Toyota Alphard

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Toyota Alphard
Toyota Alphard 350 V6 (III) – Frontansicht, 2. April 2018, Hongkong.jpg
Toyota Alphard 350 V6 (GGH30W, Hong Kong)
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Also called
  • Toyota Vellfire (2008–present)
  • Toyota Crown Vellfire (China, 2021–present)
  • Lexus LM (2020–present)
Production2002–present
AssemblyJapan: Inabe, Mie (Toyota Auto Body)[1][2]
Body and chassis
ClassMinivan
Body style5-door minivan
Layout
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Grand HiAce/Granvia (XH10)

The Toyota Alphard (Japanese: トヨタ・アルファード, Toyota Arufādo) is a minivan produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota since 2002. It is available as a seven- or eight-seater with petrol and hybrid engine options. Hybrid variants have been available since 2003, and it incorporates Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive technology. The vehicle was named after Alphard,[3] the brightest star in the constellation Hydra.

The Alphard is primarily made for the Japanese market, but is also sold in Bangladesh,[4] Belarus,[4] Russia,[5] the Middle East,[6] Greater China,[4] and Southeast Asia. Similar to the Camry, it is often classified as a luxury car in Southeast Asian markets.

Models[edit]

Since the second generation Alphard, the model is split into Alphard and Vellfire model names separately. The Alphard has a luxury orientation while the Vellfire has a sporty orientation. The Vellfire name was derived from "velvet" and "fire" to emphasize the vehicle's "smooth" and "passionate" characteristics. Both versions receive similar front and rear fascia, but the grille design, headlamps and taillamps are different.

First generation (AH10; 2002)[edit]

First generation (AH10)[7]
Toyota Alphard (first generation) (front, white), Serdang.jpg
Toyota Alphard V MZ (pre-facelift, Malaysia)
Overview
Production2002–2008
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota K platform
RelatedToyota Previa (XR30, XR40)
Powertrain
Engine
  • Petrol:
  • 2.4 L 2AZ-FE I4
  • 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6
  • Petrol hybrid:
  • 2.4 L 2AZ-FXE I4
  • Alphard Hybrid electric engines:
  • typ: 1EM, AC syncronous, 13KW (front axis)
  • typ: 1FM, AC syncronous, 18KW (rear axis)
  • Battery pack: 1,404 kWh (216V; 6.5Ah) Ni-Mh
Transmission
  • 4-speed automatic (2.4, pre-facelift 3.0)
  • 5-speed automatic (facelift 3.0)
  • e-CVT(Hybrid)
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,900 mm (114.2 in)
Length4,840 mm (190.6 in)
Width1,805 mm (71.1 in)
Height1,935 mm (76.2 in)
Curb weight1,790 kg (3,946 lb)

The Alphard was launched by Toyota in May 2002.[8][3] The Alphard was facelifted in 2005 with new design of rear lamp and use of 16" and 17" aluminium alloy wheels.

Alphard Hybrid

A hybrid version was also added to the lineup in MY 2003, featuring:

  1. internal combustion engine type 2AZ-FE:
    • 4 cylinders, inline,[9]
    • gasoline >92 RON,
    • Atkinson cycle,[9]
    • displacement: 2362 cm3 (144.1 cu-in),[9]
    • power output: 133PS@5600rpm (97,6KW),[9]
    • torque: 190Nm@4000rpm (140.3 lb.ft);[9]
  2. front axle electric motor type 1EM: AC syncronus, 13KW;[10]
  3. rear axle electric motor type 1FM: AC syncronus, 18KW;[11]
  4. battery pack: Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-Mh), 1,404 kWh (Voltage: 216 V; Capacity: 6.5 Ah).[12]

The 2.4-litre petrol engine (type 2AZ-FE) has been developed specifically for use in Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive technology and features a high-expansion ratio cycle that raises efficiency and reduces friction; however, this led to reliability problems of pistons' rings premature wear and consequent high oil consumption due to the poorly designed ring in order to minimize friction.[13]

The Alphard Hybrid uses "by-wire" technology that monitors brake pedal pressure and vehicle speed in order to calculate the optimum hydraulic pressure. By-wire works with the E-Four AWD system to maximize the collection of kinetic energy from braking for conversion into electric power.

The Alphard Hybrid can generate up to 1,500 watts and is equipped with 100-volt AC power outlets, to power external appliances such as laptops and emergency lights.

In Japan, the Alphard Hybrid locally qualifies as an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV), achieving emission levels 75% lower than the Japanese government's year 2000 benchmark.

