha

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Protein LTA PDB 1tnr.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases LTA, LT, TNFB, TNFSF1, Lymphotoxin alpha, TNLG1E
External IDs MGI: 104797 HomoloGene: 497 GeneCards: LTA
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LTA 206975 at tn.png

PBB GE LTA gnf1h00007 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 31.57 – 31.57 Mb Chr 17: 35.2 – 35.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) or Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.[3][4]


Lymphotoxin alpha, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes. LTA is highly inducible, secreted, and exists as homotrimeric molecule. LTA forms heterotrimers with lymphotoxin-beta, which anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface. LTA mediates a large variety of inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antiviral responses. LTA is also involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs during development and plays a role in apoptosis.[5]

In LTα knockout mice, all Peyer's patches and lymph nodes will fail to develop indicating LTα's importance in immunological development.[6]


Lymphotoxin alpha has been shown to interact with LTB.[7][8][9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, Pennica D, Goeddel DV, Gray PW (Sep 1985). "Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (17): 6361–73. doi:10.1093/nar/13.17.6361. PMC 321958Freely accessible. PMID 2995927. 
  4. ^ Aggarwal BB, Eessalu TE, Hass PE (February 1986). "Characterization of receptors for human tumour necrosis factor and their regulation by gamma-interferon". Nature. 318 (6047): 665–7. doi:10.1038/318665a0. PMID 3001529. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: LTA lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1)". 
  6. ^ Akirav, Eitan; Liao, Shan; Ruddle, Nancy (2008). "Chapter 2: Lymphoid Tissues and Organs". In Paul, William. Fundamental Immunology (Book) (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 27–55. ISBN 0-7817-6519-6. 
  7. ^ Williams-Abbott L, Walter BN, Cheung TC, Goh CR, Porter AG, Ware CF (Aug 1997). "The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha) subunit is essential for the assembly, but not for the receptor specificity, of the membrane-anchored LTalpha1beta2 heterotrimeric ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (31): 19451–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19451. PMID 9235946. 
  8. ^ Browning JL, Sizing ID, Lawton P, Bourdon PR, Rennert PD, Majeau GR, Ambrose CM, Hession C, Miatkowski K, Griffiths DA, Ngam-ek A, Meier W, Benjamin CD, Hochman PS (Oct 1997). "Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 159 (7): 3288–98. PMID 9317127. 
  9. ^ Browning JL, Dougas I, Ngam-ek A, Bourdon PR, Ehrenfels BN, Miatkowski K, Zafari M, Yampaglia AM, Lawton P, Meier W (Jan 1995). "Characterization of surface lymphotoxin forms. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors". Journal of Immunology. 154 (1): 33–46. PMID 7995952. 

Further reading[edit]