|City of regional significance|
|Nickname(s): Franyk (Франик)|
|• Mayor||Ruslan Martsinkiv (Svoboda)|
|• Total||119,73 km2 (4,623 sq mi)|
|Elevation||244 m (801 ft)|
|• Density||19/km2 (50/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code||+380 342|
Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukrainian: Іва́но-Франкі́вськ, translit. Ivano-Frankivs'k [iˈβɑnofrɐnˈkiu̯sʲk] ( listen); formerly Stanyslaviv, Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Administratively, it is designated as a city of regional significance within the oblast, and together with a number of rural localities, is incorporated as Ivano-Frankivsk Municipality. Population: 230,929 (2016 est.).
Built in the mid 17th century as a private fortress of the Polish Potocki family, with the partition of Poland in 1772 Stanisławów passed to the Habsburg Empire, after which it became the property of the State authorities of the Austrian Empire. It was during that time that the fortress was transformed into one of the most prominent cities at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. After World War I, for a short stint it served as temporary capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic, after the fall of which Stanisławów became part of the Second Polish Republic. At the dawn of World War II, the city was annexed by the Soviet Union, only to be occupied by Nazi Germany two years later. With the liberation of Ukraine in 1944, a Soviet regime was established in the city for the next 45 years. A few years before the fall of the Soviet Union, the blue-yellow flag was raised in the city as the symbol of an independent Ukraine.
A city visitor may find elements of various cultures intertwined within Ivano-Frankivsk, the Polish city hall, the Austrian city's business center, the Soviet prefabicated apartment blocks at the city's urban-rural fringe, and others. The city is third in population among other cities in the Carpathian Euroregion, yielding only to Lviv and Košice.
- 1 Name Stanisławów
- 2 History
- 3 Climate and geography
- 4 Population and demographics
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture and sports
- 8 City's radio, television, press media
- 9 Notable people
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Stanisławów was founded as a fortress in 1663 and was named after the Polish hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki, although other sources claim it was named after his grandson. In 1772, its name was transliterated into German as Stanislau when it became part of the Austrian Empire and later Austria-Hungary; however, after the revolution of 1848, the city carried three different linguistic renderings of its name: German, Polish, and Ruthenian (German: Stanislau, pronounced [ˈʃtaːnɪslaʊ̯]; Polish: Stanisławów, pronounced [staɲiˈswavuf]); Ukrainian: Станісла́вів, Stanyslaviv, pronounced [stɐnʲiˈslɑβiu̯]. Other spellings used in the local press-media included: Russian: Станиславов and Yiddish: סטאַניסלאוו. After World War II it was changed by the Soviet authorities into a simplified version Stanislav (Ukrainian: Станісла́в, pronounced [stɐnʲiˈslɑu̯]; Russian: Станисла́в, pronounced [stənʲɪˈsɫaf]). In 1962, on the city's 300th anniversary, it was renamed to honor the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. Due to the city's oversized name, unofficially it is sometimes called simply Franyk (Франик) by its residents. Even though Ivano-Frankivsk is the officially accepted name, the city's original name was never fully abandoned and/or forgotten and can be found throughout the city in all kinds of variations.
- Name change
- 1662 founded as Stanisławów
- 1772 transliteration change to Stanislau
- 1919 transliteration change to Stanislaviv
- 1919 transliteration change to Stanisławów
- 1939 transliteration change to Stanislav
- 1941 transliteration change to Stanislau
- 1944 transliteration change to Stanislav
- November 9, 1962 name change to Ivano-Frankivsk (as an honour to Ivan Franko)
The city, named Stanisławów (Stanyslaviv), was erected as a fortress to protect the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions and to reinforce the region in case of some other Khmelnytsky Uprising would occur. It was built out of a fort that was erected next to the villages of Zabolotiv which had been known since 1435 and Knyahynyn (1449). The village of Zabolotiv and the land around it were purchased by Stanisław Rewera Potocki from another Polish nobleman Rzeczkowski. By 1672 the fortress had been restructured from wood into brick. Also a new large fortified Potocki palace was erected in the place of older smaller wooden one. Today this building serves as the military hospital. In the same year Jews were granted the right to become permanent residents, and who could work, conduct commerce, and come and go from the city as they pleased.
