Toyota Alphard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Toyota Alphard
Toyota Alphard 350 V6 (III) – Frontansicht, 2. April 2018, Hongkong.jpg
2017 Alphard 350 V6 (GGH30W, Hong Kong)
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Also called
  • Toyota Vellfire (2008–present)
  • Toyota Crown Vellfire (China, 2021–present)
  • Lexus LM (2020–present)
Production2002–present
AssemblyJapan: Inabe, Mie (Toyota Auto Body)[1][2]
Body and chassis
ClassMinivan
Body style5-door minivan
Layout
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Granvia/Grand HiAce (XH10)

The Toyota Alphard (Japanese: トヨタ・アルファード, Hepburn: Toyota Arufādo) is a minivan produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota since 2002. It is available as a seven or eight-seater with petrol and hybrid engine options. Hybrid variants have been available since 2003, which incorporates Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive technology.

The Alphard is primarily made for the Japanese market, but is also sold in Bangladesh,[3] Belarus,[3] Russia,[4] the Middle East,[5] Greater China,[3] and Southeast Asia. Similar to the Camry, it is often classified as a luxury car in Southeast Asian markets.

Since the second generation, a twin model called Toyota Vellfire (Japanese: トヨタ・ヴェルファイア, Hepburn: Toyota Verufaia) has also been available, which is marketed as a sportier alternative to the Alphard and exclusively marketed by the Netz Store dealership chain until 2020. Since 2019, a modified version of the third-generation model has been sold as the Lexus LM for several Asian markets outside Japan.

The vehicle was named after Alphard,[6] the brightest star in the constellation Hydra. The Alphard also received a special front emblem, which depicts the lowercase alpha letter.[7] The name "Vellfire" was derived from "velvet" and "fire" to emphasize "smooth" and "passionate" as characteristics of the vehicle.

First generation (AH10; 2002)[edit]

First generation (AH10)[8]
Toyota Alphard (first generation) (front, white), Serdang.jpg
Alphard V MZ (pre-facelift, Malaysia)
Overview
Production2002–2008
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota K platform
RelatedToyota Previa (XR30, XR40)
Powertrain
Engine
Electric motorSynchronous motor (hybrid)
  • 1EM 13 kW (17 hp; 18 PS) (front)
  • 1FM 18 kW (24 hp; 24 PS) (rear)
Transmission
  • 4-speed automatic (2.4, pre-facelift 3.0)
  • 5-speed automatic (facelift 3.0)
  • e-CVT (hybrid)
Battery1.4 kWh nickel–metal hydride
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,900 mm (114.2 in)
Length4,840 mm (190.6 in)
Width1,805 mm (71.1 in)
Height1,935 mm (76.2 in)
Curb weight1,790 kg (3,946 lb)

The Alphard was launched by Toyota in May 2002.[9][6] The Alphard V was exclusive to the Netz Store, while the Alphard G has a different grille design and was exclusive to Toyopet Store. The Alphard was facelifted in 2005 with new design of rear lamp and use of 16" and 17" aluminium alloy wheels.

In 2006, a Royal Lounge Alphard was introduced.[10] It is a more upmarket, four-seat version of the Alphard G.

For model year 2007, on Japanese models only, G-BOOK, a subscription telematics service, was offered as an option. The Alphard is also the first Japanese market minivan to feature a laser-guided Adaptive Cruise Control, although only as an option on V6 variants.

Alphard V
Alphard G

Alphard Hybrid[edit]

A hybrid version was also added to the lineup in MY 2003, featuring a 2.4-litre 2AZ-FE Atkinson cycle petrol engine with a power output of 133 PS (98 kW; 131 hp) and 190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft) of torque which has been developed specifically for use in Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive technology and features a high-expansion ratio cycle that raises efficiency and reduces friction; however, this led to reliability problems of pistons' rings premature wear and consequent high oil consumption due to the poorly designed ring in order to minimize friction.[11][12]

The Alphard Hybrid uses "by-wire" technology that monitors brake pedal pressure and vehicle speed in order to calculate the optimum hydraulic pressure. By-wire works with the E-Four AWD system to maximize the collection of kinetic energy from braking for conversion into electric power.

