tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers. Members of this superfamily can be released from the cell membrane by extracellular proteolytic cleavage and function as a cytokine. These proteins are expressed predominantly by immune cells and they regulate diverse cell functions, including immune response and inflammation, but also proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and embryogenesis. 
The superfamily contains 19 members that bind to 29 members of
TNF receptor superfamily. An occurrence of  orthologs in invertebrates hints at ancient origin of this superfamily in evolution.
PROSITE pattern of this superfamily is located in a beta sheet in the central section of the protein that is conserved across all members.
Members [ edit ]
There are 19 family members, numerically classified as TNFSF#, where # denotes the member number, sometimes followed by a letter.
LTA Induction of inflammation and antiviral response, development of secondary lymphoid organs, role in tumorigenesis
Tumor necrosis factor
TNFα, Dif, Necrosin, TNFSF1A, ...
TNF Regulation of immune cells, induction of fever, cachexia, inflammation and apoptosis, inhibition of tumorigenesis and viral replication and response to sepsis
LTB Induction of inflammation and antiviral response, development of secondary lymphoid organs, role in tumorigenesis
CD252, Gp34, CD134L
TNFSF4 Activation of T cell immune response by T cell costimulation
CD154, TRAP, Gp39, T-BAM
CD40LG Regulation of adaptive immune response by activating antigen-presenting cell
CD178, APTL, CD95L
FASLG Regulation of T cell homeostasis by induction of apoptosis
CD70 Regulation of B cell activation and T cell homeostasis
TNFSF8 Induction of apoptosis of T cells and B cells, prevention of autoimmunity
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
TNFSF10 Inhibition of tumorigenesis, induction of apoptosis
Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand
CD254, OPGL, TRANCE, ODF
TNFSF11 Tissue growth (particularly bone regeneration and remodeling), dendritic cell maturation
TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis
TNFSF12 Regulation of angiogenesis, induction of apoptosis
A proliferation-inducing ligand
CD256, TALL-2, TRDL1
TNFSF13 Regulation of B cell development and plasma cell survival
B-cell activating factor
CD257, BLyS, TALL-1, TNFSF20, ...
TNFSF13B Stimulation of B cell proliferation and differentiation
TNFSF14 Stimulation of T cell proliferation, apoptosis regulation
Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor
TNFSF15 Inhibition of angiogenesis
TNF superfamily member 18
GITRL, AITRL, TL-6
TNFSF18 Regulation of T cell survival
Development of ectodermal tissues
References [ edit ]
Baeyens KJ, De Bondt HL, Raeymaekers A, Fiers W, De Ranter CJ (April 1999). "The structure of mouse tumour-necrosis factor at 1.4 A resolution: towards modulation of its selectivity and trimerization". Acta Crystallographica Section D. 55 (Pt 4): 772–8. doi: 10.1107/s0907444998018435. PMID 10089307.
^ a b c
The evolution of the immune system: conservation and diversification. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2016. ISBN . 978-0-12-801975-7 OCLC 950694824.
Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology (Ninth ed.). Philadelphia, PA. ISBN . 978-0-323-47978-3 OCLC 973917896.
^ a b
Aggarwal BB, Gupta SC, Kim JH (January 2012). "Historical perspectives on tumor necrosis factor and its superfamily: 25 years later, a golden journey". Blood. 119 (3): 651–65. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-04-325225. PMC . 3265196 PMID 22053109.
External links [ edit ]