Originally the city was divided into two districts: Tysmenytsia and Halych. Sometime in 1817–1819 the neighbouring village of Zabolottya, that had a special status, was incorporated into the city as a new district, while the Tysmenytsia district was divided into Tysmenytsia and Lysets districts. Each district had its main street corresponded with its name: Halych Street (Halych district), Tysmenytsia Street which today is Independence Street (Tysmenytsia district), Zabolotiv Street – Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street and Street of Vasylyanok (Zabolottya district), and Lysets Street – Hetman Mazepa Street (Lysets district). Later the city was split into six small districts: midtown where the rich Catholic population and patricians lived, pidzamche (subcastle), and four suburbs – Zabolotiv, Tysmenytia, Halych and Lysets where the plebeians lived.
In October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR) was proclaimed. In the early months of 1919 (from January to May) the city became a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian National Republic, while still recovering from World War I. All state affairs took place in the building of Dnister Hotel where the Act Zluky (Unification Act) was composed and signed on January 22, 1919 by the Ukrainian People's Republic. The same year it was subjected to the Polish–Ukrainian and the Romanian-Ukrainian skirmishes eventually being annexed by Poland as part of the Second Polish Republic as the centre of the Stanisławów Voivodship. It was occupied by the Romanian army for the summer months from May 25 through August 21, 1919. During the Polish-Soviet War in 1920, the Red Army took over the city for a brief period. After the Soviet retreat, Ukrainian troops loyal to Symon Petlura occupied the city for a few days. At this period of history the city was in complete disorder.
In the 1939 invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, the territory was captured by the Soviets in September 1939 and included into the Ukrainian SSR. Between September 1939 and June 1941, the Soviet regime ordered thousands of inhabitants of the city to leave their houses and move to Siberia, where most of them perished. Numerous people were taken out of the city prison and simply shot outside of the city when Soviet forces were leaving it in 1941. Ivano-Frankivsk was occupied by German forces from July 2, 1941 to July 27, 1944. There were more than 40,000 Jews in Stanisławów when it was occupied by the Nazi Germany on July 26, 1941. During the occupation (1941–44), more than 600 educated Poles and most of the city's Jewish population were murdered.
Beginning in 1944 the city became part of the Soviet Union and was renamed 'Stanislav'. The Soviets forced most of the Polish population to leave the city, most of them settled in the Recovered Territories. During the post-war period the city was part of the Carpathian Military District housing the 38th Army (70th Motor Rifle Division) that participated in the Operation Dunai.
- 1650–1662: establishing a private fortress of Potocki and seeking the Magdeburg rights
- 1662–1772: Stanisławów, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (within the Kingdom of Poland),
- 1772–1809: Stanislau, Austrian Monarchy (within the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria),
- 1809–1815: Stanislav, Russian Empire,
- 1815–1918: Stanislau, Austrian Empire, then Austria–Hungary,
- November 1918 – May 1919: Stanyslaviv, West Ukrainian People's Republic,
- May 1919 – September 1939: Stanisławów, Poland, seat of the Stanisławów Voivodship,
- October 1939 – June 1941: Stanyslaviv, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic,
- July 1941 – August 1944: Stanislau, seat of the Stanislau Kreis, Distrikt Galizien, Generalgouvernement,
- August 1944 – 1962: Stanislav,
- 1962: renamed in Ivano-Frankivsk, oblast seat, Ukrainian SSR,
- Post–1991: Ivano-Frankivsk, independent Ukraine.