The Alphard Hybrid can generate up to 1,500 watts and is equipped with 100-volt AC power outlets, to power external appliances such as laptops and emergency lights.

In Japan, the Alphard Hybrid locally qualifies as an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV), achieving emission levels 75% lower than the Japanese government's year 2000 benchmark.

Second generation (AH20; 2008)[edit]

Second generation (AH20)[8]
2008 Toyota H20 Alphard 01.JPG
2008 Alphard 350G (GGH20W; pre-facelift, Japan)
Overview
Also calledToyota Vellfire
Production2008–2015
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota New MC platform
RelatedToyota Previa (XR50)
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
  • 6-speed automatic (3.5)
  • 7-speed Super CVT-i automatic (2.4)
  • e-CVT (2.4 hybrid)
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,950 mm (116.1 in)
Length4,840 mm (190.6 in)
Width1,830 mm (72.0 in)
Height1,905 mm (75.0 in)
Curb weight1,910–2,070 kg (4,211–4,564 lb)

After being previewed as the FT-MV in 2007, the second generation Alphard went on sale in May 2008. For this generation, a twin model, the Vellfire, was introduced. According to Toyota's press release, the Alphard is described as having an "elegant and sophisticated" design while the Vellfire emphasizes on "strength and strong individuality." Both models are sold via separate distribution channels, with the Alphard sold by Toyota's Toyopet Store dealership chain, while the Vellfire is sold at Toyota's youth oriented Netz Store dealership chain.

Variants of the Alphard/Vellfire include:

  • 240/350X (8 Seater)
  • 240S
  • 240 Hybrid
  • 350S "C Package"
  • 240/350G
  • 350G "L Package"
  • 350G "Executive Lounge"
  • Royal Lounge

The second generation Alphard was launched in the Philippines on 3 August 2010.[13]

Alphard 240/350X[edit]

The 240/350X variants of the Alphard are the lowest trim levels of the Alphard. It is only offered with eight seats. Standard equipment includes 16-inch steel rims, Xenon projector headlights, 2-DIN stereo, passenger-side power sliding door (driver's side optional) and fabric bench seats for the middle row.

Alphard 240S[edit]

Only comes with seven seats with second row individual seats with ottomans. Leather seats are optional. Standard equipment includes 17-inch alloy rims, dual power sliding doors, cruise control, LED soft ambient lighting, dual front parking sensors, rear power sliding sunroof, Tri-zone automatic climate control (individual controls for the rear), 7-inch display with satellite navigation (G-BOOK optional), eight speakers and a rear-seat entertainment system with roof-mounted 10-inch Blu-ray player.

Alphard 240 Hybrid[edit]

Same equipment and options list with the 240S. Comes with Toyota's E-four AWD system. Additional options are power tailgate and a coolbox (located between driver's seat and front passenger seat).

Alphard 240/350G[edit]

The highest available trim level for the 2.4 engine. Standard equipment includes leather seats, power tailgate, G-BOOK telematics system, Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), NANOE-G air purifier, 8-way powered driver's seat (with three-person memory) and 6-way powered passenger's seat with ottoman.

Alphard 350G "L Package"[edit]

A more luxurious version of the Alphard 350G. Adds on second row "captain's" seats with powered reclinable ottomans, 18-speaker home theatre surround sound system, 360 degree surround view camera, automatic parking, and an optional Pre-crash active safety system, consisting of dynamic radar cruise control, lane departure warning, lane keep assist and autonomous emergency braking.

Alphard 350G "Executive Lounge"[edit]

Same level of equipment with the 350G "L Package", but adds on its optional equipment as standard. The only change is the second row, which adds on four-way powered heated and ventilated seats, two-person memory, picnic tables and curtains for extra privacy.