For model year 2007, on Japanese models only, G-BOOK, a subscription telematics service, was offered as an option. The Alphard is also the first Japanese market minivan to feature a laser-guided Adaptive Cruise Control, although only as an option on V6 variants.

In 2006, a Royal Lounge Alphard was introduced.[14] It is a more upmarket, four-seat version of the Alphard and exclusive to "Toyopet Store" Japanese dealerships.

Model code Engine Remarks
ANH10 2.4 I4 FWD
ANH15 2.4 I4 AWD
ATH10 2.4 I4 hybrid
MNH10 3.0 V6 FWD
MNH15 3.0 V6 AWD

Gallery[edit]

Second generation (AH20; 2008)[edit]

Second generation (AH20)[7]
2008 Toyota H20 Alphard 01.JPG
2008 Toyota Alphard 350G (GGH20W; pre-facelift, Japan)
Overview
Also calledToyota Vellfire
Production2008–2015
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota New MC platform
RelatedToyota Previa (XR50)
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
  • 6-speed automatic (3.5)
  • 7-speed Super CVT-i automatic (2.4)
  • e-CVT (2.4 Hybrid)
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,950 mm (116.1 in)
Length4,840 mm (190.6 in)
Width1,830 mm (72.0 in)
Height1,905 mm (75.0 in)
Curb weight1,910–2,070 kg (4,211–4,564 lb)

The FT-MV Concept was previewed in 2007, and made it into Production version aka Alphard in May 2008. For this generation, a new sub-model, Toyota Vellfire (Japanese: トヨタ・ヴェルファイア, Toyota Verufaia) was introduced. According to Toyota's press release, the Alphard is described as having an "elegant and sophisticated" design while the Vellfire emphasizes on "strength and strong individuality." Both models are sold via separate distribution channels, with the Alphard sold by Toyota's Toyopet dealership chain, while the Vellfire is sold at Toyota's youth oriented NETZ Store dealership chain.

Variants of the Alphard/Vellfire include:

  • 240/350X (8 Seater)
  • 240S
  • 240 Hybrid
  • 350S "C Package"
  • 240/350G
  • 350G "L Package"
  • 350G "Executive Lounge"
  • Royal Lounge

The second generation Alphard was launched in the Philippines on 3 August 2010.[15]

Alphard 240/350X[edit]

The 240/350X variants of the Alphard are the lowest trim levels of the Alphard. It is only offered with eight seats. Standard equipment includes 16-inch steel rims, Xenon projector headlights, 2-DIN stereo, passenger-side power sliding door (driver's side optional) and fabric bench seats for the middle row.

Alphard 240S[edit]

Only comes with seven seats with second row individual seats with ottomans. Leather seats are optional. Standard equipment includes 17-inch alloy rims, dual power sliding doors, cruise control, LED soft ambient lighting, dual front parking sensors, rear power sliding sunroof, Tri-zone automatic climate control (individual controls for the rear), 7-inch display with satellite navigation (G-BOOK optional), eight speakers and a rear-seat entertainment system with roof-mounted 10-inch Blu-ray player.

Alphard 240 Hybrid[edit]

Same equipment and options list with the 240S. Comes with Toyota's E-four AWD system. Additional options are power tailgate and a coolbox (located between driver's seat and front passenger seat).

Alphard 240/350G[edit]

The highest available trim level for the 2.4 engine. Standard equipment includes leather seats, power tailgate, G-BOOK telematics system, Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), NANOE-G air purifier, 8-way powered driver's seat (with three-person memory) and 6-way powered passenger's seat with ottoman.

Alphard 350G "L Package"[edit]

A more luxurious version of the Alphard 350G. Adds on second row "captain's" seats with powered reclinable ottomans, 18-speaker home theatre surround sound system, 360 degree surround view camera, automatic parking, and an optional Pre-crash active safety system, consisting of dynamic radar cruise control, lane departure warning, lane keep assist and autonomous emergency braking.

Alphard 350G "Executive Lounge"[edit]

Same level of equipment with the 350G "L Package", but adds on its optional equipment as standard. The only change is the second row, which adds on four-way powered heated and ventilated seats, two-person memory, picnic tables and curtains for extra privacy.

Alphard Royal Lounge[edit]

This is the top-of-the-line variant. It has no third row seats, only seating four, and the rear seats have a massage function. It features a small divider between the rear passengers and the front seats, like in a limousine. It has larger and plusher seats compared to the Executive Lounge and they are positioned all the way back into where the third row previously was for more legroom. Instead of a roof-mounted Blu-ray player, the Royal Lounge has a 23-inch television mounted on the divider between the front and rear passengers. The television retracts into the divider when not in use.