Climate and geography
As is the case with most of Ukraine, the climate is moderate continental with warm summers, and fairly cold winters. The following climate data provided is for the past 62 years. The average number of days with precipitation is 170 spread almost equally throughout a year. Most precipitation takes place during the winter months and least – early fall. Thunderstorms occur mostly in summer months averaging around 25 annually. Ivano-Frankivsk averages about 296 days of fog or misty days with about 24 per month.
|Climate data for Ivano-Frankivsk (1949–2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−33.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||26.3
|Average precipitation days||19.6||18.0||18.4||13.1||13.6||13.2||11.3||8.7||11.4||11.7||13.8||17.7||170.5|
|Average snowy days||14||13||9||3||0||0||0||0||0||1||7||13||60|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83.4||80.5||74.9||68.0||70.2||73.2||74.6||75.4||78.5||80.9||84.8||86.6||77.6|
|Source #1: Climatebase.ru|
|Source #2: Weatherbase|
The city is situated in the Carpathian region northeast of the mountain range, sitting approximately 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level. One of the several main geographical features is the Vovchynets Hill also known as the Vovchynets Mountains. The hill reaches 300-350 metres (1,150 ft) above the sea level and is part of the Pokuttya Highland (Upland). Around the hill Bystrytsia River branches into Bystrytsia of Nadvirna, Bystrytsia of Solotvyn, and Vorona. The last two rivers serve a natural border between the Pokuttya Highland and Stanislav Basin. The Vovchynets Hill is located just outside and northeast of Ivano-Frankivsk. Located southeast from the Stanislav Basin in the direction of the Prut Valley is the Khorosnen (Prut-Bystrytsia) Highland. The highest point of that highland is the mount Hostra 425 metres (1,394 ft).
The closest neighboring city is Tysmenytsia less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the east. Other cities that lie in the radius of 25 to 30 km (16 to 19 mi) are Tlumach (east), Nadvirna (south), Kalush (west), and Halych (north). The city also administers five adjacent villages that surround it: Mykytyntsi, Krykhivtsi, Vovchynets, Uhornyky, and Khryplyn.
Population and demographics
Note: Historical population record is taken out of Ivano-Frankivsk portal, more recent – the Regional Directorate of Statistics. There is also other information on a population growth such as the JewishGen. With asterisk there are identified years of approximate data. In the 18th century, differentiation among Poles and Ukrainians was by religious background rather than ethnic (Catholics vs. Orthodox).
- Public transportation
The city of Ivano-Frankivsk has an extensive network of public transport including buses, trolleybuses, and taxis. There are nine trolleybus routes and about 52 for regular buses. Some of the routes run beyond the city into nearby villages.
- Railway transportation
There is one railway terminal that serves the Ivano-Frankivsk train station. There are also smaller rail stations in adjacent villages, including Uhryniv and Khryplyn. All of them are part of Lviv Railways.
- Bus transportation
Until 2008, the railway terminal also housed a bus terminal which provided several inter-city bus routes, including some to international destinations. In 2000, construction began on a new bus terminal next to the railway terminus on Zaliznychna Street. Inauguration of the new bus terminal took place on 22 May 2010. At the opening ceremony the mayor of the city, Viktor Anushkevichus, noted that the new bus terminal was only partially completed, and for a period it would be necessary to offload passengers at the Pryvokzalna Square, which is already saturated with traffic. He also emphasised the need for another bus station on the outskirts of the city.
- Airways transportation
The city is served by the Ivano-Frankivsk International Airport, which was granted international status in 1992. The airport shares its facilities with the 114 Brigade of the Ukrainian Air Force. Since 2002 the airport has been leased to the private enterprise company Yavson, and from 2005 the Public limited company Naftokhimik Prykarpattia, a (subsidiary of Ukrnafta). The contract with Naftokhimik Prykarpattia expires in 2013.
All street names reflecting the city's Soviet or Russian past have been returned to their former names, or given new names of national historic importance, or other non-controversial names. For example, Gagarin Street (connecting the city with its suburbs) became Vovchynets Street, Suvorov Street is now Harbar Street, and Soviet Street is Independence Street.