Alphard Royal Lounge[edit]

This is the top-of-the-line variant. It has no third row seats, only seating four, and the rear seats have a massage function. It features a small divider between the rear passengers and the front seats, like in a limousine. It has larger and plusher seats compared to the Executive Lounge and they are positioned all the way back into where the third row previously was for more legroom. Instead of a roof-mounted Blu-ray player, the Royal Lounge has a 23-inch television mounted on the divider between the front and rear passengers. The television retracts into the divider when not in use.

Safety[edit]

JNCAP has rated the Alphard a full six stars for occupant crash safety and outstanding safety features. Safety features such as Anti-lock Braking System, Electronic Brakeforce Distribution, Brake Assist, Vehicle Stability Control and seven airbags (Dual front, Driver and passenger side airbags, Driver's knee and curtain airbags) are standard across all variants. Higher end variants offer a first-in-class Pre-Crash system as an option (only for Japanese models). Features include a radar-guided Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Departure Warning with Lane Keep Assist and Pre-collision Warning with Semi-Autonomous Emergency Braking, which only helps apply a moderate amount of brake pressure, and does not completely stop the vehicle.[14][15]

Facelift[edit]

A facelift model was announced by Toyota on 27 September 2011, with sales in Japan started from 1 November 2011. Also introduced a hybrid version of both the Alphard and Vellfire.[16]

Gallery[edit]

Alphard
Vellfire

Third generation (AH30; 2015)[edit]

Third generation (AH30)
2016 Toyota Alphard 2.5 G van (AGH30R; 12-22-2018), South Tangerang.jpg
2016 Alphard 2.5 G (AGH30; pre-facelift, Indonesia)
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota Vellfire
  • Toyota Crown Vellfire
    (China
    2021–present)[17]
  • Lexus LM (2019–present)[18]
Production2015–present
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota New MC platform
Powertrain
Engine
Electric motor650 V permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • 105 kW (141 hp; 143 PS) 5NM + 50 kW (67 hp; 68 PS) 4NM (hybrid)
Power output
  • 177 hp (132 kW; 179 PS) (2AR-FE)
  • 270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) (2GR-FE)
  • 296 hp (221 kW; 300 PS) (2GR-FKS)
  • 201 hp (150 kW; 204 PS) (2AR-FXE)
Transmission
  • 6-speed ATF U660E automatic (2GR-FE)
  • 7-speed super CVT-i automatic
  • 8-speed ATF UA80E automatic (2GR-FKS)
  • e-CVT (hybrid)
Hybrid drivetrainPower-split
Battery1.6 kWh nickel–metal hydride
Dimensions
Wheelbase3,000 mm (118.1 in)
Length4,915–4,945 mm (193.5–194.7 in)
5,040 mm (198.4 in) (Lexus LM)
Width1,850 mm (72.8 in)
Height1,880–1,950 mm (74.0–76.8 in)
1,945 mm (76.6 in) (Lexus LM)
Curb weight1,920–2,220 kg (4,233–4,894 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Estima (Japan)

Toyota released the third generation Alphard on 26 January 2015 with a completely redesigned exterior and 2 new engines, including a 2.5-litre 2AR-FE petrol engine and a 2.5-litre 2AR-FXE petrol-hybrid engine. The 3.5-litre 2GR-FE V6 along with the 6-speed automatic was carried over from the previous generation. A new top-of-the-line Executive Lounge grade was added for both the Alphard and Vellfire.