Safety[edit]

JNCAP has rated the Alphard a full six stars for occupant crash safety and outstanding safety features. Safety features such as Anti-lock Braking System, Electronic Brakeforce Distribution, Brake Assist, Vehicle Stability Control and seven airbags (Dual front, Driver and passenger side airbags, Driver's knee and curtain airbags) are standard across all variants. Higher end variants offer a first-in-class Pre-Crash system as an option (only for Japanese models). Features include a radar-guided Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Departure Warning with Lane Keep Assist and Pre-collision Warning with Semi-Autonomous Emergency Braking, which only helps apply a moderate amount of brake pressure, and does not completely stop the vehicle.[16][17]

Facelift[edit]

A facelift model was announced by Toyota on 27 September 2011, with sales in Japan started from 1 November 2011. Also introduced a hybrid version of both the Alphard and Vellfire.[18]

Gallery[edit]

Third generation (AH30; 2015)[edit]

Third generation (AH30)
2016 Toyota Alphard 2.5 G van (AGH30R; 12-22-2018), South Tangerang.jpg
2016 Toyota Alphard 2.5 G (AGH30; pre-facelift, Indonesia)
Overview
Also called
Production2015–present
Body and chassis
PlatformToyota New MC platform
Powertrain
Engine
Electric motor650V Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
  • 105 kW (141 hp; 143 PS) 5NM + 50 kW (67 hp; 68 PS) 4NM (hybrid)
Transmission
  • 6-speed ATF U660E automatic (2GR-FE)
  • 7-speed super CVT-i automatic (2.5)
  • 8-speed ATF UA80E automatic (2GR-FKS)
  • e-CVT (2.5 Hybrid)
Hybrid drivetrainPower-split Hybrid (Alphard Hybrid / LM300h)
Battery6.5 Ah (1.6 kW·h) 244.8V NiMH
Dimensions
Wheelbase3,000 mm (118.1 in)
Length4,915–4,945 mm (193.5–194.7 in)
5,040 mm (198.4 in) (Lexus LM)
Width1,850 mm (72.8 in)
Height1,880–1,950 mm (74.0–76.8 in)
1,945 mm (76.6 in) (Lexus LM)
Curb weight1,920–2,220 kg (4,233–4,894 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Estima (Japan)

Toyota released the third generation Alphard on 26 January 2015 with a completely redesigned exterior and 2 new engines, including a 2.5-litre 2AR-FE petrol engine and a 2.5-litre 2AR-FXE petrol-hybrid engine. The 3.5-litre 2GR-FE V6 along with the 6-speed automatic was carried over from the previous generation. A new top-of-the-line Executive Lounge grade was added for both the Alphard and Vellfire. The third generation Alphard is available in Japan and selected Asian markets including Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Hong Kong, being the first markets outside Japan to receive this all-new model. The third-generation Alphard was introduced in Russia, the model's primary, and only European market, but only with the 3.5 L V6 engine. The V6 model is also available in other left-hand drive markets, like China and Taiwan.[21]

The third generation features a large grille similar to the S210 series Crown. The length has grown by 60 mm (2.4 in), the width by 20 mm (0.8 in), and the wheelbase has grown longer by 50 mm (2.0 in); but the height is shorter by 10 mm (0.4 in) compared to the previous generation. The Alphard faces competition from other minivans such as the Nissan Elgrand and the fifth generation international market Honda Odyssey.[22] Large audio manufacturers like Alpine Electronics and JBL, also manufacture navigation and audio/visual accessories specifically for the Alphard. The Alphard can be optioned with a 1200W 17-speaker, 5.1 channel JBL sound system. [23]

Facelift[edit]

The facelifted third generation Alphard and second generation Vellfire were unveiled on 25 December 2017 and released on 8 January 2018. Most of the changes are only to the exterior and powertrain, whereas interior equipment remains largely similar with minor changes. New rectangular taillights replace the horizontal ones on the Vellfire, mimicking the design of the second generation's taillights. The Alphard gets slimmer LED headlights and a larger grille up front. Both models get sequential LED turn signals as standard. Also new is an updated V6 engine, the 2GR-FKS that replaces the outgoing 2GR-FE (except for Hong Kong, due to the emission rules[citation needed]). Output has increased to 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) and 362 N⋅m (267 lbf⋅ft). Also new is a Direct-Shift 8-speed automatic, that replaces the 6-speed Super ECT that is only found in V6-powered variants. Accelerating from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) can be achieved in 7.5 seconds. The debut of the second generation Toyota Safety Sense system is launched with the facelifted Alphard and Vellfire, which are now standard equipment across all variants.[citation needed]

On 1 May 2020, the Alphard and Vellfire became available at all Toyota dealership sales channels in Japan (Toyota Store, Toyopet Store, Corolla Store and Netz), as the Netz logo emblem on the Vellfire's front grille was replaced by the Toyota logo emblem.