Around 100 other streets were renamed.
- Important transportation arteries
- Independence Street (vulytsya Nezalezhnosti) / Tysmenytsya Road (doroha Tysmenetska)
- Halych Road (vulytsya Halytska)
- Hetman Mazepa Street (vulytsya Hetmana Mazepy) / Krykhivtsi Road (doroha Krykhivetska)
- Yevhen Konovalets Road (vulytsya Yevhena Konovaltsya)
- Vovchynets Street (vulytsya Vovchynetska)
- Vasyl Stefanyk Shore Drive (naberezhna Vasylya Stefanyka)
The city of Ivano-Frankivsk is located on the intersection of three major national (Ukraine) routes: H18, H09, and H10. There also is one important regional route T09-06. All the H-routes eventually connect to .
The city has seven main city squares four of them located in the "old town" part of the city.
- Viche Maidan
- Market Square
- Sheptytsky Square
- Pryvokzalna Square
- Mickiewicz Square (Mickiewicz Park)
- Liberation Square
- European Square
Rural-urban fringe districts
Both city and oblast administrations as well as the regional council are all located in a massive white building on the Hrushevsky Street locally known as Bily Dim or Bily Budynok. In front of the building is a big open space bordered by Shpytalna Street on the north-east, Hrushevsky Street on the south-east, and Melnychuk Street on the south-west. Next to the building is located a memorial to the Unification of the Western Ukraine with the rest of Ukraine. The main feature of the memorial is a tall marble stele, on the both sides of which are located statues: kamenyar (west) and kobzar (east).
The city's council currently consists of 60 deputies. The political representation of the V convocation by political blocs was elected as such: Our Ukraine 22 (Our Ukraine 9, Rukh 8, United Centre 1, Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 2, no affiliation 2), BYuT 17 (Batkivschyna 14, USDP 2, no affiliation 1), Ukrainian People's Party 14 (UPP 3, CUN 1, United Centre 3, Sobor 1, no affiliation 6), Party of Regions 4 (Party of Regions 3, no affiliation 1), PORA 3 (PORA 2, no affiliation 1).
Recent city mayors
- Bohdan Borovych (OUN) July 1994 – June 1998
- Zinoviy Shkutiak (Our Ukraine) March 1998 – 26 March 2006
- Viktor Anushkevychus (UPP) 26 March 2006 – present (reelected in 2010)
The city has over 25 public schools of general education for grades 1 through 11. There are also some privately owned schools and lyceums. The city also has several professional public institutes.
There also numerous sports schools: Fitness Sport Association "Ukraine" – 5 schools, MVK – 3 schools, Fitness Sport Association "Spartak" – 2 schools, Fitness Sport Association "Kolos" – 1 school, others.
The city has six universities, the Ivano-Frankivsk Institute of Management that is a local campus of the Ternopil National Economic University, and the Ivano-Frankivsk Institute of Management and Economics "Halytska Akademia". All of those universities are state funded.
- Vasyl Stefanyk Subcarpathian National University
- Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (University of Oil and Gas)
- Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University
- King Daniel of Galicia Ivano-Frankivsk University of Law
- Ivano-Frankivsk Theological Academy of Greek-Catholic Church
- West Ukrainian University of Economics and Law
Culture and sports
- the Church of the Holy Resurrection (Greek Catholic Cathedral),
- the Church of Virgin Mary (at the moment used as museum of Sacred Art of Galicia)
- Latin Collegiate
- the Armenian church (presently used by one of the Ukrainian Orthodox Churches).
- City Brewery
- Market Square with the city's old town hall, today hosting an ethno-cultural museum.
- Shevchenko Park – a big park that consists of an amusement park, a big lake with swans, couple of full-size football fields, and many others interesting places worth of seeing.
- Bily Budynok – a big white building in the middle of the city and next to the Market place. It is the main administration building of Ivano-Frankivsk and the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. In front of the building there are two full-size sculptural monuments of Franko and Shevchenko.
