Available structures PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
List of PDB id codes 1B3A, 1EQT, 1HRJ, 1RTN, 1RTO, 1U4L, 1U4M, 1U4P, 1U4R, 2L9H, 2VXW, 5CMD, 5DNF, 5COY Identifiers Aliases , D17S136E, RANTES, SCYA5, SIS-delta, SISd, TCP228, eoCP, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 CCL5 External IDs OMIM: 187011 MGI: 98262 HomoloGene: 2244 GeneCards: CCL5 Orthologs Species Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl UniProt RefSeq (mRNA) RefSeq (protein) Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 35.87 – 35.88 Mb Chr 11: 83.53 – 83.53 Mb PubMed search   Wikidata
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as  RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted). RANTES was first described by Dr. Tom Schall who named the protein, the original source of the name Rantes was from the Argentine movie about an alien who shows up in a mental ward who was named Rantés, the rather clunky acronym was only made to fit the name. Man Facing Southeast
Function [ edit ]
CCL5 is an 8kDa
protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer ( NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an  HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells This chemokine has been localized to  chromosome 17 in humans.
RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed "late" (3–5 days) after
T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 ( KLF13).    RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive factor secreted by activated CD8+ T cells and other immune cells.  Recently, the RANTES protein has been engineered for  in vivo production by Lactobacillus bacteria, and this solution is being developed into a possible HIV entry-inhibiting topical microbicide.
Interactions [ edit ]
CCL5 has been shown to
interact with CCR3,   CCR5    and  CCR1. 
CCL5 also activates the G-protein coupled receptor
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
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ENSG00000274233 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000271503, ENSG00000274233 - Ensembl, May 2017
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GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000035042 - Ensembl, May 2017
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Wallace MR, Collins FS, Lovett M, Clayberger C (March 1990). "Localization of a human T-cell-specific gene, RANTES (D17S136E), to chromosome 17q11.2-q12" (PDF). Genomics. 6 (3): 548–53. doi: 10.1016/0888-7543(90)90485-D. hdl: . 2027.42/28717 PMID 1691736.
Cohen P (14 December 1996). "Hooked on HIV - What's the connection between a 1980s film character and the cutting edge of AIDS research? Philip Cohen reports on a protein that's unlocking HIV's mysteries". Copyright New Scientist Ltd.
Maghazachi AA, Al-Aoukaty A, Schall TJ (February 1996). "CC chemokines induce the generation of killer cells from CD56+ cells". Eur. J. Immunol. 26 (2): 315–9. doi: 10.1002/eji.1830260207. PMID 8617297.
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Cocchi F, DeVico AL, Garzino-Demo A, Arya SK, Gallo RC, Lusso P (December 1995). "Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells". Science. 270 (5243): 1811–5. doi: 10.1126/science.270.5243.1811. PMID 8525373. S2CID 84062618.
Schall TJ, Jongstra J, Dyer BJ, Jorgensen J, Clayberger C, Davis MM, Krensky AM (August 1988). "A human T cell-specific molecule is a member of a new gene family". J. Immunol. 141 (3): 1018–25. PMID 2456327.
Alan M. Krensky (1995). Biology of the Chemokine in Rantes (Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit). R G Landes Co. ISBN . 978-1-57059-253-9
Song A, Chen YF, Thamatrakoln K, Storm TA, Krensky AM (January 1999). "RFLAT-1: a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes". Immunity. 10 (1): 93–103. doi: . 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80010-2 PMID 10023774.
Song A, Nikolcheva T, Krensky AM (October 2000). "Transcriptional regulation of RANTES expression in T lymphocytes". Immunol. Rev. 177: 236–45. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-065X.2000.17610.x. PMID 11138780. S2CID 30184294.
Vangelista L, Secchi M, Liu X, Bachi A, Jia L, Xu Q, Lusso P (July 2010). "Engineering of Lactobacillus jensenii to secrete RANTES and a CCR5 antagonist analogue as live HIV-1 blockers". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54 (7): 2994–3001. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01492-09. PMC . 2897324 PMID 20479208. Lay summary – Science Daily.
Daugherty BL, Siciliano SJ, DeMartino JA, Malkowitz L, Sirotina A, Springer MS (May 1996). "Cloning, expression, and characterization of the human eosinophil eotaxin receptor". J. Exp. Med. 183 (5): 2349–54. doi: 10.1084/jem.183.5.2349. PMC . 2192548 PMID 8642344.
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Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Put W, D'Haese A, De Clercq E, Schols D, Proost P, Van Damme J (July 2001). "Diverging binding capacities of natural LD78beta isoforms of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha to the CC chemokine receptors 1, 3 and 5 affect their anti-HIV-1 activity and chemotactic potencies for neutrophils and eosinophils". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (7): 2170–8. doi: . 10.1002/1521-4141(200107)31:7<2170::AID-IMMU2170>3.0.CO;2-D PMID 11449371.
Slimani H, Charnaux N, Mbemba E, Saffar L, Vassy R, Vita C, Gattegno L (October 2003). "Interaction of RANTES with syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 expressed by human primary macrophages". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1617 (1–2): 80–8. doi: . 10.1016/j.bbamem.2003.09.006 PMID 14637022.
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Laplana M, Fibla J (April 2012). "Distribution of functional polymorphic variants of inflammation-related genes RANTES and CCR5 in long-lived individuals". Cytokine. 58 (1): 10–13. doi: . 10.1016/j.cyto.2011.12.021 PMID 22265023.
Ignatov A, Robert J, Gregory-Evans C, Schaller HC (November 2006). "RANTES stimulates Ca2+ mobilization and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation in cells transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 75". Br. J. Pharmacol. 149 (5): 490–7. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706909. PMC . 2014681 PMID 17001303.
External links [ edit ]
Further reading [ edit ]
Muthumani K, Desai BM, Hwang DS, Choo AY, Laddy DJ, Thieu KP, Rao RG, Weiner DB (2004). "HIV-1 Vpr and anti-inflammatory activity". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 239–47. doi: 10.1089/104454904773819824. PMID 15142381.
Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Res. 15 (3): 143–9. doi: . 10.1038/sj.cr.7290279 PMID 15780175.
Zhao RY, Bukrinsky M, Elder RT (2005). "HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses". Indian J. Med. Res. 121 (4): 270–86. PMID 15817944.
Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11–12): 923–34. doi: . 10.1038/sj.cr.7290370 PMID 16354571. Ignatov A, Robert J, Gregory-Evans C, Schaller HC (Nov 2006). "RANTES stimulates Ca2+ mobilization and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation in cells transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 75". Br J Pharmacol. 149 (5): 490–7. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706909. PMC . 2014681 PMID 17001303.