Lexus LM[edit]

The Lexus-badged limousine version of the third generation Alphard, called the Lexus LM, was unveiled on 16 April 2019 at the 18th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition and first released on 20 February 2020 in China.[24][20] The LM designation stands for "Luxury Mover". The LM is slightly longer than the Alphard it is based on, measuring in at 5,040 mm (198.4 in) long. The LM features newer and stronger structural components, along with additional soundproofing elements such as dual-pane windows. There are two seating configurations, a 7-seater configuration that is based on the Alphard Executive Lounge variant, and a 4-seater configuration named the "Emperor Suite", based on the Alphard Royal Lounge variant. Two engine options are available, a 2.5-liter 2AR-FXE hybrid four-cylinder in the LM 300h, and the 3.5-liter 2GR-FKS V6 in the LM 350 (2GR-FE for the Hong Kong market). The LM features a new suspension setup featuring Swing Valve technology.[25]

Sales[edit]

Calendar Year Japan
Alphard Vellfire
2011[26] N/A 27,206
2012[27] 41,471 58,513
2013[28] 33,764 50,575
2014[29] 25,863 36,734
2015[30] 44,366 54,180
2016[31] 37,069 48,982
2017[32] 41,923 46,757
2018[33] 58,806 43,130
2019[34][35] 68,705 41,429
2020[36][37] 90,748 18,004

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b "75 Years of TOYOTA | Vehicle Lineage Chart | Data: Origin of a car's name". Toyota. 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Brindusescu, Gabriel (30 December 2013). "Toyota Alphard Gets Matte Grey Wrap in Hong Kong". autoevolution. Romania. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Toyota Alphard Minivan Now Sold in Russia". Wroom.ru. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
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  7. ^ a b Automobil Revue, catalogue edition 2007, p. 490.
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  10. ^ "car's data about electric engine 1" (PDF).
  11. ^ "car's data about electric engines 2" (PDF).
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  13. ^ "Toyota AZ series engine". toyota-club.net. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
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  15. ^ Tadeo, Patrick Everett (2 August 2010). "Toyota Motor Philippines launches new Alphard minivan". Top Gear Philippines. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
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  17. ^ "Alphard and Vellfire Facelift, Hybrid added". MotorIndustry.org. 19 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  18. ^ "Minor changes to Alphard and Vellfire, plus hybrid models added" (Press release). Japan: Toyota. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  19. ^ "クラウンがミニバン化!? 「クラウンヴェルファイア」受注開始! トヨタが中国で販売!" [Crown is a minivan now!? Orders for Crown Vellfire being taken now, Toyota sells it in China!]. Kuruma News (in Japanese). mediavague Co., ltd. 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021.
  20. ^ a b "2020 Lexus LM upgrades Toyota Alphard from Business to First class". Auto News. The Philippines. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  21. ^ "【图】埃尔法 2018款 改款 3.5L 豪华版报价_图片_丰田_汽车之家". www.autohome.com.cn. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  22. ^ Toyota Alphard and Vellfire 2015 model officially launched Bangkok Post, 26 January 2015
  23. ^ "Toyota Alphard and Vellfire". Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  24. ^ "2020 Lexus LM now available in China, PH to follow soon". Auto industrya. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  25. ^ "Lexus LM: A luxuriously crafted mobile space". Lexus (GB) PLC. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
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  28. ^ "2013 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  29. ^ "2014 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  30. ^ "2015 (Full Year) Japan: 30 Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  31. ^ "2016 (Full Year) Japan: 30 Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  32. ^ "2017 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models and Mini Cars". Car Sales Statistics. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  33. ^ "2018 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models and Mini Cars". Car Sales Statistics. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  34. ^ "2019 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
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  36. ^ "2020 (Full Year) Japan: Best-Selling Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  37. ^ "【国産乗用車編】2020年12月&2020年1月~12月の登録車新車販売台数ランキング15を一挙公開!12月度も累計も全てトヨタ新型ヤリスが圧勝! | ページ 2". Creative Trend (in Japanese). 8 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.

External links[edit]