- Bazaar – a huge area that covers the old market and the new market with couple of supermarket stores locally known as the universal stores.
- 100 m (328.08 ft) stretch (stometrivka) – unofficial local name for part of Independence Street that consists of series of shopettes and restricted to pedestrian traffic only.
- Stanislav fortress compound and Potocki palace
- Cathedral of the Holy Resurrection, locally known as Katedra (Greek-Catholic Cathedral)
- Jesuit Kostel – the second building of Jesuits after they were forced to surrender Katedra
- Fara – also known as the Collegiate Church of Virgin Mary and Saint Stanislaus (today – the Regional Art Museum)
- Ratusha – former city hall
- Battle of Grunwald monument – commemorating the defeat of the Teutonic Order in 1410
- Monument to Adam Mickiewicz (1930), it was reconstructed in 1989, located on Adam Mickiewicz Square next to a regional concert (philharmony) hall. It is the oldest surviving monument in the city and was built on 20 November 1898 (sculptor Tadeusz Błotnicki).
- Monument to Stepan Bandera and Museum of the Insurgent Army at the European Square was awarded the best architectural project of 2007 designed by a local architecture company "Atelie Arkhitektury"
- Academic Regional Music-Drama Theater of Franko
- Academic Regional Puppet Theater of Pidhiryanka
- Regional Concert Philharmony
- Cinema theater "Lumier" (previously of Franko)
- Cinema theater "Cosmos"
- Cinema theater "Patriot"
- Cinema theater of Shevchenko (previously "Pioneer")
- Cinema theater of Gorky
- Cinema theater "Komsomolets"
- Cinema theater of Shevchenko (original)
- Summer cinema theater "Trembita"
- Shevchenko Park
- Park of Warriors-Internationalists
- Park "Valy"
- Pryvokzalny park
- Memorial Park, near the regional Ivan Franko Academic Music-Drama Theater
- Panorama Plaza
- Pasage Gartenberg
- eL Dorado
- Deja Vu
Ivano-Frankivsk is home to a number of sports teams. Most notably it was home to the football club FC Spartak Ivano-Frankivsk (Prykarpattya) that participated on the national level since the 1950s. Since 2007 the club only fields its youth team Spartak-93 and competes in the Children-Youth Football League of Ukraine. The former president of Spartak Anatoliy Revutskiy reorganized the local university (University of Nafty i Hazu) team in 2007 into the new "FSK Prykarpattia" with support of the city mayor Anushkevichus making it the main football club in the region and replacing Spartak. Previously during the interbellum period, the city was home to another football club based on the local Polish garrison and called Rewera Stanisławów (1908). That club competed at a regional level that had evolved at that period. With the start of the World War II that club was disbanded. During the Soviet period among several others there was another club "Elektron" that successfully participated at a regional level around the 1970s.
The city also is the home to a futsal team, PFC Uragan Ivano-Frankivsk, that competes in the Ukrainian Futsal Championship. They are the current the Ukrainian champions having won the 2010/11 season playoffs and therefore took part in the 2011–12 UEFA Futsal Cup for the first time. The city had an Ice hockey team, HC Vatra Ivano-Frankivsk, which previously played in the Ukrainian Hockey Championship.
Ivano-Frankivsk is also the hometown of Ukrainian gymnasts one of them Dariya Zgoba who won gold on the Uneven Bars in the 2007 European Championships as well as a finalist on the Beijing Olympics and another – Yana Demyanchuk, who won gold on the balance beam at the 2009 European Championships.