The third generation features a large grille similar to the S210 series Crown and its taillights are located on top similar to the third generation Previa and Sienna. The length has grown by 60 mm (2.4 in), the width by 20 mm (0.8 in), and the wheelbase has grown longer by 50 mm (2.0 in); but the height is shorter by 10 mm (0.4 in) compared to the previous generation. The Alphard faces competition from other minivans such as the Nissan Elgrand and the fifth generation international market Honda Odyssey.[19] Large audio manufacturers like Alpine Electronics and JBL, also manufacture navigation and audio/visual accessories specifically for the Alphard. The Alphard can be optioned with a 1200W 17-speaker, 5.1 channel JBL sound system.[20]

The third-generation Alphard is available in Japan and selected Asian markets including Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Hong Kong, being the first markets outside Japan to receive this all-new model. The third-generation Alphard was introduced in Russia, the model's primary, and only European market, but only with the 3.5-litre V6 engine. The V6 model is also available in other left-hand drive markets, like China and Taiwan.[21] In India, the Vellfire was offered since February 2020 as the brand's only import model in the country with the 2.5-litre hybrid engine with four-wheel drive.[22]

Alphard
Vellfire

Facelift[edit]

The facelifted third generation Alphard and second generation Vellfire were unveiled on 25 December 2017 and released on 8 January 2018. Most of the changes are only to the exterior and powertrain, whereas interior equipment remains largely similar with minor changes. New rectangular taillights replace the horizontal ones on the Vellfire, mimicking the design of the second generation's taillights. The Alphard gets slimmer LED headlights and a larger grille up front. Both models get sequential LED turn signals as standard. Also new is an updated V6 engine, the 2GR-FKS that replaces the outgoing 2GR-FE (except for Hong Kong, due to the emission rules).[citation needed] Output has increased to 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) and 362 N⋅m (267 lbf⋅ft). Also new is a Direct-Shift 8-speed automatic, that replaces the 6-speed Super ECT that is only found in V6-powered variants. Accelerating from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) can be achieved in 7.5 seconds. The debut of the second generation Toyota Safety Sense system is launched with the facelifted Alphard and Vellfire, which became standard equipment across all variants.[citation needed]

On 1 May 2020, the Alphard and Vellfire became available at all Toyota dealership sales channels in Japan (Toyota Store, Toyopet Store, Corolla Store and Netz), and the Netz logo emblem on the Vellfire's front grille was replaced by the Toyota logo emblem.

In April 2021, trim levels for the Vellfire in Japan were reduced to one special edition trim, Golden Eyes II, due to decreasing sales as the result of the dealership line-up unification in 2020.[23]

In the same month, the Vellfire in China was renamed to Toyota Crown Vellfire (simplified Chinese: 皇冠威尔法; traditional Chinese: 皇冠威爾法; pinyin: Huángguàn Wēiěrfǎ), with the inclusion of the Crown logo replacing the front Toyota logo, and in other places such as the hubcaps and instrument cluster.[24]

Alphard
Vellfire
Crown Vellfire

Lexus LM[edit]

The Lexus-badged limousine version of the third generation Alphard, called the Lexus LM, was unveiled on 16 April 2019 at the 18th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition and first released on 20 February 2020 in China.[25][18] The LM designation stands for "Luxury Mover". The LM is slightly longer than the Alphard it is based on, measuring in at 5,040 mm (198.4 in) long. The LM features newer and stronger structural components, along with additional soundproofing elements such as dual-pane windows. There are two seating configurations, a 7-seater configuration that is based on the Alphard Executive Lounge variant, and a 4-seater configuration named the "Emperor Suite", based on the Alphard Royal Lounge variant. The LM features a new suspension setup featuring Swing Valve technology.[26]

Two engine options are available, a 2.5-litre 2AR-FXE hybrid four-cylinder in the LM 300h, and the 3.5-litre 2GR-FKS V6 in the LM 350 (2GR-FE for the Hong Kong market).