Other clubs include:
- Main Stadiums and Sport Complexes
- MCS Rukh, a sport complex consisting of the major arena and two auxiliary fields next to it
- Yunist Stadium (Youth)
- Hirka Stadium, property of the Ivano-Frankivsk Locomotive Maintenance Plant
- Nauka Stadium (Science), belongs to Prykarpattia National University of Stefanyk
- Stadium of Oil and Gaz University
- Sport-Recreational Center "Tsunami", contains an ice arena for the city hockey events and an aquapark
City's radio, television, press media
- "Reporter" – Ivano-Frankivsk weekly
- "Halytsky Korrespondent" – a social-political weekly
- "Halychyna" – regional newspaper
- "Ivano-Frankivsk ODTRK" – regional State Tele and Radio Company
- "3-Studia" – regional Tele and Radio Company
- "Halychyna" – regional television
- Eliezer Adler, the founder of the Jewish Community in Gateshead, England
- Svetlana Alexievich, Belarusian journalist and writer, winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize for Literature; born in Ivano-Frankivsk
- Yuri Andrukhovych, modern Ukrainian writer
- Vasyl Bayurak, leader of the rebellion (1745–54), companion of Oleksa Dovbush, publicly executed in the city in 1754
- Arthur F. Burns, American-Jewish politician
- Ana Casares, Polish-Argentine actress
- Zbigniew Cybulski, Polish actor
- Yana Demyanchuk, Ukrainian Gymnast and 2009 European Champion on Balance Beam
- Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski (1881–1942) Polish general, politician and diplomat
- Albin Dunajewski, Roman Catholic cardinal
- Feliks Falk, Polish film director
- Moses Horowitz, playwright and actor of Yiddish theatre
- Alfred Johann Theophil Jansa von Tannenau, Austrian general
- GreenJolly, Ukrainian rap band
- Oksana Lada, Ukrainian actress
- Manfred H. Lachs, Polish diplomat and British jurist
- František Kriegel, Czechoslovak politician
- Daniel Passent, Polish journalist
- Józef Potocki, son of the Polish founder of the city
- Mikhail Prusak, Russian
- Andriy Sabetskyy, Aviator
- Anna Seniuk, Polish actress
- Stanislav Shcherbatykh (Tryzuby Stas), a representative of the Ukrainian humorous original songs, bard
- Klemens Stefan Sielecki, Polish engineer and technical director of Fablok
- Denys Sichynskyi, Ukrainian composer (1865–1909)
- Stanisław Sosabowski, Polish general
- Myroslav Stupar, Ukrainian football referee
- Vasyl Velychkovsky, blessed bishop of Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church
- Vasyl Virastyuk, Ukrainian strongman athlete 2004 World's Strongest Man
- Alexander Wagner, Polish chess theoretician
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Local orientation
- Regional orientation
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- (in Ukrainian) Chernivtsi decided to terminate the relationship with twin two Russian cities, The Ukrainian Week (February 27, 2016)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ivano-Frankivsk.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Stanislau.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ivano-Frankivsk.|
- Local government
- mvk.if.ua – Official site of Ivano-Frankivsk
- The Regional Directorate of Statistics website
- Association of Ukrainian cities website
- General information and travel
- Site of Ivano-Frankivsk|Franyk (ua)
- Web company in Frankovsk|Frankivsk.in.ua (ua)
- Іvano-Frankivsk |Portal (ukr.)
- Ivano-Frankivsk at DMOZ
- Local business catalog
- Soviet topographic map 1:100,000
- 2005 Ivano-Frankivsk – Satellite image
- Area map of Stanislawow, with the general shape of the major streets, showing enlarged town detail from a 1905 Austrian military map
- The Stanislau Phenomenon – How the Western Ukrainian provincial nest of Ivano-Frankivsk turned into a thriving literary metropolis and multicultural frontier between East and West. By Holger Gemba at signandsight.com
- "Stanislau". Archived from the original on 2002-06-02. Retrieved 2013-09-11. – Transliteration of Unpublished List of Citizens Murdered by the Nazis, from documents of the Russian Commission to Investigate Nazi Crimes
- Polish historical website on Stanislawow
- Photographs of Jewish sites in Ivano-Frankivsk in Jewish History in Galicia and Bukovina