Sales[edit]

Year Japan China Indonesia
Alphard[27] Vellfire[28] Alphard LM Alphard Vellfire
2002 53,428
2003 83,529
2004 85,953
2005 81,647
2006 66,199
2007 52,236
2008 45,119 38,969
2009 29,602 49,636
2010 35,754 61,015
2011 17,783 27,206[29] 319[30][31]
2012 41,471[32] 58,513[32] 2,833[31][33][34]
2013 33,764[35] 50,575[35] 914[36]
2014 25,863[37] 36,734[37] 1,146[38]
2015 44,366[39] 54,180[39] 2,349[40] 751
2016 37,069[41] 48,982[41] 2,202[40] 716
2017 41,923[42] 46,757[42] 8,177[43] 3,208[34] 918[34]
2018 58,806[44] 43,130[44] 12,814[43] 4,118 870
2019 68,705[45][46] 41,429[45][46] 16,181[43] 4,151[47] 486[47]
2020 90,748[48][49] 18,004[48][49] 24,031[50] 3,268[50] 2,490[51] 223
2021 95,049[52] 6,509 23,952[53] 3,327 312

References[edit]

  1. ^ Suzuki, Masato (26 January 2015). "新型トヨタ・アルファード/ヴェルファイア発売" [All-new Toyota Alphard/Vellfire launched]. Car Graphic. WebCG. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  2. ^ "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Brindusescu, Gabriel (30 December 2013). "Toyota Alphard Gets Matte Grey Wrap in Hong Kong". autoevolution. Romania. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Toyota Alphard Minivan Now Sold in Russia". Wroom.ru. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  5. ^ "Lexus is embracing middle age, debuting the LM minivan in Shanghai".
  6. ^ a b "75 Years of TOYOTA | Vehicle Lineage Chart | Data: Origin of a car's name". Toyota. 2012.
  7. ^ "アルファードのエンブレムのモチーフはなに?" [What is the motif of the Alphard emblem?]. CARTUNEマガジン | 車のカスタム、パーツ情報から日常ケア情報まで自動車情報を網羅 (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  8. ^ a b Automobil Revue, catalogue edition 2007, p. 490.
  9. ^ "75 Years of TOYOTA | Vehicle Lineage | In-depth Vehicle Information, Specification". Toyota. 2012.
  10. ^ Nunez, Alex (4 July 2006). "Toyota Alphard Royal Lounge offers jetlike luxury". Autoblog. US. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  11. ^ "2003 Toyota Alphard Hybrid 2.4 4WD Specs, dimensions, fuel consumption". Cars-Directory.NET. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Toyota AZ series engine". toyota-club.net. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  13. ^ Tadeo, Patrick Everett (2 August 2010). "Toyota Motor Philippines launches new Alphard minivan". Top Gear Philippines. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  14. ^ "Model change Toyota Alphard" (Press release). Japan: Toyota. 12 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  15. ^ "Alphard and Vellfire Facelift, Hybrid added". MotorIndustry.org. 19 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Minor changes to Alphard and Vellfire, plus hybrid models added" (Press release). Japan: Toyota. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  17. ^ "クラウンがミニバン化!? 「クラウンヴェルファイア」受注開始! トヨタが中国で販売!" [Crown is a minivan now!? Orders for Crown Vellfire being taken now, Toyota sells it in China!]. Kuruma News (in Japanese). mediavague Co., ltd. 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021.
  18. ^ a b "2020 Lexus LM upgrades Toyota Alphard from Business to First class". Auto News. The Philippines. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  19. ^ Toyota Alphard and Vellfire 2015 model officially launched Bangkok Post, 26 January 2015
  20. ^ "Toyota Alphard and Vellfire". Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  21. ^ "【图】埃尔法 2018款 改款 3.5L 豪华版报价_图片_丰田_汽车之家". www.autohome.com.cn. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  22. ^ "Toyota Vellfire launched at Rs 79.50 lakh". Autocar India. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  23. ^ Na_Ya/Creative311 (28 April 2021). "【価格は359.7万円から】一部改良版・トヨタ新型アルファード/ヴェルファイアが2021年4月28日に発売!何とヴェルファイアは特別仕様車以外全グレード廃止" [【Price starts from 3,597,000 yen】 Updated Toyota Alphard / Vellfire will be released on April 28, 2021! Vellfire abolishes all grades except special specification cars]. Creative Trend (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Toyota Crown Minivan Makes Surprise Debut At Auto Shanghai". Motor1.com. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  25. ^ "2020 Lexus LM now available in China, PH to follow soon". Auto industrya. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  26. ^ "Lexus LM: A luxuriously crafted mobile space". Lexus (GB) PLC. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  27. ^ "トヨタ アルファード 新車販売台数推移/売れ行きと生産状況は? - クルマを買う!". kuru-ma.com. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  28. ^ "トヨタ ヴェルファイア 新車販売台数推移/売れ行きと生産状況は? - クルマを買う!". kuru-ma.com. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  29. ^ "2011 Full Year Best-Selling Car Models in Japan". Car Sales Statistics. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  30. ^ Ferdian, Azwar (12 January 2012). "Avanza & Innova Buat Toyota Juara". Okezone.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: MNC Media. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  31. ^ a b Sidik, Fajar (10 February 2013). "PERANG MPV PREMIUM: Makin Ramai Di Kelas Medium". Bisnis.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Bisnis Indonesia. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  32. ^ a b "2012 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  33. ^ "Nissan: 6 Bulan Lagi Elgrand Bakal Ngejar Alphard". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Trans Media. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  34. ^ a b c Wicaksono, Krisna; Herawati, Yunisa (19 January 2018). "Mobil Mewah Ini Pecahkan Rekor Baru di Indonesia". Viva.co.id (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Viva Media Baru. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  35. ^ a b "2013 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  36. ^ "Daftar Mobil Keluarga Paling Laku di Indonesia". Viva.co.id (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Viva Media Baru. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  37. ^ a b "2014 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  38. ^ Octama, Carla Isati (27 March 2015). "Penjualan Alphard dan Vellfire Ditargetkan Capai 200 Unit". BeritaSatu.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: BeritaSatu Media Holdings. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  39. ^ a b "2015 (Full Year) Japan: 30 Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  40. ^ a b Nayazri, Ghulam Muhammad (17 March 2017). Agung Kurniawan (ed.). "Honda Odyssey Coba Ganggu Toyota Alphard". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Kompas Cyber Media. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  41. ^ a b "2016 (Full Year) Japan: 30 Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  42. ^ a b "2017 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models and Mini Cars". Car Sales Statistics. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  43. ^ a b c "【文章】同样是4缸保姆车,威尔法比埃尔法便宜十几万,为什么销量不行?_车家号_汽车之家". chejiahao.m.autohome.com.cn. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  44. ^ a b "2018 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models and Mini Cars". Car Sales Statistics. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  45. ^ a b "2019 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  46. ^ a b "乗用車ブランド通称名別順位 | 統計データ" [Ranking by passenger car brand name]. Japan Automobile Dealers Association (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  47. ^ a b Utama, Wira (20 February 2020). Eko Ari Wibowo (ed.). "Alasan Honda Masih Belum Garap Maksimal Pesaing Toyota Alphard". Tempo.co (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Tempo Media Group. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  48. ^ a b "2020 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  49. ^ a b "【国産乗用車編】2020年12月&2020年1月~12月の登録車新車販売台数ランキング15を一挙公開!12月度も累計も全てトヨタ新型ヤリスが圧勝! | ページ 2". Creative Trend (in Japanese). 8 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  50. ^ a b "2020年12月中高端MPV销量:埃尔法售出2666辆 威然首破2000辆_车家号_发现车生活_汽车之家". chejiahao.autohome.com.cn. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  51. ^ "All New Toyota Alphard Meluncur 2022, Semuanya Hybrid?". Kumparan.com (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Kumparan. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  52. ^ "【国産乗用車編】2021年12月&1月~12月度最新版の登録車新車販売台数ランキング!やはりトヨタ新型ヤリス/カローラシリーズは強かった!レクサス新型NXも46位にランクイン | ページ 2". Creative Trend (in Japanese). 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  53. ^ "2021年12月丰田埃尔法销量多少? 在日系车中排名怎么样?-众车网". m.zhongche.com. Retrieved 12 March 2022.

External links[edit]